Andrea Kuszewski @AndreaKuszewski
The Science of
When andWhy the Rules Don’t (always)Work
June 12th, 2014
Persuasion, Moti...
The Science of Behavior
Principles of Human Behavior
Identity/Ideology
Context/Environment
Personality
= =B
The Science of Behavior
Ingroup/Outgroup Identity
(ideology)
The Science of Behavior
=
Ingroup/Outgroup Identity (ideology)
BX
The Science of Behavior
Cognitive Dissonance
When we feel our identity is being threatened by the outside world,
we are st...
The Science of Behavior
The Science of Behavior
Context or Environment
The Science of Behavior
= =
Context or Environment
B BX
The Science of Behavior
Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic
Like
Passion
Self-Growth
Fulfillment
Meaning/Purpose
I...
The Science of Behavior
Incentivizing Creativity
The Science of Behavior
Incentivizing Creativity
Financial incentives REDUCE creative output
Extrinsic rewards reduce intr...
The Science of Behavior
Incentivizing Creativity
Financial incentives REDUCE creative output
Extrinsic rewards reduce intr...
The Science of Behavior
Incentivizing Creativity
Financial incentives REDUCE creative output
Extrinsic rewards reduce intr...
The Science of Behavior
It’s hard!
The Science of Behavior
Individual Differences
(personality)
The Science of Behavior
“People tend to seek pleasure
and avoid pain.”
General Principle of Behaviorism
The Science of Behavior
???=
Individual Differences (personality)
B
The Science of Behavior
Approach vs Avoidance (BIS/BAS)
Jeffrey Alan Gray: Biopsychological Theory of Psychology
BAS: Beha...
The Science of Behavior
Approach vs Avoidance (BIS/BAS)
Jeffrey Alan Gray: Biopsychological Theory of Psychology
BAS: Beha...
The Science of Behavior
Does Punishment Work?
-Short-term solution
-Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of ...
The Science of Behavior
Does Punishment Work?
-Short-term solution
-Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of ...
The Science of Behavior
Does Punishment Work?
-Short-term solution
-Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of ...
The Science of Behavior
Does Punishment Work?
-Short-term solution
-Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of ...
The Science of Behavior
Does Punishment Work?
-Short-term solution
-Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of ...
The Science of Behavior
Happiness
Meaningor
The Science of Behavior
Meaning vs Happiness
MM HH
Mh/Hm
Primary driver for approach behavior
(for significant task)
Meani...
The Science of Behavior
Meaning vs Happiness
Meaningful
Masochists Hedonists
Happy
- incentives +incentives
The Science of Behavior
Meaning vs Happiness
Meaningful
Masochists Hedonists
Happy
- incentives
Will sacrifice happiness f...
The Science of Behavior
Meaning vs Happiness
Meaningful
Masochists Hedonists
Happy
- incentives
Will sacrifice happiness f...
The Science of Behavior
Meaning vs Happiness
Meaningful
Masochists Hedonists
Happy
- incentives
Will sacrifice happiness f...
The Science of Behavior
The onlyway to guarantee LONG-TERM
sustainable behavior change:
make them WANTto change their beha...
The Science of Behavior
Feed their inner masochist. Make it meaningful.
The Science of Behavior
Thank you!
@AndreaKuszewski
Feed their inner masochist. Make it meaningful.
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Persuasion, Motivation, and Behavior: The Science of When and Why the Rules Don't (always) Work

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From GSummit 2014, in San Francisco

Science provides us with a number of general principles or rules of persuasion, motivation, and human behavior that tend to hold true for most people. For example, we know that people are more easily persuaded when we trigger an emotional response. Or if we reward a behavior, it is more likely to be repeated—and conversely, if we punish a behavior, it is less likely to be repeated. Or just the very basic principle that people tend to seek pleasure and avoid pain.

These shortcuts, or heuristics, are useful, and often, they work well. But for every rule there is at least one very important exception; times and situations in which people act in unexpected and counter-intuitive ways, the complete opposite of what you predicted. Statistically speaking, paying most attention to group behavior is fine. But sometimes the outliers are telling us something really important about the underlying motivations or characteristics of a subset of our audience, and sometimes not reaching that subset of people, or understanding what causes their behavior, carries a high cost.

I will be discussing three very different, and very critical, instances of ‘outlier behavior’ –explaining why they defy the norm, how you can identify these situations from the beginning, and some alternate strategies that can work with these outlier groups or conditions. Finally, I will talk about motivation types in the broader sense—those who are most and least likely to respond to incentives, why punishment doesn’t work on some people, and the difference between Happiness and Meaning as driving forces behind individual behavior.

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Transcript of "Persuasion, Motivation, and Behavior: The Science of When and Why the Rules Don't (always) Work"

  1. 1. Andrea Kuszewski @AndreaKuszewski The Science of When andWhy the Rules Don’t (always)Work June 12th, 2014 Persuasion, Motivation, & Behavior
  2. 2. The Science of Behavior Principles of Human Behavior Identity/Ideology Context/Environment Personality = =B
  3. 3. The Science of Behavior Ingroup/Outgroup Identity (ideology)
  4. 4. The Science of Behavior = Ingroup/Outgroup Identity (ideology) BX
  5. 5. The Science of Behavior Cognitive Dissonance When we feel our identity is being threatened by the outside world, we are strongly motivated to resolve that. Challenging a strongly-held belief is a threat to our identity .... especially when challenged by the OUTGROUP. Result? Cling to false beliefs eventighter Backfire Effect
  6. 6. The Science of Behavior
  7. 7. The Science of Behavior Context or Environment
  8. 8. The Science of Behavior = = Context or Environment B BX
  9. 9. The Science of Behavior Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Like Passion Self-Growth Fulfillment Meaning/Purpose Incentives Rewards Grades/Ratings Threats of Punishment Extrinsic Internal motivation to act = Always present Long-lasting, sustainable over time Short-term solution Comes from outside individual = May go away at any time
  10. 10. The Science of Behavior Incentivizing Creativity
  11. 11. The Science of Behavior Incentivizing Creativity Financial incentives REDUCE creative output Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic value
  12. 12. The Science of Behavior Incentivizing Creativity Financial incentives REDUCE creative output Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic value Best way to increase creative output: Autonomy
  13. 13. The Science of Behavior Incentivizing Creativity Financial incentives REDUCE creative output Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic value Best way to increase creative output: Autonomy How to incentivize? Let creativity happen!
  14. 14. The Science of Behavior It’s hard!
  15. 15. The Science of Behavior Individual Differences (personality)
  16. 16. The Science of Behavior “People tend to seek pleasure and avoid pain.” General Principle of Behaviorism
  17. 17. The Science of Behavior ???= Individual Differences (personality) B
  18. 18. The Science of Behavior Approach vs Avoidance (BIS/BAS) Jeffrey Alan Gray: Biopsychological Theory of Psychology BAS: Behavioral Activation System BIS: Behavioral Inhibition System * sensitive to punishment * sensitive to reward Activated by threat and Avoidance Motivation Behavior that brings a person closer to some reinforcer; Approach Motivation
  19. 19. The Science of Behavior Approach vs Avoidance (BIS/BAS) Jeffrey Alan Gray: Biopsychological Theory of Psychology BAS: Behavioral Activation System BIS: Behavioral Inhibition System Avoidance Approach Pursue and achieve goals Positive emotions (elation, happiness, hope) Dopamine!! Avoid negative events Negative emotions (fear, anxiety, boredom, frustration, sadness)
  20. 20. The Science of Behavior Does Punishment Work? -Short-term solution -Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior
  21. 21. The Science of Behavior Does Punishment Work? -Short-term solution -Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior -Once you remove the threat, person may be more likely to engage in unwanted behavior
  22. 22. The Science of Behavior Does Punishment Work? -Short-term solution -Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior -Once you remove the threat, person may be more likely to engage in unwanted behavior -Activates the BIS (Avoidance) = STRESS, ANXIETY, & BAD FEELINGS
  23. 23. The Science of Behavior Does Punishment Work? -Short-term solution -Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior -Once you remove the threat, person may be more likely to engage in unwanted behavior -Activates the BIS (Avoidance) = STRESS, ANXIETY, & BAD FEELINGS AND.... in that stubborn cohort, doesn’t work AT ALL!
  24. 24. The Science of Behavior Does Punishment Work? -Short-term solution -Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior -Once you remove the threat, person may be more likely to engage in unwanted behavior -Activates the BIS (Avoidance) = STRESS, ANXIETY, & BAD FEELINGS AND.... in that stubborn cohort, doesn’t work AT ALL!
  25. 25. The Science of Behavior Happiness Meaningor
  26. 26. The Science of Behavior Meaning vs Happiness MM HH Mh/Hm Primary driver for approach behavior (for significant task) Meaningful Masochists Hedonists Happy
  27. 27. The Science of Behavior Meaning vs Happiness Meaningful Masochists Hedonists Happy - incentives +incentives
  28. 28. The Science of Behavior Meaning vs Happiness Meaningful Masochists Hedonists Happy - incentives Will sacrifice happiness for Meaning +incentives “Feel good now” (short-term satisfaction)
  29. 29. The Science of Behavior Meaning vs Happiness Meaningful Masochists Hedonists Happy - incentives Will sacrifice happiness for Meaning Self-sustaining +incentives “Feel good now” (short-term satisfaction) Less loyalty
  30. 30. The Science of Behavior Meaning vs Happiness Meaningful Masochists Hedonists Happy - incentives Will sacrifice happiness for Meaning Self-sustaining Punishment NOT a motivator! +incentives “Feel good now” (short-term satisfaction) Less loyalty “Pain builds character!”
  31. 31. The Science of Behavior The onlyway to guarantee LONG-TERM sustainable behavior change: make them WANTto change their behavior.
  32. 32. The Science of Behavior Feed their inner masochist. Make it meaningful.
  33. 33. The Science of Behavior Thank you! @AndreaKuszewski Feed their inner masochist. Make it meaningful.
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