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5 minute overview of the Age of Enlightenment in European art and architecture.

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  • Hello. Let’s take a look at a time of drastic change, the 18th century in Europe and the New World. Art and architecture reflected and mediated these changes in philosophy, politics, and even fashion. The YOLO values of the pampered aristocracy gave way to revolts against the Empires of France and Great Britain. The scientific advances of the 17th century, laid the groundwork for the Industrial Revolution. And the philosophy of Rationalism reduced the role of the church, even as the middle class grew stronger.
  • In the French royal court, Louis XIV died and some power began to shift to the emerging middle class. The Sun King ran a very stuffy and boring court, so the upper class was glad to have a more relaxed approach to enjoying their lives. The Baroque interest in royal palaces shifted to Paris style hotels, or townhouses, which build on the elaborate Baroque style.
  • In painting, the artworks have lovely pastel colors, delicate forms, and shimmering fabrics. The subjects are light hearted, like romance or the rich enjoying a beautiful picnic, as seen in the Pilgrimage to Cythera by Watteau.
  • Artists like Fragonard had upper class women as patrons, for example, Mme Du Barry, the mistress of Louis XV. Fragonard’s beautiful color palette and brushstrokes inspired Disney animators in make the movie Tangled. In The Swing, we see the beautiful young lady enjoying a swing in the garden, and giving the young man in the bushes, a little peek up her skirt.
  • By the middle 1700s, Enlightenment philosophers like Diderot, John Locke, and Jefferson were promoting life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. This philosophy rejected royal and aristocratic authority, which eventually led to revolutions in America and France. At the same time, the ruins of the Roman town of Pompeii were discovered, which led to a revival of the classical Greek and Roman styles in art and ladies’ fashions.
  • The Salons and Academies ruled that History Paintings were the highest form of art, and artists such as David made this a lasting trend. Even portraits used classical allusions or classical dress.
  • Rococoandreasonoverview

    1. 1. 18th Century : Rococo to Roman Revival Rococo and The EnlightenmentThe Reader, Fragonard Am I Not a Man and a Brother?, Wedgwood
    2. 2. Early 18th Century Rococo Architecture• Shift of power after Louis XIV died• Emerging middle class• Paris townhouses (Rococo style hôtels)• Style spread to European painting and sculpture Salon de la Princesse, Hôtel de Soubise , 1732
    3. 3. Rococo Architecture: More is MORE Dynamic and moving spatial environment No empty spaces Unified art & architecture Imperial Hall, Wurzburg, Balthasar Neumann with Fresco by Tiepolo
    4. 4. Rococo Painting: Elegant parties?• Watteau - fête galante paintings.• Refined, fanciful, and often playful style• Pastel colors, dainty figures, light hearted
    5. 5. Playful Rococo PaintingsConcept Art for Tangled, The Swing, Fragonard, 1766 Rapunzel, 2006
    6. 6. Royal Academies were the main source of training and obtaining wealthy patrons.
    7. 7. Women Artists: A Foot in the Academy DoorsCharles Sackville, 2nd Duke of Dorset, 1730, Rosalba Marie Antoinette with Her Children, Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun,Carriera, pastel on paper 1787
    8. 8. Self-Portrait with TwoPupils, 1785Adélaïde Labille-Guiard
    9. 9. Mid-18th Century: The Age of Reason And of Roman style…George Washington, 1788, Jean-Antoine Houdon
    10. 10. NeoClassicsculptors revivederotic Romanmyths and style.Cupid and Psyche, Antonio Canova,1787.
    11. 11. Architects returned to Palladio and ancient Rome to create NeoClassical buildings like Monticello by Jefferson.
    12. 12. Enlightenment Paintings Glorify Science and Reason
    13. 13. Morality Paintings Reject Rococo Excess The Drunken Cobbler, Greuze. 1785 Inspired by Diderot, “art’s proper function is to improve virtue and purify manners”
    14. 14. The Marriage Contract, William Hogarth, 1743, from Marriage a la Mode series
    15. 15. NeoClassical History Paintings: Academy ApprovedConsidered the highest form of art, they use classical allusionseven when showing current events or contemporary portraits,.
    16. 16. History Painting PortraitsLady Sarah Banbury Sacrificing to theGraces, Joshua Reynolds, 1765
    17. 17. Rococo did not die…Rival Artists, Rival StylesDisagreed with Sir Reynoldsabout having to do classicalhistory style in portraitsBlue Boy, late 18th century
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