Artist: Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre Title: The Artist’s Studio Medium: Daguerreotype Size: 6 ½ X 8 ½" (16.5 X 21.6 cm) Date: 1837 Source/ Museum: Société Française de Photographie, Paris
Artist: Nadar (Gaspard-Félix Tournachon) Title: Portrait of Charles Baudelaire Medium: Silver print Size: n/a Date: 1863 Source/ Museum: Caisse Nationale des Monuments Historiques et des Sites, Paris
Artist: Jacob Riis Title: Tenement Interior in Poverty Gap: An English Coal-Heaver ’ s Home Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: c. 1889 Source/ Museum: Museum of the City of New York. The Jacob A. Riis Collection
Realism in 19th century photography
19th Century AP Art HistoryPHOTOGRAPHY
“The photograph was the ultimate response to a social and cultural appetite for a more accurate …representation of reality, a need that had its origins in the Renaissance” - Naomi Rosenblum, A World History of Photography TEDed History of Photography
Camera ObscuraInvented in 11th century byAlhazen in PersiaUsed by VermeerInverted image projectedonto a surface.
Early ThemesDocument events ortraditional fine art themesportraiture, still life andlandscape.Changed over timeWhat does this remind you of(Painting?) Antoine François Claudet, The Geography Lesson, 1850
The Artist’s Studio, Louis-Daguerre, daguerrotype, 6.5” x 8.5”, 1837. Still life photo inspired by vanitas still life paintings…
Louis Jacques DaguerreDaguerre painted stage sets and illusionistic scenery for The Diorama, a popular visual entertainment in Paris.
The Daguerreotype Photograph laterally reversed and printed onto a metal plate.Portrait of Louis Daguerre, 1829 Early Daguerrotype Camera Louis Daguerre, Boulevard du Temple, 1838 (first known photo of a human being)
Talbot’s Photograms (Callotypes) Talbot’s initial experiments – photograms or, what he called ‘Photogenic Drawings’ Window, 2012 Callotype Advantage: a negative for sharing multiple copiesWilliam Henry Fox Talbot, Latticed Window at Lacock Abbey, http://youtu.be/Mh42xZQL6-k1835
Nadar: Artist, Balloonist, Photographer • French caricaturist & portrait photographer • First aerial photos • Romantic artist: heroes Delacroix, Dumas & Hugo • Friends with Baudelaire, Pierrot
Portrait of Charles Baudelaire,Nadar, 1863French poet and art critic; rejectedRomanticism; believed maninherently evil.Baudelaire credited with term“modernite” - fleeting ephemeralexperiences of urban life and duty ofartist to capture those moments.Forehead often highlightedControlled camera angles, often leftone side of face in shadow(Baroque?!)
Pierrot, 1855, silver colloidal print by Nadar• Captured personality of laughing mime• Saw mime Pierrot as essence of modern artist: theatrical, humorous, inventive• New method quicker than daguerrotype
Muybridge – 1st High Speed Photo http://youtu.be/FYKZif9ooxs
Social Realism & PhotoJournalismMathew Brady, Civil War photographer…generals, battlefields, etc.
Tenement Interior in Poverty Gap, an English Coal Heaver’s Home, Jacob Riis, 1889. Published study in NY called How the Other Half Lives http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZl4KXsaKVE
1848-1860s - Economy• Industrial Revolution – conclusion of Napoleonic Wars – trains – transport raw materials to factories in city• Three class system – capitalists --> centralized economic control – laborers--> poor education & living conditions – middle class --> “laissez-faire”
Exploring human evolution & social equality in Realism• political context: Marxism• Communist Manifesto (c. 1850) all history was history of class struggles determined by humanity’s relationship to material wealth• Darwin: theory of evolution• Comte: positivism…all knowledge comes from tested scientific proof
Role of Artist in Culture– role of artist: • no longer to simply reveal beautiful & sublime • aimed to tell the truth • not beholden to higher, idealized reality (i.e., God)– subjects: • ordinary events and objects • working class & broad panorama of society • psychological motivation of characters