However this varies by region/time frame.. What examples can you think of?
So how does this fit Islam?
Merchant al-Amin saw vision of angel in 610 CE
Mohammed (messenger of God), went to Mecca
Recited revelations of the angel in chanted verses
His followers wrote down the verses, became the Qur’an
Attracted 1000s of followers; but angered the powerful
Fled Mecca for Medina (built first mosque ) place of worship/prayer
Returned to Mecca with army of 10,0000
Emptied the Kaaba - now symbolic center of all Muslim prayer and destination for the ha’ij.
5 Pillars of Islam
Allah (one god) : Mohammed = msgr
Prayer facing Mecca 5x day (fountains in courtyards for ablutions/washing)
Zakah - alms/tax to help poor
Daily fasting during Ramadan (annual festival)
Pilgrimage to Mecca - circumambulate Kaaba
What other monotheistic religions do you know of?
The 4 Caliphs
Ruled after Mohammed
3rd Caliph Uthman - completed the Qur’an… unifying force of the Arabic language
Ali was the 4th caliph; power struggle - assassination in 661
DIVISIONS FROM THIS CONFLICT CONTINUE TODAY….
Shi’a = followers of Ali as the one true caliph
Sunni = believe all 4 caliphs were “rightfully guided”
Where are the Shia’s and Sunnis still fighting TODAY ?????
Arabic was used to study and teach, but also simply to delight the eye
Early Dynasties of the Islamic Empire - Umayyads 661-750
Following Ali’s assassination, Umayyad Dynasty founded (661-750)
Empire expanded into Persia, Egypt, Syria & Palestine w/in 20 years
Went into India, N. Africa and Spain by the early 700s.
Built mosques and palaces from capital in Damascus.
The Dome of the Rock was the first great monument of Islamic Art.
The Spread of Islam in the Middle East and Europe Four caliphs /followers of Mohammed succeeded --spread into India, Africa, Spain
Dome of the Rock, interior Jerusalem flashcard Begun 691 CE, Umayyad 1st great Islamic monument 3rd most holy site in Islam Built on holy site for Jews & Christians too; Islamic view : Mohammed completed the prophecies of those faiths Frieze of Qur’an writings of gold mosaic on turquoise background-oldest written Qur’an verses Oldest use of Qur’an in architecture
Golden dome, marble veneers, rich mosaics & patterned carpets
Dome atop octagonal drum w/ arcades of piers and columns
ambulatory aisles for faithful to walk around
Early Dynasties of the Islamic Empire
Ummayids were replaced by Abbasid dynasty in 750;
Ruled from Baghdad until 1258.
Abbassids borrowed artistically from Roman, Byzantium, China, Persia & India
Abbassids ; medicine, arts, literature
The Dome of the Rock was the first great momument of Islamic Art.
Mosque Features & Plans
Hypostyle (multicolumned) mosques such as the Great Mosque of Tunisia
Added courtyard, flat roofed hypostyle prayer hall towards Mecca
Qibla wall - mihrab
Mihrab = niche for holy place, such as Torah scrolls in a synagogue or niche for Roman god statue
Know & recognize these 3 characteristic arches/niches from Islamic architecture Muqarnas are unique to Islam Often stacked and used in multiples, very intricate and dazzling to the eye Sometimes vault domes, or used as part of a mihrab SEE EXAMPLES ON NEXT PAGES
Tile Mosaic Mihrab, from the Madrasa Imami, Isfahan Medium: Glazed and cut tiles Size: 11'3" X 7'6" 14th century Iran The Metropolitan Museum of Art One of finest examples of early architectural ceramic decoration 3 inscriptions: outer in cursive, Qur’an verses about 5 Pillars of Islam. Inner Kufic sayings of prophet Center panel: line in Kufic says “ The mosque is the house of every pious person.” FLASHCARD
Prayer Hall, Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain
Spanish Umayyad dynasty, 8th century
Emir was patron of arts
Cordoba was capital
Appropriated former Christian church from Visigoths
Expanded by later rulers
Hypostyle prayer hall marble columns
Horseshoe arches (adopted from Romans!)
Alternating red brick and white stone voussoirs in the curved arch
Domes were beautiful mosaics done by master Byzantine artists; trade diplomacy and competition in the medeival Mediterranean
Dome of Great Mosque of Cordoba, in front of the mihrab Note intricate mosaics Islamic interest in mathematics & geometry
Court of the Lions, Alhambra, Granada, Spain; 14th Century City of Gardens .. Islamic palace set in gardens. Complex citadel with dramatic views, miradors (lookout windows). Beautiful ceiling with clustered muqarnas 8 pointed star ceiling (next image) Flashcard Recognize Court of the Lions
Muqarnas Dome, hall of the Abencerrajes, Palace of the Lions, Alhambra
Students will discuss this with the class. Note dome, and minarets Sultan Selim Mosque
Mosque of Sultan Selim, Edirne
Ottoman Empire, 16th century Turkey
Architect Sinan (for Suleyman the Magnificent)
Minarets almost 300’ high, only 12’ in diameter
Only royal mosques allowed multiple minarets
Square base transitioned to central dome with corner half domes Gigantic hemispheric dome larger than Hagia Sophia Complex held mosque, madrasa, hospital, kitchens, market, baths Central plan with fountain (see plans)
Interior of dome of Mosque of Sultan Selim Edirne STUDENTS PRESENT THIS
Great Mosque of Ishafan (Iran) Note iwan walls with vaulted entrances Mosaic tile decoration Minarets Four iwan plan 17th century, lots of additions since
Four Iwan Mosque plan Congregational Mosque, Isfahan Developed in Iran Iwan = huge, barrel vaulted walls with arch entrances Cross-axial emphasis Central courtyard Qibla is the prayer wall KNOW THIS VOCABULARY
Students will present
Art of fine hand lettering
Qur’an word of god- must be written with devotion & embellishment
Verbal information & aesthetics
Tugra of Sultan Suleyman Istanbul, Turkey 16th Century, Ottoman Empire Ink, paint, and gold on paper Tugras combined the ruler’s name with the phrase Eternally Victorious Tugras appeared on seals, coints, buildings, edicts Body design may have been inspired by Chinese ceramics FLASHCARDS
Ceramics & Glassware
Students will present
Figurative embellishment, especially when illuminated manuscripts & books popular
The Macy Jug Ceramic Painted fritware, incised 1215-1216, Iran Now at Metropolitan Museum of Art FLASHCARD IMAGE Technique to produce lustrous metallic surface on fired ceramic Painted dense, elaborate patterns of animals, foliage, etc. Originally FRITWARE used for beads in ancient Egypt
Students will present
Worldwide popularity even through today
Knotted carpets date back 4th century BCE
Silk weaving exchange with China (China Silk Road)
Paradise & garden associations
Rugs used for Muslim prayer
Knotted rugs technique passed down thru generations