Islamicartpresentation

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  • Artist: n/a
    Title: The Kaaba, Mecca
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: n/a
    Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: The Islamic World
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: n/a
    Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem (interior)
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: 691–2
    Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Elements of Architecture: Arches and Muqarnas
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: n/a
    Source/Museum: Arches and Muqarnas: horseshoe arch, pointed arch, muqarnas
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Tile Mosaic Mihrab, from the Madrasa Imami, Isfahan
    Medium: Glazed and cut tiles
    Size: 11'3" X 7'6" (3.43 X 2.29 m)
    Date: Founded 1354
    Source/Museum: Iran. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Harris Brisbane Dick Fund (39.20)
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Prayer Hall, Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: Begun 785–86
    Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Dome in front of the Mihrab, Great Mosque
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: 965
    Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Court of the Lions, Palace of the Lions, Alhambra, Granada
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: 1354–91
    Source/Museum: Spain
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Muqarnas Dome, Hall of the Abencerrajes, Palace of the Lions, Alhambra
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: Built between 1354–91
    Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Elements of Architecture: Mosque Plans (Centrally-Planned Mosque)
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: n/a
    Source/Museum: Centrally-planned mosque: Sultan Selim Mosque, Edirne
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Mosque of Sultan Selim, Edirne
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: 1568–75
    Source/Museum: Turkey
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Interior, Mosque of Sultan Selim
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: n/a
    Source/Museum: Turkey
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Courtyard, Masjid-I Jami, Isfahan Iran
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: 11th–18th century 14th-century iwan vault, 17th-century minarets
    Source/Museum: Iran
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Elements of Architecture: Mosque Plans (Four-Iwan Mosque)
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: n/a
    Source/Museum: Four-iwan mosque: Congresgrational Mosque, Isfahan
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Illuminated Tugra of Sultan Suleyman
    Medium: Ink, paint, and gold on paper
    Size: removed from a firman and trimmed to 20½ X 25⅜" (52 X 64.5 cm)
    Date: c. 1555–60
    Source/Museum: Istanbul, Turkey. / The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Rogers Fund, 1938 (38.149.1)
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Page from the Qur'an (Surah II: 286 and Title Surah III) in kufic script
    Medium: Black ink pigments, and gold on vellum
    Size: 8⅜ X 11⅛" (21.8 X 29.2 cm)
    Date: 9th century
    Source/Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Rogers Fund, 1937 (37.99.2)
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: The Macy Jug
    Medium: Composite body glazed, painted fritware and incised (glaze partially stained with cobalt), with pierced outer shell
    Size: 6 ⅝ X 7 ¾" (16.8 X 19.7 cm)
    Date: 1215–16
    Source/Museum: Iran. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Fletcher Fund, 1932 (32.52.1)
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: A woman weaving
    Medium: n/a
    Size: n/a
    Date: n/a
    Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: Qur’an frontispiece (right half of two-page spread)
    Medium: Ink, pigments, and gold on paper
    Size: 24 X 18" (61 X 45.7 cm)
    Date: c. 1368
    Source/Museum: Cairo, Egypt. / National Library, Cairo. Ms. 7.
  • Artist: n/a
    Title: The Portrait of Khusrau Shown to Shirin
    Medium: Ink, pigments, and gold on paper
    Size: 9⅞ X 6¾" (25 X 17 cm)
    Date: c. 1494
    Source/Museum: From a copy of the 12th-century Khamsa (Five Poems) of Nizami.Herat, Afghanistan. / The British Library, London
  • Islamicartpresentation

    1. 1. Islamic Art & Architecture Faith, Pattern, Geometry
    2. 2. The Kaaba, Mecca. Pilgrims surrounding the Kaaba (dedicated by Mohammed)
    3. 3. Kaaba & Islam • Originally held various “pagan” icons • Mohammed fled Medina (the hijira) for Mecca and threw out icons from the Kaaba (aniconism) • Islam calls for worship of only one god
    4. 4. The Kaaba • Millions of faithful Muslims PILGRIMAGE or ha’ij to Mecca • Part of 5 pillars of Islam for those able to go • Inscribed with a few verses of the Qu’ran (Koran) • FLASHCARD QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    5. 5. Pattern & Islam • Figurative art, especially religion, avoided • Islamic artists use nonfigural ornament, text, arabesques (scrolling vines) & complex patterns QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. However this varies by region/time frame.. What examples can you think of?
    6. 6. So how does this fit Islam? • Merchant al-Amin saw vision of angel in 610 CE • Mohammed (messenger of God), went to Mecca • Recited revelations of the angel in chanted verses • His followers wrote down the verses, became the Qur’an • Attracted 1000s of followers; but angered the powerful • Fled Mecca for Medina (built first mosque) place of worship/prayer • Returned to Mecca with army of 10,0000 • Emptied the Kaaba - now symbolic center of all Muslim prayer and destination for the ha’ij. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    7. 7. 5 Pillars of Islam • Allah (one god) : Mohammed = msgr • Prayer facing Mecca 5x day (fountains in courtyards for ablutions/washing) • Zakah - alms/tax to help poor • Daily fasting during Ramadan (annual festival) • Pilgrimage to Mecca - circumambulate Kaaba • What other monotheistic religions do you know of? QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    8. 8. The 4 Caliphs • Ruled after Mohammed • 3rd Caliph Uthman - completed the Qur’an… unifying force of the Arabic language • Ali was the 4th caliph; power struggle - assassination in 661 DIVISIONS FROM THIS CONFLICT CONTINUE TODAY…. • Shi’a = followers of Ali as the one true caliph • Sunni = believe all 4 caliphs were “rightfully guided” Where are the Shia’s and Sunnis still fighting TODAY ????? QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Arabic was used to study and teach, but also simply to delight the eye
    9. 9. Early Dynasties of the Islamic Empire - Umayyads 661-750 • Following Ali’s assassination, Umayyad Dynasty founded (661- 750) • Empire expanded into Persia, Egypt, Syria & Palestine w/in 20 years • Went into India, N. Africa and Spain by the early 700s. • Built mosques and palaces from capital in Damascus. The Dome of the Rock was the first great monument of Islamic Art.
    10. 10. The Spread of Islam in the Middle East and Europe Four caliphs/followers of Mohammed succeeded --spread into India, Africa, Spain
    11. 11. Dome of the Rock, interior Jerusalem flashcard Begun 691 CE, Umayyad 1st great Islamic monument 3rd most holy site in Islam Built on holy site for Jews & Christians too; Islamic view : Mohammed completed the prophecies of those faiths Frieze of Qur’an writings of gold mosaic on turquoise background-oldest written Qur’an verses Oldest use of Qur’an in architecture •Golden dome, marble veneers, rich mosaics & patterned carpets •Dome atop octagonal drum w/ arcades of piers and columns •ambulatory aisles for faithful to walk around
    12. 12. Early Dynasties of the Islamic Empire • Ummayids were replaced by Abbasid dynasty in 750; • Ruled from Baghdad until 1258. • Abbassids borrowed artistically from Roman, Byzantium, China, Persia & India • Abbassids; medicine, arts, literature The Dome of the Rock was the first great momument of Islamic Art.
    13. 13. Mosque Features & Plans • Hypostyle (multicolumned) mosques such as the Great Mosque of Tunisia • Added courtyard, flat roofed hypostyle prayer hall towards Mecca • Qibla wall - mihrab • Mihrab = niche for holy place, such as Torah scrolls in a synagogue or niche for Roman god statue
    14. 14. Know & recognize these 3 characteristic arches/niches from Islamic architecture Muqarnas are unique to Islam Often stacked and used in multiples, very intricate and dazzling to the eye Sometimes vault domes, or used as part of a mihrab SEE EXAMPLES ON NEXT PAGES
    15. 15. Tile Mosaic Mihrab, from the Madrasa Imami, Isfahan Medium: Glazed and cut tiles Size: 11'3" X 7'6" 14th century Iran The Metropolitan Museum of Art One of finest examples of early architectural ceramic decoration 3 inscriptions: outer in cursive, Qur’an verses about 5 Pillars of Islam. Inner Kufic sayings of prophet Center panel: line in Kufic says “The mosque is the house of every pious person.” FLASHCARD
    16. 16. Prayer Hall, Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain Spanish Umayyad dynasty, 8th century Flashcard •Emir was patron of arts •Cordoba was capital •Appropriated former Christian church from Visigoths •Expanded by later rulers •Hypostyle prayer hall marble columns •Horseshoe arches (adopted from Romans!) •Alternating red brick and white stone voussoirs in the curved arch •Domes were beautiful mosaics done by master Byzantine artists; trade diplomacy and competition in the medeival Mediterranean
    17. 17. Dome of Great Mosque of Cordoba, in front of the mihrab Note intricate mosaics Islamic interest in mathematics & geometry
    18. 18. Court of the Lions, Alhambra, Granada, Spain; 14th Century City of Gardens .. Islamic palace set in gardens. Complex citadel with dramatic views, miradors (lookout windows). Beautiful ceiling with clustered muqarnas 8 pointed star ceiling (next image) Flashcard Recognize Court of the Lions
    19. 19. Muqarnas Dome, hall of the Abencerrajes, Palace of the Lions, Alhambra
    20. 20. Students will discuss this with the class. Note dome, and minarets Sultan Selim Mosque
    21. 21. Mosque of Sultan Selim, Edirne Ottoman Empire, 16th century Turkey Architect Sinan (for Suleyman the Magnificent) Flashcard •Minarets almost 300’ high, only 12’ in diameter •Only royal mosques allowed multiple minarets Square base transitioned to central dome with corner half domes Gigantic hemispheric dome larger than Hagia Sophia Complex held mosque, madrasa, hospital, kitchens, market, baths Central plan with fountain (see plans)
    22. 22. Interior of dome of Mosque of Sultan Selim Edirne STUDENTS PRESENT THIS
    23. 23. Great Mosque of Ishafan (Iran) Note iwan walls with vaulted entrances Mosaic tile decoration Minarets Four iwan plan 17th century, lots of additions since
    24. 24. Four Iwan Mosque plan Congregational Mosque, Isfahan Developed in Iran Iwan = huge, barrel vaulted walls with arch entrances Cross-axial emphasis Central courtyard Qibla is the prayer wall KNOW THIS VOCABULARY
    25. 25. Calligraphy • Students will present • Art of fine hand lettering • Qur’an word of god- must be written with devotion & embellishment • Verbal information & aesthetics
    26. 26. Tugra of Sultan Suleyman Istanbul, Turkey 16th Century, Ottoman Empire Ink, paint, and gold on paper Tugras combined the ruler’s name with the phrase Eternally Victorious Tugras appeared on seals, coints, buildings, edicts Body design may have been inspired by Chinese ceramics FLASHCARDS
    27. 27. Ceramics & Glassware • Students will present • Samarkand • Fritware • Figurative embellishment, especially when illuminated manuscripts & books popular
    28. 28. The Macy Jug Ceramic Painted fritware, incised 1215-1216, Iran Now at Metropolitan Museum of Art FLASHCARD IMAGE Technique to produce lustrous metallic surface on fired ceramic Painted dense, elaborate patterns of animals, foliage, etc. Originally FRITWARE used for beads in ancient Egypt
    29. 29. “Oriental” Rugs • Students will present • Worldwide popularity even through today • Knotted carpets date back 4th century BCE • Silk weaving exchange with China (China Silk Road) • Paradise & garden associations
    30. 30. “Oriental” Rugs • Rugs used for Muslim prayer • Knotted rugs technique passed down thru generations
    31. 31. Art of the Book • Students will present • Parallels illuminated manuscripts in Europe • More figurative embellishment allowed • Persian miniatures • Islamic emphasis on Qur’an
    32. 32. Qur’an Frontspiece, Cairo Egypt, 1368 CE. Nonfigural designs from Mamluk Egypt Intricate designs paralleled What????
    33. 33. Another Bihzad miniature Shirin sees Khusraus Portrait

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