Crusaders brought backmore than souvenirs…. Knights returning from Crusades awed by the splendor of Hagia Sophia & Eastern Architecture Brought back new technology, winches to lift heavy stones New translation of geometry in Euclid’s Elements This allowed Gothic cathedrals to be designed & built….
Abbot Suger had aproblem… His church was PACKED!! “No one among the countless thousands of people because of their very density could move a foot.” foot.” Vision of flowing interior space with thin walls Literally & figuratively filled with the Light of God Reconstructed the choir portion of his church in 1135-44; style spread like wildfire from Scandinavia to SpainEngraving, Church of St. Denis
Interior, Church of St. Denis12th century, additions in 13th centuryLocated in Paris, FranceBuilt by Abbot Suger1st Gothic Cathedral, used pointed arch and rib vaultRemoved thick walls, enlarged windows, and thinner supports to give height, light, and grandeur“Man may rise to the contemplation of the divine through the senses.”Gothic Standards set:1. 3 level elevation inside2. Clustered colonettes affixed to piers for continuous uplift3. Virtual disappearnace of walls, mullions for stained glass4. Profuse exterior sculpture
How to Read a GothicCathedral reading a Gothic cathedral facade
Engineering: Triumph ofLight Lightness was made feasible by structural & aesthetic elements… Pointed Arch Rib Vault Flying Buttresses Expansive Stained glass windows Integrated structure & ornament, Got rid of compartmentalized Romanesque style VERTICAL EMPHASIS
Flashcard, Cathedral of NotreDame, Paris, 1163-1270s
Notre Dame of Paris: The GoldStandard 1st cathedral of colossal scale and became prototype Height & length, had to blend great expanses of wall 1st true Flying buttresses supported the walls Pope Alexander laid cornerstone Gargoyles served a purpose, not just to scare off evil demons!
CHARTRES CATHEDRAL, 1134FLASHCARD•High Gothic styles•Site of a pre-Christian Roman virgin-goddess cult•Later dedicated to Virgin Mary•Has relic of Mary’s tunic there•Sculpture & stained glass represententire Christian history•Number symbolism: 3 the trinity, 4 =material world, 7 = seven gifts of the HolySpirit•West façade has famous Rose Window• 3 portal doorways with incredibly detailedsculptural decoration•Rebuilt after fire, in 1260 by mason’sguild (GUILDS played major role)
Close up of Royal Portal of Chartres.. Christ in judgment in center, Mary’s life onright, Jesus ascends to heaven on Left. Showed Old Testament Kings & Queensto link to French royalty & Church
Detail of Chartres WestPortalNote Prophets &Ancestors of ChristOne of few royal statuesthat survived the FrenchRevolution….1145-55
Tree of Jesse, West Façade, ChartresCathedralStained glass1150-70Chartres was famous for glassmakingworkshops.Gives effect of “flaming jewellry”Tells story of Jesus’ genealogy; treegrows out of Jesse’s bodyBlue = heaven & fidelityRed = the Passion of the ChristGreen = nature & fertilityYellow = God or truth
Rose of France, Rose Window atChartres Cathedral, 1220Gift from Queen Blanche of CastileExpensive & costly process tomake stained glassThis window is over 42’ in diameterLancets show Mary & baby Jesusin center, flanked by St. Anne,Kings David & SolomonStained Glass at Chartres
Floor plan of AmiensEliminated narthex &expanded transeptand sanctuaryExceptionally tall &narrow nave…48’wide, 144’ tall
Reims CathedralFaçade begun 1225,work done through1400sHow is Gothic styleevolving?
West façade, AmienscathedralElaborate sculpturaldecoration
Quatrefoils, West façade,Amiens Cathedral. Above:Signs of The Zodiac (Leo,Virgo, and Libra); Below:Labors of The Months (July,August, and September)
1st realistic Gothic sculptures.. Note difference in ages Flashcard - Annunciation &Between Mary and older woman on Right, Angel.. Visitation, Reims CathedralRoman verism?
Rayonnant Styleanyone?High gothic churchesbecame like jewel boxesSainte-Chappelle built in1243-48 has very littlewalls, mostly stained glassand gilded rib vaults
Salisbury Cathedral, England1220-58 with later additionsEnglish version of Gothic styleLower, broader proportions thanFrench gothicRich decoration, rambling layoutTall central tower typical ofBritish style