Early chinesea buddhistart


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overview of early Chinese and Buddhist art from India

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  • Artist: n/a Title: China and Korea Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: Set of sixty-five bells Medium: Bronze, with bronze and timber frame Size: frame height 9' (2.74 m), length 25' (7.62 m) Date: Zhou dynasty, 433 BCE Source/Museum: Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, Suixian, Hubei. / Hubei Provincial Museum, Wuhan
  • Artist: n/a Title: Art and Its Context: Chinese Characters Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: Chinese characters: Ancient, Modern, ideographs
  • Artist: n/a Title: Soldiers Medium: Earthenware Size: life-size Date: Qin dynasty, c. 210 BCE Source/Museum: From the mausoleum of Emperor Shihuangdi, Lintong, Shaanxi
  • Artist: n/a Title: Soldiers Medium: Earthenware Size: life-size Date: Qin dynasty, c. 210 BCE Source/Museum: From the mausoleum of Emperor Shihuangdi, Lintong, Shaanxi
  • Artist: n/a Title: Seated Guanyin Bodhisattva Medium: Wood with paint and gold Size: 95 X 65" (241.3 X 165.1 cm) Date: Liao dynasty, 10th–12th century CE Source/Museum: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. Purchase, Nelson Trust (34–10)
  • Artist: n/a Title: Elements of Architecture: Pagodas Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: Early stupa, later stupa, watchflower, stone pagoda, wooden pagoda
  • Artist: n/a Title: Camel Carrying a Group of Musicians Medium: Earthenware with threecolor glaze Size: height 26 ⅛" (66.5 cm) Date: Tang dynasty, c. mid-8th century CE Source/Museum: Tomb near Xi ’ an, Shanxi. / National Museum, Beijing
  • Artist: n/a Title: Seated Buddha, Cave 20, Yungang Medium: Stone Size: height 45' (13.7 m) Date: Northern Wei dynasty, c. 460 CE Source/Museum: Datong, Shanxi
  • Artist: n/a Title: Great Wild Goose Pagoda At Ci ’ en Temple, Xi ’ an Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: Tang dynasty, first erected 645 CE; rebuilt mid-8th century CE Source/Museum: Shanxi
  • Artist: n/a Title: Unmarked image on page 365 Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: Fan Kuan Title: Travelers Among Mountains and Streams Medium: Hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk Size: height 6' 9½" (2.06 m) Date: Northern Song dynasty, early 11th century CE Source/Museum: National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
  • Artist: n/a Title: Lion Capital Medium: Polished sandstone Size: height 7' (2.13 m) Date: Maurya period, c. 250 BCE Source/Museum: Ashokan pillar at Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh, India. / Archaeological Museum, Sarnath
  • Artist: n/a Title: Standing Buddha Medium: Schist Size: height 7'6" (2.28 m) Date: c. 2nd–3rd century CE Source/Museum: Gandhara, Pakistan. / Lahore Museum, Lahore
  • Artist: n/a Title: Bodhisattva Medium: Detail of a wall painting Size: n/a Date: Gupta period, c. 475 CE Source/Museum: In Cave I, Ajanta, Maharashtra, India
  • Early chinesea buddhistart

    1. 1. Early Chinese ArtPhilosophy permeates fine art…..
    2. 2. China larger than USMost populated country(1/5)Many languages & ethnicgroupsRuled by dynasties8000 years of unbrokenhistory
    3. 3. Bronze Age China– Philosophy that Endures Today bronze bells from the Zhou dynasty, 433 BCE •Three bronze age Dynasties,: Xia, Shang, Zhou •Zhou dynasty was a feudal society (took over warrior society of Shang) •Philosophers arose during this age - Confucius, Laozi, Mozi
    4. 4. CALLIGRAPHY•Chinese calligraphy -highest art form.•Different styles - years perfecting thetechniques.•Children start by copying ideographs•Confucius praised pursuit of knowledge &the arts; painting was to reflect moralconcerns and calligraphy revealed thecharacter of the writer•Some calligraphy cannot be read by modernChinese readers, it is so artistically done•Literati - Confucian scholars- practiced thisart form•Hand scrolls (Paintings) often have a label incalligraphy in the colophon section.
    5. 5. Knight Shining White, Tang Dynasty, 750 CE• Original handscroll was about 12” wide• Now several feet with all enthusiastic descriptions, comments, poetry from readers• “Du Hua” to literally, READ a painting as a form of appreciation• Painters were highly valued; some Emperors becamse noted calligraphers and painters• Studied under appreentice ship system
    6. 6. The Great Silk Road
    7. 7. Daoism• Return to nature• Individualism• Immortality?• The Way• Lao Zi, philosopher, 500 BCE (before Socrates)
    8. 8. Emperor Qin Shih Huangdi, 210 BCE• 1st ruler of united China - Hin/Qin dynasty• Codified written Chinese• Established uniform currency• Started famous Great Wall of China• Began his majestic tomb (SOLDIERS)• Insisted on govt based on accomplishments rather than family connections
    9. 9. Flashcard •Discovered in 1974 •6’ tall soliders •8000 warriors, 100 chariots, 2 bronze chariots, 30,000 weapons •Tomb of 1st Emperor of China •Shi Huangdi •Daoism shown in individuality of shoulders despite numbers •Chinese army marching into the next world.Soldiers (Army of Emp. Shi Huangdi, terra cotta, c 210 BCE, Qin Dynasty)
    10. 10. •Soldiers were originally painted •Each were individual portraits not generic •Masterpieces of ceramics •Nat Geo Short VideoSoldiers (Army of Emp. Shi Huangdi, terra cotta, c 210 BCE, Qin Dynasty)
    11. 11. Confucianism• Reverence for ancestors• Respect for authority• Social order• Women subordinate to men
    12. 12. More about typical Chinese architecture…• Exterior walls of a courtyard style residence• Frame a courtyard for tranquility- Elders live in suite of rooms on warmer north end• Children live in the wings• Wood structures, rectangular grid• CONFUCIANISM
    13. 13. Chinese Pagodas•Pagodas developed from Buddhist stupas; thedesign was brought from India via the Silk Road•Built for sacred purpose, each design isrepeated vertically on each level, gettingprogressively smaller.•Japanese also developed pagodas
    14. 14. Camel Carrying a Group ofMusicians, flashcardTang Dynasty, 8th century CEEarthenware w/ 3 color glaze,26” highChina had control over CentralAsia again during TangdynastyFascination w/Turkic cultures ..Shows Turkish musicans withHan ChineseNaturalism - new interest andtrend in painting & sculptureBeautiful 3 color glazes,spontaneousSilk Road was flourishing,brought Chinese goods toWestNeoconfucianism= naturalism
    15. 15. Seated Buddha, Stone carving, 45’ tall, 460 CE. flashcardShows Indian/Central Asian Buddhist iconography with large shoulders + slenderbody, lotus position, long ears, ushnishu, and peaceful smile.
    16. 16. Great Wild Goose PagodaflashcardCi’en Temple, Xi’anTang dynasty, 645 CETypical Chinese BuddhistpagodaAbout 210’ tall (was taller,rebuilt during Ming dynastyafter earthquake)
    17. 17. Chinese Painting Traditions• Fans, album leaves, and murals• Handscrolls on silk or cotton with dowels (meant to be unrolled and enjoyed, not hung on wall).. Read right to left.• Colophon - write comments or poetry• Hanging scrolls with main scene on front and title on top back• Same brushes used for painting & calligraphy
    18. 18. Knight Shining White, Tang Dynasty, 750 CE •Aim of traditional painter was to capture not outer appearance but inner energy, and spirit. “DRAGON STEED” •Rejected color or too much background info •Pure line to define form, no opaque pigments “white painting”• The discipline required derived from calligraphy.• Traditionally, every literate person learned to write by copying Chinese ideographs.• Then gradually exposed to different stylistic interpretations of these characters.• Copied great calligraphers manuscripts, which were often preserved on carved stones so that rubbings could be made.
    19. 19. •Landscape paintings highly prized in Chinese art.•Do not represent a particular forest, mountain, or view, but an artistic constructyielding a philosophical idea•Some parts of painting are empty & barren, others are crowded.. Yin/Yang ofDaoism aka Taoism•This is an example of the empty space contrasted with calligraphy and denselydetailed drawing
    20. 20. Travelers Among Mountains and Streams,Fan KaunNorthern Song Dynasty, 11th century CE•Hanging scroll, ink & colors on silk, 6’9” high•Subtly graded ink tones•Northern Song: fascination with precisionand details as shown here.Flashcard image - Northern Song painting
    21. 21. Art of BuddhismTravels along the silk road…..
    22. 22. Buddhist Religion • Shakyamuni Buddha from Nepal • Siddartha, child prince, shielded from pain & suffering • Left palace at age 29, travelled, meditated, • Samsara: cycle of birth, death, rebirth • Nirvana: ultimate enlightenment • Compassion and learning are KEYs. • Different buddhas are recognized • Bodhisattvas - help others reach enlightenmentDalai Lama, leader ofTibetan Buddhismand Nobel Peace
    23. 23. Early Buddhist Stupa, Mauyra Period 200 BCEHindus and Buddhists share many concepts: e.g. Karma and giving, thuspeople of many classes give gifts to monasteries
    24. 24. Great Stupa at Sanchi, India - 3rd Century BCE (flashcard)Buddhist shrine, mound shape, faced with dressed stone, replication of the dome of heaven•3 umbrellas at top represent Buddha, Buddha’s Law, Monks•Railing at crest surrounds “sacred tree” umbrellas•Walkway around drum for circumambulation (cosmic circle)•4 toranas grace entrances… richly carved scenes, Buddha shown as empty throne with high relief sculptures•Plan based on sacred mandala design
    25. 25. Why no imageof the Buddhahimself?Perhapsbecause heachievedenlightenmentand been freedfrom theconfines of thebodyFootprintsSacred path
    26. 26. ToranaYakshiReliquary: placewhere relics arekept.
    27. 27. Standing Buddha, GandharaPeriod, 2nd century CEFlashcard•Hellenistic style drapery•Artistic conventions - top knot(ushnisha), patterned hair curls,impression of wheel (chakra) onhands and feet,•Long arms, serene face
    28. 28. GandharaandMathuraSchools, 1-300 CEInspired bywhat typeof statuesfromsomewhereelse??????????? Standing Buddha, Buddha and Gandhara, Pakistan. Attendants, Mathura. c.300 CE (hellen----) India. c.200 CE (Yaksha)
    29. 29. Bodhisattva fromAjanta Caves475 CEGupta period.Bodhisattvas arespiritual beings whohelp others reachnirvana.Princely garments,not monk’s robes likeBuddhaOutline drawing, softlygraded tones inpainting give some 3-dimensionality
    30. 30. BuddhistIconography
    31. 31. MudrasHand gestures seen inBuddhism
    32. 32. Forms of Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama (Shakyamuni Buddha) 563-483 BCENirvana: extinction of samsaraTheraveda: self cultivation toattain nirvana; individualtraining & enightenmentMahayana: enlightenment for allbeings; compassion. Zen andTibetan buddhism,bodhissatvas as GodsWestern Pure Land Buddhism:paradise open to all throughrebirth. Amida Buddha reachedit through faith alone.
    33. 33. Life of BuddhaBirthDepartureEnlightenmentFirst SermonMiraclesDeath Not sermons in stone, but expressions of joyful participation in everyday life. The Buddha is seen as present in these.
    34. 34. The Four Encounters and 6 Years
    35. 35. Enlightenment and the Defeat of Mara
    36. 36. Eightfold Path and Four Noble Truths