Baroque Europe “irregular, oddly shaped” Or deviated from Renaissance classical traditionsPATRONS: powerful Courts and Church in Counter Reformation campaignLouis XIV, Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701, 9’ x 7’
HISTORICAL BAROQUE •Counter Reformation, Catholic resurgence, flourishes in Italy, Flanders, Spain, & France •Catholic church intent on fighting the Protestant reformation efforts; crusade to finish St. Peters in 1600,Thirty Years War ended in 1648 glorify saints, miracles, etc.Protestants vs. Catholics •Protestants iconoclastsBut also about political, economic, andsocial issues as well •Holland very Protestant, stillCourts became powerful-Kings of some religious works butSpain, England, France, etc. landscapes, portraits, genre paintings instead
Key Ideas - Baroque Art• Counter reformation fueled religious sculptures and paintings, especially in Rome, France, & Flanders, and Spain• In Holland counter voice Baroque art in Protestant form (no saints and miracles)• Baroque artists: experiments with new forms- landscapes, still life, genre paintings• Rome still keeper of masterpieces and center of Religion, but Paris becomes center of artistic innovation in Europe… thru WWI.
St. Peter’s Basilica and Piazza, Vatican, Rome… Maderno designed the façade toadd to Michelangelo’s original design, and Bernini designed the piazza as a relieffrom the crowded streets of Rome. Why is the piazza shaped like a key hole?(FC)
BaldacchinoBy??????For???????CATHOLIC RESURGENCEGilt bronze and marbleOver altar of ____Directs vision down naveShrine canopy over grave ofSt. Peter, buried under bsilicaBees & suns symbols ofpatrons, Barberinni familyCounter Reformation spirit inRomeFeat of bronze casting
flashcardChurch of San Carloalle QuattroFontane, Rome,1638-41FrancescoBorrominiSquare w/ 4fountainsFaçade taller thanrest of building
BIGGEST PATRON =CATHOLIC CHURCH(THEN COURTS)HUGE CHURCHES AND PALACES SPACESTO FILL WITH MAGNIFICENT SCULPTURESAND PAINTINGS.MANY BAROQUE ARTISTS WERE DEEPLYRELIGIOUS, SUCH AS RUBENS AND THESCULPTURE BERNINIPOPE URBAN VIII COMMISSIONED SOMEOFGIANLORENZO BERNINI - sculptor, architectBest work… Such s the Cornaro Chapelmagnificent marble and bronze altar, and thestatue of St. Theres in ecstasy.
Baroque SculptureCharacteristics (ITALY)•Stressed movement•Mid motion, mouths open•sculpture meant to be seen in theround from different angles•Marble very tactile-flesh is soft, skin ispolished, wings are feathery, drapery isdrapery•Inspired by Hellenistic sculpture•Bernini’s DAVID from 1623… marble,life size (FLASHCARD)•Mid-action swinging the slingshot•Harp = role as psalmist•Multiple views•Use of negative space
This is a flashcardWHAT IS IT?Sculptural interpretation of StTheresa’s diary, tells ofvisions of god, angel plungingarrows in to her.Rays of god light behindSexual exhaustion?Stage like settingNatural light from hiddenwindow above the work
ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI… Judith & Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes,and Judith and Holofernes, 1625, 6 ft x 4 1/2 ft… tenebrism, drama, strongdiagonals, female empowerment… remember she was raped by her tutor and hadto stand trial to prove her innocence.
Self Portrait on the Allegory ofPainting, oil on canvas, 38” x 29”,1630, Artemisia GentileschiDramatic lighting, self portraitGentilleschi was a noted femaleartist, unusual for that time.Influenced by CaravaggioTypical of naturalism school ofItalian Baroque….NATURALISM (drama, tenebrism,everyday people) vs.CLASSICISM of Renaissancestyle paintings
Calling of St. Matthew, CaravaggioOil on Canvas, 1600.. Watch video tolearn more!Caravaggio: the Power of Art
Characteristics of BaroquePainting in Italy#3 types popularized, in addition totraditional religious paintings &portraiture:-genre paintingLandscapesStill lifesTENEBRISM in this paintingEntombment by Caravaggio, strongdiagonals, everyday figures as theylower the body of JesusImpasto brushwork (thick, textured)Artists like CaravaggioMADE RELIGION REAL ANDCLOSE TO HOMEBut they were artistically opposed byclassic style painters….
In Italy, especially Rome, another school of painters opposed the drama and tenebrismof Caravaggio & Gentilleschi… CEILING PAINTERS such as Reni wanted to continueclassical trends. Landscapes had a moral to them, not just a pretty picture.Reni’s fresco is entitled Aurora, and it is on the ceiling of a Palazzo in Rome.
Annibale Carracci was aclassicist painterCLASSICISM VS.NATURALISM in Italian andFlemish baroque artCeiling of Gallery, PalazzoFarnese, Rome, 1601
Baroque landscapes typically had figures in them and told some kind of moral tale orhad a purpose beyond showing nature’s beauty, as in this oil painting by Carracci.
Baroque Art in Flanders• Northern Flanders largely Protestant, rebelled against Spanish rule & present day Holland gained independence• Southern Flanders (Catholic) returned to direct Spanish rule under Hapsburg family• Key painters: Rubens &Van Dyck w/international clientele & reputations• Rubens was wealthy, educated, diplomat with strong religious beliefs• Rubens studied Caravaggio & encouraged patron, Duke of Mantua, to buy Death of the Virgin
Charles I at the Hunt, oil oncanvas, 9’ x 6’, 1635, Anthonyvan DyckVan Dyck did many portraits ofthe royal family.Here he diplomatically madeCharles I look TALL.. By havingthe figure against thebackground, the horse withbowed head, etc.
Raising of the Cross, Peter Paul Rubens, oil on canvas, 1610, Church of St. Walpurga,Antwerp, Belgium. Continued Flemish tradition of the triptych.. Drama and emotioninspired by who? (He traveled to Italy to study)…why is this typical Baroque?
Henri IV Receiving the Portrait ofMarie de’ Medici, RubensOil on canvas, 13’ x 10’, 1625Rubens did a series ofENORMOUS canvasescommissioned by Marie deMedici, Queen of France…tocommemorate her founding ofthe Bourbon dynasty & role asQueen Regent to son, Louis XVRubens is known for his fleshy,sumptuous female nudes, plumpwomen still called Rubenesquetoday.. His colors inspired byTitianRan large studio w/ assistants,collaborated with Van Dyck andBrueghel (descended fromRenaissance Bruegel)
Garden of Love, Rubens, oil on canvas…shows courtly ladies visual & tactile effects of the garden…
In France & Flanders, Rubens & Poussin were from rival schools. Rubens was anaturalist & Poussin was a classicist… followers were called Rubenistes or PoussinistesFrench Royal Academy made a system to evaluate painting vs. drawing and grademaster artists… Poussin was stronger in drawing, Rubens in painting & vivid colors
Baroque Art in Northern Flanders The Dutch Golden Age• Still lifes term coined in Holland, such as this painting by Clara Peeters• Educated, literate Dutch enjoyed portraits, still lifes, and genre scenes• Demand for art & prints from merchant class, unlike France & Italy• Group portraiture also a Dutch specialty with Still life with flowers, fruit, and pretzels, Clara Peeters artists Hals & Rembrandt
The Dutch Golden Age, continued…• Landscapes such as this Vermeer were in demand• Low horizon to show flat Dutch country side, canals, and beautiful skies View of Delft, 1665, Jan Vermeer
The Jewish Cemetery, Jacob van Ruisdael, 1660. Spiritual meanings of the landscape, vanitas theme? Allegory of transcience, rainbow shows hope.
Still Life with a watch, Pieter Claesz. Still li fes often showed a theme of the brief natureof life and beauty, with hints of death, a wilting flower, a skull, or other reminder..VANITAS…time passes with the watch? “breakfast piece” like Clara Peeters
Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company, Frans Hals, Oil on Canvas, 6’ x 9’, Livelycomposition, social event, strong diagonals. Positions reflect their ranking. IMPASTOtechnique, very painterly like Velasquez.
Self Portrait, Judith LeysterOriginally thought to beHals’ painting…Judith looks confidentlyback at the viewer, as doesher subject the fiddlerCaravaggio’s realism,drama, lighting…Participated in the HaarlemGuild and could takestudents…Known for informal scenesof daily lifeLike who in theRenaissance?
REMBRANDT: IMPORTANTDUTCH BAROQUE ARTIST•Known for psychologically intenseportraits (self portrait here from1658)•Internalized spirituality, reflectedsuffering & personality•In his later works, realism relatesto the spirit of inner meaning notsurface details•Studied under Lastman, a historypainter who’d worked in Rome•Learned tenebrism, naturalism,drama•Interested in both science andfaith.•Like Rubens, used assistants andran large workshops.
Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, Rembrandt, 1632. Rembrandt transforms Hals’ groupportrait into a dramatic narrative… Cadaver is shockingly green while students leanforward to study the anatomy of the arm.TENEBRISM: white collars emphasis the dramatic lighting
The Night Watch (Captain Frans Banning Cocq Mustering His Company):commissioned group portrait @ narrative…girl w/chicken may be company mascotOriginally known as Night Watch, name remains today, but it was cleaned and is not asdark today.
Rembrandt did Three Crosses series ofetchings (prints)
Jan Vermeer genrepaintings&portrait such asThe Girl with the Pearl EarringNotice the lightingBelieved to have used a“camera oscura”Still meditative paintings withsingle source of lightCliphttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aYtcOw11S-A&feature=related
Woman Holding a BalanceJan Vermeer1664Metaphor for eternaljudgment(Christ Last Judgmentappears behind her)Vanitas theme oftranscience of life
Baroque Art in SPAIN•Profound influence ofCaravaggio & his followers•Ecstatic religiosity plus intenserealism/tenebrism•Still lifes, genre paintings, andreligious paintings were popular•Catholic Counter-Reformationstrong-scenes of saints beingmartyred•Velasquez best knownSpanish Baroque painterSaint Serapion by Zurbaran shows theBaroque drama, tenebrism
Young Beggar, Murillo, oil oncanvas, mid 17th centurySpanish Baroque masterInfluenced by VelasquezGenre scenePainted sentimental andtouching works both religiousand secularFlashcard not in book
Water Carrier of Seville, DiegoVelazquezOil on canvas, 41” x 31”, 1619Early work of Velasquez showsintense interest in CaravaggiotenebrismDeceptively simple genre scene-sacred quality about the expressions,the clear water, handing over glassWater jug is masterfully rendered
Juan de Pareja, DiegoVelazquezOil on canvas,Velasquez was courtpainter to King of Spain,genius portraitist.Went to Italy to paint thePope and wasn’t asrecognizedPainted Pope Innocent
"Velazquez evidently decidedto paint a portrait that wouldshow the Romans what hecould do. He chose as hissubject his assistant and friend,Juan de Pareja (c. 1610-70).Amazingly, this man wastechnically a slave; we stillhave the document ofmanumission with whichVelazquez formally set himfree. However, we can seefrom Velazquez painting thatthe two were undeniablyequals. That steady look ofself-controlled power can evenmake us wonder which of thetwo held a higher opinion ofhimself. It is a daring picture inthat it almost eschews the useof color. This is a dark man,with wonderful coppery skin,set against an indeterminatebackground, where even therich velvets of the sleevesappear dim."
• Is this PopePope Innocent X innocent? • How does Velasquez capture his personality ?
Francis BaconStudy After Valasquez’s Portraitof Pope Innocent X1953oil on canvas
The Surrender at Breda, The Lances, Oil on Canvas, 10’ x 12’, 1634-35Depicts 1625 victory of Spanish over Dutch in BredaGraciousness of Spanish victors, more dignified, organizedCross formed over distant lake, symbol of Catholic victory, mutual respect of both sides
Las MeninasDiego VelasquezOil on canvas10’5” x 9’1656One of most famousand analyzedpaintingsWHAT DO YOUTHINK THEMEANINGS ARE???
Princess at centerAttendants… ladies inwaiting, dwarfs, dogPyramidic socialcompositionKing/Queen reflected inmirror??? Or is it apaintingt?Velasquez shows himselfat work, with KnightsemblemWhy are dogs and dwarfsshown?
Baroque Art inFRANCE•Louis XIV, the Sun King builtthe gorgeous palace atVersailles•Poussin & Lorrain landscapepainters, Poussin moreclassical in style.•Georges La Tour didCaravaggesque drama andtenebrism
Hall of Mirrors,Versailles(flashcard)Begun 1678Msaterpiece ofBarqouearchitectureJulesHardouin-MansartRebuild huntinglodge ito palaceLouis XIVaudiencechamber,bedroomVast garden.LandscapearchitectureHall of Mirrors,flickering use oflight
Mary Magdalen with the SmokingFlame, Georges de la Tour,French, 1640She contemplates looking at thecandle flameSkull (vanitas) theme aboutbrevity or temporary nature ofhuman lifeDiagonals of tilted legs, head,triangle of light around candleT------sm?
Was Claude Lorrain a Poussiniste or a Rubeniste? Why?
Saint Paul’s Cathedral, London1675-1710Christopher Wren, ArchitectDesigned after Great Fire ofLondon destroyed Gothic churchFacade-dark light contrasts, sidesrecedeBorromini inspired bell towersActually 3 domes inside