100 Years War France & England; instability in Germany
Great Schism in Catholic church w/rival popes
Famine & plague wiped out almost half the population of Europe
With a few exceptions, although the Rayonnant gothic style continued in the early part of the century, architecture on a large scale eventually halted. WHY???? Germany did a Church of the Holy Cross with a beautiful Gothic style. However, the impact of the “Four Horsemen” was huge.
Middle class got stronger; more literate & better educated, wanted art & books
Growing HUMANISM and individualism
Orientation toward humanity - Dante in literature, Petrarch, studied classical literature from Greece & Rome
Artisan guilds arose
Rottgen Pieta , or Vesperbild Wood, 14th century (late Gothic Germany) Expressivism, suffering and emotion Possibly influence by tragedies in Europe; plague, famine, wars. 34” high Pieces like this would influence German expressivism for centuries
Woman mourning a dead child , Kathe Kollwitz, German Expressionist, WW II era
Madonna & Child (Painting), Bernardo Daddi Tempera & gold on wood panel 1346 (late Gothic, 14th century Florence,Italy) Tabernacle, Andrea Orcagna Marble, mosaic, gold, lapis lazuli Size: n/a Probably begun 1355, completed 1359 Replacement painting for miracle image of Madonna and Child. Florence - Orcagna member of stone/woodworkers guild Architectural sculpture to honor Daddi’s painting Church as Orsanmichele, power & patronage in Florentine Republic Pilgrimages to this artwork, estates left to this artwork Place to distribute alms (food, money) to the poor flashcard
Virgin & Child Enthroned, Cimabue 1280 (late Gothic Italy - Florence) Tempera & gold on wood panel *Painting shows transformation of Byzantine style Set precedent (at 12 ft tall) for monumental altarpieces Byzantine proportions; highlighted drapery with gold. Space: viewer suspended in front of image Space: forms delicatedly modeled in light and shade More naturalistic figures!!!!!! flashcard Laid groundwork for Renaissance and Giotto…… know this….
Groundbreaking spatial consistency… more realistic modeling of figures and perspective, more natural position of Mary and baby Jesus
“ Giotto outshone the fame of Cimabue, as a great light outshines a lesser” - Vasari
Vasari also said that Giotto put an end to the “crude” maniera grecia (Byzantine traditions of painting)
Giotto excelled in narrative painting and bringing in humanism into his artwork
Major part of Florentine school of painting
Arena Chapel, frescos by Giotto di Bondone Fresco secco: dry pigments applied after plaster is set (Dry) Fresco buono: pigments applied while pigment is wet.. Must work quickly before it dries. Artists worked in sections in order to do this; could add details with fresco secco later. Some pigments unstable in buono form, so had to be done last in secco form.
This period is sometimes called the Proto-Renaissance, or just the late Gothic. Why? Let’s take another look at Giotto in more detail…. http://smarthistory.org/proto-renaissance.html
Lamentation, Giotto from Arena Chapel, Padua… 61/2 ft by 6 ft section… Off center composition to emphasize Mary mourning Jesus’ death; diagonal ride from bare tree w/angels in background Direct, emotional impact of art (Franciscan monks?) - Florentine school of painting
Maesta (Virgin & Child in Majesty), Duccio, Siena Cathedral, 1308-11. Foremost Siennese painter in Late Gothic period. Part of huge panel 14’ high; over predella with life of Jesus Naturalistic, courtly style, brilliant palette of colors flashcard
Florence Cathedral, 1296-1350, designed By artists & artisans, not buliders Brunelleschi’s dome, bell tower by Giotto Pisano, and Talenti
Life of John the Baptist, Andrea Pisano Gilded bronze door, Baptistry of San Giovanni, Florence, 1330-36. Each panel tells story of Life of John the Baptist. Continues Gothic revival of large scale bronze relief sculptures. Florence cathedral (Duomo) designed by sculptors and painters.
View of Lorenzetti’s fresco series in Palazzo Pubblico in Siena
Allegory of Good Government in the City , Lorenzetti, 1338, Siennese school Powerful vision of orderly society, realistic perspective, Security plus gallows, Also did painting of life in the country
Book of Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux, grisaille and color on vellum, small book 1325. Monochromatic painting technique (B&W mostly), narrative cycles of Life of Christ, Joys & Sorrows of Virgin, space is like Sienese; by Jean Pucelle
Virgin and Child, 1339 Silver gilt & enamel Example of “Beautiful” late Gothic style Artist is unknown What influences do you see in Mary’s position and the drapery?????? THIS IS SETTING THE STAGE FOR THE RENAISSANCE. Belonged to Jeanne d’Evreux, given to Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, now in Louvre, Paris
Saint Luke Master Theodoric Artists began to be known, to sign their work, and to have histories. Artists were part of guilds which gave apprenticeship, training, and the ability to do large jobs such as Giotto’s frescoes. This artist developed more of the Beautiful style Artists now part of middle class; more literatcy, more interest in arts & sciences as well as religion of course.
Beautiful Virgin and Child Artist unknown 1390 Probably from Church of Augustinian Canons, Stemberk