14thcenteuropresentation
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14thcenteuropresentation

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  • Artist: Heinrich and Peter Parler Title: Church of the Holy Cross, interior Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: Begun in 1317 by Heinrich Parler; choir by Peter Paler begun in 1351; vaulting completed 16th century Source/ Museum: Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany
  • Artist: n/a Title: Vesperbild Medium: Wood Size: Height 34 ½ “ ( 88.4 cm) Date: c. 1330 Source/ Museum: From Middle Rhine region, Germany. Landesmuseum, Bonn
  • Artist: n/a Title: Vesperbild Medium: Wood Size: Height 34 ½ “ ( 88.4 cm) Date: c. 1330 Source/ Museum: From Middle Rhine region, Germany. Landesmuseum, Bonn
  • Artist: Bernardo Daddi Title: Madonna and Child Medium: Tempera and gold on wood panel Size: n/a Date: 1346-7 Source/ Museum: Orsanmichele, Florence
  • Artist: Cimabue Title: Virgin and Child Enthroned Medium: Tempera and gold on wood panel Size: 12'17” x 7'4” (3.53 x 2.2 m) Date: c. 1280 Source/ Museum: Most likely painted for the high altar of the Church of Santa Trinita, Florence / Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  • Artist: Cimabue Title: Virgin and Child Enthroned Medium: Tempera and gold on wood panel Size: 12'17” x 7'4” (3.53 x 2.2 m) Date: c. 1280 Source/ Museum: Most likely painted for the high altar of the Church of Santa Trinita, Florence / Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  • Artist: Giotto di Bondone Title: Virgin and Child Enthroned Medium: Tempera and gold on wood panel Size: 10 '8” x 6' 8 ¼ “ (3.53 x 2.05 m) Date: 1305-10 Source/ Museum: Most likely painted for the high altar of the Church of the Ognissanti (All Saints), Florence / Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  • Artist: Giotto di Bondone Title: Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel, view toward east wall Medium: Frescoes Size: n/a Date: 1305-6 Source/ Museum: Padua
  • Artist: n/a Title: Technique: Buon Fresco Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/ Museum: n/a
  • Artist: Giotto di Bondone Title: Marriage at Cana, Raising of Lazarus, Resurrection, and Lamentation Medium: Frescoes Size: Each scene approx. 6' 5” x 6' (2 x 1.85 m) Date: 1305-6 Source/ Museum: North wall of Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel, Padua
  • Artist: Giotto di Bondone Title: Lamentation Medium: Fresco Size: 6' 5” x 6' (2 x 1.85 m) Date: 1305-6 Source/ Museum: Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel, Padua
  • Artist: Duccio di Buoninsegna Title: Virgin and Child in Majesty Medium: Tempera and gold on wood panel Size: 7' x 13' 6” ( 2.13 x 3.96 m) Date: 1308-11 Source/ Museum: Central Panel from Maestà Altarpiece Siena Cathedral. Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Siena
  • Artist: n/a Title: Plan of front of the Maestà Altarpiece Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/ Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: Florence Cathedral (Duomo) Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: Plan 1294, construction begun 1296, redesigned 1357 and 1366, drum and dome 1420-36 Source/ Museum: Illustration by Philipe Biard in Guide Gallimard Florence © Gallimard Loisirs
  • Artist: Arnolfo di Cambio, Francesco Talenti, Andrea Orcagna, and others. Drum and dome by Brunelleschi, bell tower (Campanile) by Giotto, Andrea Pisano, and Francesco Talenti Title: Florence Cathedral (Duomo) Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: 1296-1378; 1420-36; c. 1334-50 Source/ Museum: Florence, Italy
  • Artist: Andrea Pisano Title: Life of John The Baptist Medium: Gilded bronze Size: Each panel 19 ¼ x 17” (48 x 43 cm) Date: South doors, Baptistry of San Giovanni, Florence, 1330-36. Frame, Ghiberti workshop, mid-15th century Source/ Museum: Florence, Italy
  • Artist: Ambrogio Lorenzetti Title: Fresco series of the Sala della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico Medium: n/a Size: Length of long wall about 46' (14 m) Date: 1338-40 Source/ Museum: Siena city hall, Siena, Italy
  • Artist: Ambrogio Lorenzetti Title: Allegory of Good Government in the City Medium: n/a Size: Length of long wall about 46' (14 m) Date: 1338-40 Source/ Museum: Sala della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy
  • Artist: Jean Pucelle Title: Pages with Betrayal and Arrest of Christ, Folio 15v. (Left), and Annunciation, Folio 16r. (Right), Book of Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux Medium: Grisaille and color on vellum Size: Each page 3 ½ x 2 ¼ “ (8.9 x 6.2 cm) Date: c. 1325-38 Source/ Museum: Paris / The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The Cloisters Collection 1954 (54.1.2)
  • Artist: n/a Title: Virgin and Child Medium: Silver gilt and enamel Size: Height 27 ⅛ ” ( 69 cm) Date: c. 1339 Source/ Museum: Given by Jeanne d'Evreux to the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, France / Musée du Louvre, Paris
  • Artist: Master Theodoric Title: Saint Luke Medium: Paint and gold on panel Size: 45 ¼ x 37” (115 x 94 cm) Date: 1360-64 Source/ Museum: Holy Cross Chapel, Karlstejn Castle, near Prague
  • Artist: n/a Title: “Beautiful” Virgin and Child Medium: Limestone with original paint and gilding Size: Height 33 ⅛ ” (84 cm) Date: c. 1390 Source/ Museum: Probably from the Church of Augustinian Canons, Sternberk

Transcript

  • 1. 14th Century Europe The Apocalypse??? Or the start of a whole new world? Proto Renaissance????
  • 2. Bad times in Europe during late Gothic period
    • Black Death… what was the impact of the black plague?
    • Famine?
    • Black Plague intro
  • 3. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
    • 100 Years War France & England; instability in Germany
    • Great Schism in Catholic church w/rival popes
    • Famine & plague wiped out almost half the population of Europe
  • 4. With a few exceptions, although the Rayonnant gothic style continued in the early part of the century, architecture on a large scale eventually halted. WHY???? Germany did a Church of the Holy Cross with a beautiful Gothic style. However, the impact of the “Four Horsemen” was huge.
  • 5. Yet the arts gradually began to flourish….
    • Middle class got stronger; more literate & better educated, wanted art & books
    • Growing HUMANISM and individualism
    • Orientation toward humanity - Dante in literature, Petrarch, studied classical literature from Greece & Rome
    • Artisan guilds arose
  • 6. Rottgen Pieta , or Vesperbild Wood, 14th century (late Gothic Germany) Expressivism, suffering and emotion Possibly influence by tragedies in Europe; plague, famine, wars. 34” high Pieces like this would influence German expressivism for centuries
  • 7. Woman mourning a dead child , Kathe Kollwitz, German Expressionist, WW II era
  • 8. Madonna & Child (Painting), Bernardo Daddi Tempera & gold on wood panel 1346 (late Gothic, 14th century Florence,Italy) Tabernacle, Andrea Orcagna Marble, mosaic, gold, lapis lazuli Size: n/a Probably begun 1355, completed 1359 Replacement painting for miracle image of Madonna and Child. Florence - Orcagna member of stone/woodworkers guild Architectural sculpture to honor Daddi’s painting Church as Orsanmichele, power & patronage in Florentine Republic Pilgrimages to this artwork, estates left to this artwork Place to distribute alms (food, money) to the poor flashcard
  • 9. Virgin & Child Enthroned, Cimabue 1280 (late Gothic Italy - Florence) Tempera & gold on wood panel *Painting shows transformation of Byzantine style Set precedent (at 12 ft tall) for monumental altarpieces Byzantine proportions; highlighted drapery with gold. Space: viewer suspended in front of image Space: forms delicatedly modeled in light and shade More naturalistic figures!!!!!! flashcard Laid groundwork for Renaissance and Giotto…… know this….
  • 10. Cimbaue, 1080 Giotto, 1308
  • 11.
    • Virgin & Child Enthroned, Giotto
    • Tempera & gold on wood panel
    • 11 feet high, 1305, late Gothic Italy
    • Most likely painted for church in Florence
    • Groundbreaking spatial consistency… more realistic modeling of figures and perspective, more natural position of Mary and baby Jesus
    • “ Giotto outshone the fame of Cimabue, as a great light outshines a lesser” - Vasari
    • Vasari also said that Giotto put an end to the “crude” maniera grecia (Byzantine traditions of painting)
    • Giotto excelled in narrative painting and bringing in humanism into his artwork
    • Major part of Florentine school of painting
  • 12. Arena Chapel, frescos by Giotto di Bondone Fresco secco: dry pigments applied after plaster is set (Dry) Fresco buono: pigments applied while pigment is wet.. Must work quickly before it dries. Artists worked in sections in order to do this; could add details with fresco secco later. Some pigments unstable in buono form, so had to be done last in secco form.
  • 13.  
  • 14. This period is sometimes called the Proto-Renaissance, or just the late Gothic. Why? Let’s take another look at Giotto in more detail…. http://smarthistory.org/proto-renaissance.html
  • 15. Lamentation, Giotto from Arena Chapel, Padua… 61/2 ft by 6 ft section… Off center composition to emphasize Mary mourning Jesus’ death; diagonal ride from bare tree w/angels in background Direct, emotional impact of art (Franciscan monks?) - Florentine school of painting
  • 16. Maesta (Virgin & Child in Majesty), Duccio, Siena Cathedral, 1308-11. Foremost Siennese painter in Late Gothic period. Part of huge panel 14’ high; over predella with life of Jesus Naturalistic, courtly style, brilliant palette of colors flashcard
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19. Florence Cathedral, 1296-1350, designed By artists & artisans, not buliders Brunelleschi’s dome, bell tower by Giotto Pisano, and Talenti
  • 20. Life of John the Baptist, Andrea Pisano Gilded bronze door, Baptistry of San Giovanni, Florence, 1330-36. Each panel tells story of Life of John the Baptist. Continues Gothic revival of large scale bronze relief sculptures. Florence cathedral (Duomo) designed by sculptors and painters.
  • 21. View of Lorenzetti’s fresco series in Palazzo Pubblico in Siena
  • 22. Allegory of Good Government in the City , Lorenzetti, 1338, Siennese school Powerful vision of orderly society, realistic perspective, Security plus gallows, Also did painting of life in the country
  • 23. Book of Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux, grisaille and color on vellum, small book 1325. Monochromatic painting technique (B&W mostly), narrative cycles of Life of Christ, Joys & Sorrows of Virgin, space is like Sienese; by Jean Pucelle
  • 24. Virgin and Child, 1339 Silver gilt & enamel Example of “Beautiful” late Gothic style Artist is unknown What influences do you see in Mary’s position and the drapery?????? THIS IS SETTING THE STAGE FOR THE RENAISSANCE. Belonged to Jeanne d’Evreux, given to Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, now in Louvre, Paris
  • 25. Saint Luke Master Theodoric Artists began to be known, to sign their work, and to have histories. Artists were part of guilds which gave apprenticeship, training, and the ability to do large jobs such as Giotto’s frescoes. This artist developed more of the Beautiful style Artists now part of middle class; more literatcy, more interest in arts & sciences as well as religion of course.
  • 26. Beautiful Virgin and Child Artist unknown 1390 Probably from Church of Augustinian Canons, Stemberk