1. Sports Coaching Pedagogy Sand Dune Training By Andrea Flagg
2. Background to Subject• Sand dune running is a common training method often used in the conditioning phase of a program.• Popularised by Percy Cerutti and Herb Elliot.• Have been used by many amateur and professional sporting teams during pre-season training.• Aerobic interval training Herb Elliot following his coach Percy Cerutti
3. Importance to Study• Studies of past performances claimed to have been enhanced by this method of training.• The physiological and psychological benefits of sand dune training is a vital component to both a coach and the athlete in order to gain maximum benefits.
4. Critical Evaluation of Research• A study by Pinnington and Lloyd was conducted of seven sprint based athletes.• The study investigated the difference between the effects on lower limb kinematics and running speed of maximal effort running on sand dunes compared to running on a grass hill of similar gradient.
5. Critical Evaluation Cont.• Data displayed that running on sand is much more demanding than grass, causing a lowering of running velocity.• Ground contact time is significantly greater and stride rate is significantly reduced when running on sand.• The study proves this with average stride length values of 1.77m and 2.67m for sand and grass respectively.• Sand dune running causes reductions in running speed, stride rate, stride length and thigh range of motion, proving that the body has to work significantly harder to complete a hill sprint on sand
6. Practical ApplicationsExample of sand dune sessions:Various repetitions can be applied to a number athletes by adjusting the distances:• 8 to 10 repetitions over 40 metres (jumpers and throwers)• 8 to 10 repetitions over 50 metres (sprinters and hurdlers)• 8 to 10 repetitions over 150 metres (middle distance athletes)• 8 to 10 repetitions over 200 metres (long distance athletes)
7. Practical Applications• Sand dune training helps improve an athlete’s running technique• Teaches an aggressive arm & shoulder action.• Safety Barrier• Neuromuscular Benefits- Stride Length & Stride Frequency.• Metabolic Benefits-Aerobic VO2 Max &Energy Costs• Improves Anaerobic Lactate Threshold .• Mental Preparation
8. AFL Giants Sand Dune Training• This video is short clip by the Giants AFL club, demonstrating the physical and mental exhaustion that is experienced in a sand dune training session• To watch minimise screen view and right click the black box then click ‘preview’.
9. Further Research• There is little scientific literature that explains the role that sand hill running may play in training for power events.• Running on flat soft sand is 1.4 times more energy demanding than running off other flat surfaces such as grass. vs
10. Conclusions• Numerous of benefits of sand dune training for athletes requiring speed, strength and endurance.• Improves overall running economy.• Less stress on joints.• Increases the resistance of muscles to fatigue.• Benefits for power training are yet to be scientifically proven.
11. Challenge Yourself!
12. References• Hugh C. Pinnington Æ David G. Lloyd, Thor F. Besier Æ Brian Dawson, ‘Kinematic and electromyography analysis of submaximal differences running on a firm surface compared with soft, dry sand’ Received: 15 September 2004 / Accepted: 18 January 2005 / Published online: 7 April 2005, Springer-Verlag 2005• Lejeune, T.M., Willems, PA & Heglund, N.C. (1998). Mechanics and Energetics of Human Locomotion on Sand. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 201: 2071-2080.• Oviatt R, Hemba G (1991) Oregon state: sandblasting through the PAC. National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal 13(4):40–46• Pinnington HC, Dawson B (2001b) Running economy of elite surf iron men and male runners, on soft dry beach sand and grass. Eur J Appl Physiol 86(1):62–70• Nilsson J, Thorstensson A, Halbertsma J (1985). Changes in leg movements and muscle activity with speed of locomotion and mode of progression in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 123:457–475
13. References Continued..• Pinnington, H.C. & Dawson, B. (2001 la. The energy cost of running on grass compared to soft dry beach sand. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 4 (4): 416-430.• Pinnington, H.C. & Dawson, B, (2001 lb. Running economy of elite surf iron men and male runners, on soft dry beach sand and grass. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 86: 62-70.• Australian Ultra Runners Association Inc. ‘Percy Cerutty’, Compiled by AURA President Ian Cornelius, biographer Graem Sims and Andy Milroy, http://www.aura.asn.au/PercyCerutty.html• "Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research"; A Comparison of the Endurance Training Responses to Road and Sand Running in High School and College Students; Semih Yigit and Fehmi Tuncel; May, 1998