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War artist

  1. 1. War artist From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For information about the genre, see Military art. This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. (June 2011) A war artist depicts some aspect of war through art. The art might be a pictorial record, or it might commemorate how war shapes lives.[1] War artists explore the visual and sensory dimensions of war, often absent in written histories or other accounts of warfare.[2] Contents [hide] 1 Definition and context 2 American 3 Australian 4 Austrian 5 British 6 Belgian 7 Canadian 8 Chinese 9 Dutch 10 French 11 German 12 Japanese 13 Korean 14 New Zealand 15 Russian 16 South African 17 Spanish 18 See also 19 Notes 20 References 21 Further reading
  2. 2. 22 External links Definition and context[edit source | editbeta] A war artist creates a visual account of the impact of war by showing men and women are waiting, preparing, fighting, suffering, celebrating,[3] or destroyed, as in Vasily Vereshchagin's 1871 painting, The Apotheosis of War. The works produced by war artists illustrate and record many aspects of war and the individual's experience of war, whether allied or enemy, service or civilian, military or political, social or cultural. The role of the artist and his work embrace the causes, course, and consequences of conflict, and has an essentially educational purpose.[4] Artists record military activities in ways that cameras and the written word cannot. Their art collects and distills the experiences of the men and women who endured in it.[5] The artists and their artwork affect how subsequent generations view military conflicts. For example, Australian war artists who grew up between the two world wars were influenced by the artwork which depicted the First World War, and there was a precedent and format for them to follow.[6] Official war artists have been appointed by governments for information or propaganda purposes and to record events on the battlefield;[7] but there are many other types of war artists. These can include combatants who are artists and choose to record their experiences, non-combatants who are witnesses of war, and prisoners of war who may voluntarily record the conditions or be appointed war artists by senior officers. In New Zealand, the title of appointed "war artist" changed to "army artist" after the two world wars.[8] In the United States, the term "combat artist" has come to be used to mean the same thing.[9][10] Some examples and their background[edit source | editbeta] William Simpson was an artist-correspondent who sent artwork to London from the front during the Crimean War.[11] Alfred Waud was anAmerican civil war pictorial newspaper illustrator. Ogata Gekkō and Tsuguharu Foujita created woodblock prints for Japanese publications.Ronald Searle recorded life in Japanese POW camps.[12][13] Emmanuel Leutze's 1851 studio painting of Washington Crossing the Delawareis historically incorrect, and Leutze was born decades after the event his painting depicts, but this work has become an icon of popular culture. American[edit source | editbeta] Main articles: American official war artists, United States Army Art Program, and United States Air Force Art Program
  3. 3. Michael Fay is an official US Marine war artist, one of only three whose work depicts the battlefronts in Iraq and Afghanistan (2007) The American panorama created by artists whose work focuses on war began with a visual account of the American Revolutionary War. The war artist or combat artist captures instantaneous action and conflates earlier moments of the same scene within one compelling image. Artists are unlike the objective camera lens, which records only a single instant and no more.[14] In 1917 the American military designated American official war artists, who were sent to Europe to record the activities of the American Expeditionary Forces.[15] In World War II, the Navy Combat Art Program ensured that active-duty artists developed a record of all phases of the war and all major naval operations.[14] The official war artist continued to be supported in some military engagements. Teams of soldier-artists during the Vietnam War created pictorial accounts and interpretations for the annals of army military history.[16] Since 1992 the Army Staff Artist Program was attached to the United States Army Center of Military History as a permanent part of the Museum Division's Collections Branch.[15] The majority of combat artists of the 1970s were selected by George Gray, chairman of NACAL, Navy Air Cooperation and Liaison committee. Some of their paintings will be selected for the Navy Combat Art Museum in the capital by Charles Lawrence, director. (Hickok, 1978) In January 1978 the U.S. Navy chose a seascape specialist team: they asked Patricia Yaps and Wayne Dean, both of Milford, Connecticut, to capture air-sea rescue missions off of Key West while they were based at the nearby Naval Air Station Key West. They were among 78 artists selected that year to create works of art depicting navy subjects.[17][18][19] Selected artists A select list of representative American artists includes: This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it withreliably sourced entries. Revolutionary War[edit source | editbeta] Ralph Earl
  4. 4. Emmanuel Leutze William B.T. Trego John Trumbull Civil War[edit source | editbeta] Alonzo Chappel Edwin Forbes Gilbert Gaul Winslow Homer Thomas Nast Keith Rocco[20] Julian Scott Xanthus Russell Smith Alfred Waud William Waud Spanish-American War[edit source | editbeta] Howard Chandler Christy Newspaper William Glackens Newspaper Henry Reuterdahl Newspaper Walter Russell Newspaper World War I[edit source | editbeta] Gassed, 1918, by John Singer Sargent. Oil on canvas, 231 x 611.1cm (91 x 240.5in). Collection of the Imperial War Museum, London William James Aylward[21] Walter Jack Duncan[21] Harvey Thomas Dunn[21] Kerr Eby Marines George Matthews Harding[21]
  5. 5. Wallace Morgan[21] Ernest Clifford Peixotto[22] John Singer Sargent J. Andre Smith[22] Harry Everett Townsend, Army[22] Claggett Wilson Army World War II[edit source | editbeta] Standish Backus, 1910–1989 McClelland Barclay, 1891–1942[23] George Biddle, 1885–1973 Aaron Bohrod, 1907–1992[24] Howard Brodie, 1915–2010[25][26] Jack Coggins, 1914–2006[24] Raymond Creekmore, 1905–1984 Olin Dows[27] Edward Dugmore, 1915–1996[24] William Franklin Draper, 1912–2003[28][29] Nathan Glick Army Air Force Mitchel Jamieson, 1915–1976 Ludwig Mactarian, 1908-1955 John Cullen Murphy, 1919–2004[24] Edward Reep, 1918– [25][30] Henry Varnum Poor, 1887–1970 Dwight Shepler (died 1974) Mitchell Siporin, 1910–1976 Vietnam era[edit source | editbeta] Soldier Artist Participants in the U. S. Army Vietnam Combat Artists Program
  6. 6. Landing Zone by John O. Wehrle, CAT I, 1966, Courtesy of the National Museum of the United States Army CAT I, 15 Aug – 15 Dec 1966, Roger A. Blum (Stillwell, KS), Robert C. Knight (Newark, NJ), Ronald E. Pepin (East Hartford, CT), Paul Rickert (Philadelphia, PA), Felix R. Sanchez (Fort Madison, IA), John O. Wehrle (Dallas, TX), and supervisor, Frank M. Sherman CAT II, 15 Oct 1966 – 15 Feb 1967, Augustine G. Acuna (Monterey, CA), Alexander A. Bogdanovich (Chicago, IL), Theodore E. Drendel (Naperville, IL), David M. Lavender (Houston, TX), Gary W. Porter (El Cajon, CA), and supervisor, Carolyn M. O'Brien CAT III, 16 Feb – 17 June 1967, Michael R. Crook (Sierra Madre, CA), Dennis O. McGee (Castro Valley, CA), Robert T. Myers (White Sands Missile Range, NM), Kenneth J. Scowcroft (Manassas, VA), Stephen H. Sheldon (Los Angeles, CA), and supervisor, C. Bruce Smyser CAT IV, 15 Aug – 31 Dec 1967, Samuel E. Alexander (Philadelphia, MS), Daniel T. Lopez (Fresno, CA), Burdell Moody (Mesa, AZ), James R. Pollock (Pollock, SD), Ronald A. Wilson (Alhambra, CA), and technical supervisor, Frank M. Thomas CAT V, 1 Nov 1967 – 15 March 1968, Warren W. Buchanan (Kansas City, MO), Philip V. Garner (Dearborn, MI), Phillip W. Jones (Greensboro, NC), Don R. Schol (Denton, TX), John R. Strong (Kanehoe, HI), and technical supervisor, Frank M. Thomas CAT VI, 1 Feb – 15 June 1968, Robert T. Coleman (Grand Rapids, MI), David N. Fairrington (Oakland, CA), John D. Kurtz IV (Wilmington, DE), Kenneth T. McDaniel (Paris, TN), Michael P. Pala (Bridgeport, CT) CAT VII, 15 Aug – 31 Dec 1968, Brian H. Clark (Huntington, NY), William E. Flaherty Jr. (Louisville, KY), William C. Harrington (Terre Haute, IN), Barry W. Johnston (Huntsville, AL), Stephen H. Randall (Des Moines, IA), and supervisor, Fitzallen N. Yow CAT VIII, 1 Feb – 15 June 1969, Edward J. Bowen (Carona Del Mar, CA), James R. Drake (Colorado Springs, CO), Roman Rakowsky (Cleveland, OH), Victory V. Reynolds (Idaho Falls, ID), Thomas B. Schubert (Chicago, IL), and supervisor, Fred B. Engel
  7. 7. CAT IX, 1 Sept 1969 – 14 Jan 1970, David E. Graves (Lawrence, KS), James S. Hardy (Coronado, CA), William R. Hoettels (San Antonio, TX), Bruce N. Rigby (Dekalb, IL), Craig L. Stewart (Laurel, MD), and supervisor, Edward C. Williams Recent conflicts[edit source | editbeta] Kristopher Battles, Iraq and Afghanistan[9] Henry Casselli[31] Michael D. Fay, Iraq and Afghanistan[9] Robert W. Bates, Afghanistan[32][33] Victor Juhasz, Afghanistan[34] Australian[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Australian official war artists War artists have depicted all the conflicts in which Australians have been called to combat. The Australian tradition of "official war artists"started with the First World War. Artists were granted permission to accompany the Australian Imperial Force to record the activities of its soldiers. During the Second World War, the Australian War Museum, later called the Australian War Memorial, engaged artists. At the same time, the Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, and Royal Australian Air Force appointed official war artist-soldiers from within their ranks.[35] These embedded war artists have depicted the activities of Australian forces in Korea, Vietnam, East Timor, Afghanistan, and Iraq. The ranks of non-soldier artists like George Gittoes continue to create artwork which becomes a commentary on Australia's military actions in war.[36] Selected artists A select list of representative Australian artists includes: This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it withreliably sourced entries. Second Boer War[edit source | editbeta]
  8. 8. Australians and New Zealanders atKlerksdorp 24 March 1901 by Charles Hammond William Dargie CBE, 1912–2003[37] First World War[edit source | editbeta] George Bell, 1878–1966[38] Charles Bryant, 1883–1937[38] Will Dyson, 1880–1938[38] A. Henry Fullwood, 1863–1930[38] George Lambert ARA, 1873–1930[38] Fred Leist, 1878–1945[38] John Longstaff, 1862–1941[38] Louis Frederick McCubbin, 1890–1952[39] Harold Septimus Power, 1877–1951[38] James Quinn, 1869–1951[38] Arthur Streeton, 1867–1943[38] Second World War[edit source | editbeta] Stella Bowen, 1893–1947[40] Colin Colahan, 1897–1987[41] William Dargie CBE, 1912–2003[40] William Dobell OBE, 1899–1970[42] Russell Drysdale AC, 1912–1981[43] Richard Eurich, OBE, RA, 1903–1992[44] Murray Griffin, 1903–1992[40] Nora Heysen AM, 1911–2003[40] Frank Hodgkinson AM, 1919–2001[40] Nora Heysen AM, 1911–2003[40] Alan Moore, 1915– [40] Sydney Nolan OM, AC, 1917–1992.[45] William Edwin Pidgeon, 1909–1981 Grace Cossington Smith AO, 1892–1984[46] Recent conflicts[edit source | editbeta] Rick Amor, 1948– , Peacekeeping in East Timor.[47]
  9. 9. Conway Bown, 1966– , Australian Army War Artist [48] Peter Churcher, 1964– , War on Terrorism.[47] George Gittoes AM, 1949– .[36] Shaun Gladwell, 1972– , War in Afghanistan.[47] Ivor Hele, 1912–1993, Korean War[47] Ken McFadyen, 1939–1997, Vietnam War[47] Lewis Miller, 1959– , War in Iraq.[47] Frank Norton, 1916–1983, Korean War[47] Wendy Sharpe, 1960– , Peacekeeping in East Timor[47] Austrian[edit source | editbeta] Alfred Basel Roman Zenzinger British[edit source | editbeta] Main article: British official war artists British participation in foreign wars has been the subject of paintings and other works created by Britain's war artists. Artwork like the 1688 painting,The Fleet at Sea by Willem van de Velde the Younger depict the Royal Navy in readiness for battle. The Ministry of Defence art cvollection includes many paintings showing battle scenes, particularly naval battles.[49] Military art and portraiture has evolved along with other aspects of war. The British official war artists of the First World War created a unique account of that conflict. The British War Artists Scheme expanded the number of official artists and enlarged the scope of their activities during the Second War.[50] Significant themes in the chronicle of twentieth-century wars have been developed by non-military, non-official, civilian artists. For example, society portraitist Arabella Dorman's paintings of wounded Iraq War veterans inspired her to spend two weeks with three regiments in different frontline areas: the Green Jackets at Basra Palace, the Queen's Own Gurkhas at Shaibah Logistics Base ten miles south-west of Basra, and the Queen's Royal Lancers in the Maysaan desert. In the field, Dorman drew quick charcoal portraits of the men she met. Returning to England, the sketches she made helped her use art to "evoke the emotions and psychological impact of war," rather than depicting the "physical horror" of war.[51] Selected artists A select list of representative British artists includes: This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it withreliably sourced entries.
  10. 10. Napoleonic Wars[edit source | editbeta] The Fall of Nelson, Battle of Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 by Denis Dighton, c. 1825 The Last Stand at Isandlwana, 1879 byCharles Edwin Fripp in 1885. Collection of the National Army Museum of South Africa Denis Dighton, 1792–1827[52] Robert Ker Porter, 1777–1842[53] John Christian Schetky,1778–1874[49] Crimean War[edit source | editbeta] Jerry Barrett, 1824–1906[54] Oswald Brierly, 1817–1894[55] William Simpson 1823–1899[56] Boer Wars[edit source | editbeta] John Henry Frederick Bacon, 1868–1914[57] René Bull, 1872–1942 Charles Edwin Fripp, 1854–1906[58] Godfrey Douglas Giles, 1857–1941[59] Ernest Prater, 1864–1950[60] Melton Prior, 1845–1910[61]
  11. 11. Frederic Villiers, 1851–1922 William Barnes Wollen, 1857–1936 First World War[edit source | editbeta] Muirhead Bone, 1888–1953.[62] Eric Kennington RA, 1888–1960.[63] John Hodgson Lobley RA, 1878–1954.[64][65] John Nash CBE RA, 1893–1977.[66] Paul Nash, 1889-1946.[67] C.R.W. Nevinson, 1889-1946.[68] Sir William Orpen KBE RA RHA, 1878–1931.[69] Second World War[edit source | editbeta] Edward Ardizzone CBE RA, 1900–1979[70] Portrait of POW "Dusty" Rhodes. A three-minute sketch by Ashley George Oldpainted in Thailand in 1944 Edward Bawden RA, 1903–1989[71] Henry Carr RA, 1894–1970[72] Jack Bridger Chalker, 1918–
  12. 12. Anthony Gross, 1905-1984[73][74] Bernard Hailstone, 1910–1987[62] Thomas Hennell, 1903–1945[62] Eliot Hodgkin, 1905–1987 [75] Laura Knight DBE RA, 1877–1970[76] Philip Meninsky, 1919–2007.[77] Ashley George Old, 1913–2001[78] Cuthbert Orde, 1888–1968[79] John Piper 1903–1992 Roland Vivian Pitchforth, 1911–1999[62] Eric Ravilious, 1903–1942[80] Albert Richards, 1919–1945[81] Henry Rushbury, KCVO RA 1898–1968 Ronald Searle CBE RDI, 1920– [12] Ruskin Spear RA, 1911–1990[82] Graham Sutherland OM, 1903–1980[83] Carel Weight CBE RA, 1908–1997[84] Recent conflicts[edit source | editbeta] Richard Johnson, b. 1966 Derek Eland, b. 1961 (Afghanistan, 2011)[85] Peter Howson, b. 1958[86][87] John Keane, b. 1954 [86][88] Linda Kitson, b. 1945 (Falklands, 1982)[86][89][90] Xavier Pick, b. 1972 (Iraq with British and US Forces, 2009-2011) Belgian[edit source | editbeta] First World War[edit source | editbeta] Alfred Bastien, 1873—1955[91] Canadian[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Canadian official war artists
  13. 13. Canadian Forestry Corps' Gas Attack, Lievin (1918) by Canadian war artist A. Y. Jackson Representative works by Canada's artists whose work illustrates and records war are gathered into the extensive collection of the Canadian War Museum. A few First World War paintings were exhibited in the Canadian Senate Chamber, and artists studied these works as a way of preparing to create new artworks in the conflict in Europe which expanded after 1939.[92] “ "The war art commissions brought intense focus to the observation of Canada's role in international conflict... A driving need for a strong national identity urged First and Second World War artists toward symbolism. While these vivid images are of a now distant past, they continue to communicate their messages to us, and so never lose their relevance."[93] ” In the Second World War, Canada expanded its official art program;[92] Canadian war artists were a kind of journalist who lived the lives of soldiers.[93] The work of non-official civilian artists also became part of the record of this period. Canada supported Canadian official war artists in both the First World War and the Second World War; no official artists were designated during the Korean War.[94] Among Canada's embedded artist-journalist teams was Richard Johnson, who was sent by the National Post to Afghanistan in 2007 and 2011; his drawings of Canadian troops were published and posted online as part of the series "Kandahar Journal".[95] Selected artists A select list of representative Canadian artists includes: This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it withreliably sourced entries. First World War[edit source | editbeta] John William Beatty, 1869–1941[93] Alexander Young Jackson CC CMG, 1882–1974[93] Arthur Lismer CC, 1885–1969[93]
  14. 14. Capt. Will Ogilvie, Official army war artist, with some of his paintings, 9 February 1944 Frederick Varley, 1881–1969[93] Second World War[edit source | editbeta] Eric Aldwinckle, 1909-1980[96] Donald Kenneth Anderson, 1920–2009[97] Alan Brockman Beddoe OC OBE HFHS FHSC, 1893–1975[98] Molly Lamb Bobak CM ONB, 1922– [99] David Alexander Colville PC CC ONS, 1920–2013[100] Charles Fraser Comfort OC, 1900–1994[101] Lawren P. Harris, 1910-1994 William Abernethy Ogilvie CM MBE, 1901–1989 George Campbell Tinning RCA (Royal Canadian Academy of Arts), 1910-1996[102] Jack Shadbolt OC OBC, 1909–1998[93] Recent conflicts[edit source | editbeta] Richard Johnson, b. 1966 Edward Zuber, b. 1932 [103] Chinese[edit source | editbeta] Li Hua Feng Zikai Dutch[edit source | editbeta] Pieter Snayers
  15. 15. Philips Wouwerman French[edit source | editbeta] French war art poster byHenri Dangon, 1916. Lithograph by Imp. H. Chachoin, Paris During the First World War, the work of artists depicting aspects of the military conflict were put on display in official war art exhibitions.[104] In 1916 the Ministry of Beaux-Arts and the Ministry of War sponsored the Salon des Armées to show the work of the artists who had been mobilized. This one exhibition realized 60,000 francs. The proceeds supported needy artists at home and the disabled.[104] Hippolyte Bellangé Nicolas Toussaint Charlet Edouard Detaille Antoine-Jean Gros Constantin Guys Eugène Louis Lami Louis-François, Baron Lejeune Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier Alphonse-Marie de Neuville Paul Philippoteaux Paul Alexandre Protais Denis Auguste Marie Raffet Carle Vernet Horace Vernet
  16. 16. Antoine Watteau Adolphe Yvon German[edit source | editbeta] Main article: German official war artists Emmanuel Leutze Adolf Menzel Franco-Prussian War[edit source | editbeta] Georg Bleibtreu Wilhelm Camphausen Emil Hünten Carl Röchling Anton von Werner First World War[edit source | editbeta] Luitpold Adam[105] Otto Dix Theodor Rocholl Second World War[edit source | editbeta] Luitpold Adam[106] Heinrich Amersdorffer[107] Conrad Hommel[108] Alfred Hierl[108] Recent conflicts[edit source | editbeta] Frauke Eigen, b. 1969[109][110] Japanese[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Japanese official war artists Kubota Beisen, 1852–1906[111] Toyohara Chikanobu, 1838–1912[112] Tsuguharu Foujita, 1886–1968[113]
  17. 17. Ogata Gekkō, 1859–1920[114] Toshihide Migita, 1862–1925[115] Utagawa Yoshiiku, 1833–1904[116] Korean[edit source | editbeta] Kim Seong-hwan, 1932– [117] New Zealand[edit source | editbeta] Main article: New Zealand official war artists War artists have been appointed by the government to supplement the record of New Zealand’s military history.[118] The title of "war artist" changed to "army artist" when Ion Brown was appointed after the two world wars.[119] Conservators at the National Art Gallery considered the collection to be of historic rather than artistic worth; few were displayed.[120] New Zealand's National Collection of War Art encompasses the work of artists who were working on commission for the Government as official war artists, while others created artworks for their own reasons.[121] Selected artists A select list of representative New Zealand artists includes: This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it withreliably sourced entries. First World War[edit source | editbeta] Bellevue Ridge, 1918 by New Zealand official war artist George Edmund Butler George Edmund Butler[122] Nugent Herman[119] Second World War[edit source | editbeta]
  18. 18. James Boswell, 1906–1971[123] Russell Clark, 1905–1966[124] John McIndoe, 1898–1995;[125] Peter McIntyre OBE, 1910–1995[126] Recent conflicts[edit source | editbeta] Graham Braddock[119] Ion Brown,[127] Bosnia and Croatia[119] Matthew Gauldie,[128] Solomon Islands and Afghanistan[129] Russian[edit source | editbeta] Nikolai Dmitriev-Orenburgsky Rudolf Frentz Nikolay Karazin Franz Roubaud Vasily Vereshchagin The Third of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid, 1814, byFrancisco Goya. Oil on canvas. 266 x 345cm. Collection of the Museo del Prado South African[edit source | editbeta] Neville Lewis (World War II) Spanish[edit source | editbeta] Francisco de Goya, Los desastres de la guerra, 1810s Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937. Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau 1964 [130]
  19. 19. See also[edit source | editbeta] Norman Wilkinson (artist) War photography Notes[edit source | editbeta] 1. ^ Imperial War Museum (IWM), header phrase, "war shapes lives" 2. ^ Australian War Memorial (AWM): Australian official war artists 3. ^ Canadian War Museum (CWM), "Australia, Britain, and Canada in the Second World War," 2005. 4. ^ "About the Imperial War Museum". Iwm.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 5. ^ U.S. Naval Historical Center (NHHC), "World War II Navy Art: A Vision of History,", 2001 6. ^ Reid, John B. (1977). Australian Artists at War, Vol. 2, p. 5. 7. ^ National Archives (UK), "'The Art of War,' Learn About the Art." 8. ^ Gauldie, Matt. "History of the NZ Army Artist" 9. ^ a b c "With Sketchpads and Guns, Semper Fi"; 10. ^ "Marine Art,". Nytimes.com. 2010-07-14. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 11. ^ Harrington, Peter. "The First True War Artist," MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 9, No. 1, Autumn 1996, pp. 100–109. 12. ^ a b Steve Bell. "Ronald Searle: a life in pictures,". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 13. ^ Grove, Valerie. "Aged 90, Ronald Searle recalls the bad girls of St Trinian's,"The Times (London). February 20, 2010. 14. ^ a b "Navy Combat Art Program". History.navy.mil. 1966-09-15. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 15. ^ a b United States Army Center of Military History (CMH), Army Art Program History. 16. ^ Pollock. "U.S. Army Vietnam Combat Art Program". Pie.midco.net. Retrieved 2012-04-21. 17. ^ Oline Cogdill, Official Combat Artists; They 'Capture' the Navy, People Today, March 11, 1978 18. ^ Andree Hickok, 2 Combat artists capture life and death on canvas, The Sunday Post Closeup F-1, July 2, 1978 19. ^ Virginia Adams, Navy Draft Patricia YAps as combat artist, The News-Times, July 10, 1978 20. ^ Rocco, Keith et al. (2004). The Soldier's View: The Civil War Art of Keith Rocco. 21. ^ a b c d e "artists, p. 1". History.army.mil. 1918-07-10. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 22. ^ a b c "artists, p. 2". History.army.mil. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 23. ^ "McClelland Barclay, Naval Art Collection". History.navy.mil. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 24. ^ a b c d Brown University Library, American war artists 25. ^ a b "''They Drew Fire: Combat Artists of World War II,''". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
  20. 20. 26. ^ Howard Brodie. 1st broadcast, May 2000. 27. ^ "Olin Dows". History.army.mil. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 28. ^ "William Franklin Draper, Naval Art Collection". History.navy.mil. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 29. ^ "William Draper". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 30. ^ Edward Reep 1st broadcast, May 2000. 31. ^ Perricelli, Lynne Moss. "Drawing: Henry Casselli: Drawing From the Inside Out," American Artist. 7 Mar 2008. 32. ^ http://www.wfae.org/post/combat-artist-rob-bates 33. ^ http://rbportraits.squarespace.com/blog/2013/1/1/sketching-the-drawdown-part-6.html 34. ^ http://www.drawger.com/victorjuhasz/?article_id=13499 35. ^ Wilkins, Lola. "Interpreting the war: Australia's Second World War art." CWM, 2005. 36. ^ a b Strauss, David Levi. "George Gittoes with David Levi Strauss," The Brooklyn Rail (New York). July 8, 2010; Order of Australia, George Gittoes, AM, excerpt of citation, "For service to art and international relations as an artist and photographer portraying the effects on the environment of war, international disasters and heavy industry". 37. ^ AWM: Australia and the Boer War, 1899–1902; The incident for which Captain Howse was awarded the VC in Vredefort, July 1900by William Dargie (1968, oil on paper on board, 25.5 x 35.5 cm), AWM ART29246 38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "World War I, official artists". Awm.gov.au. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 39. ^ Gray, Anne. (1986). "McCubbin, Louis Frederick (1890–1952),"Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol. 10, pp. 243–244; excerpt, "Appointed an official war artist under the Australian Records Section scheme to the 3rd Division, he visited scenes of battles with Wallace Anderson and Charles Web Gilbert after the war to collect data for proposed dioramas. 40. ^ a b c d e f g "Second World War, official artists". Awm.gov.au. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 41. ^ Colahan, Colin – Australian War Memorial; An article and images of Colahan's war art compiled by Garry Kinnane., Journal of the Australian War Memorial, retrieved 2011-08-31 42. ^ "William Dobell" (in (French)). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 43. ^ "Russell Drysdale" (in (French)). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 44. ^ Richard Eurich, The Official Website of Richard Eurich R.A., retrieved 2011-0 8–11 45. ^ "Sydney Nolan" (in (French)). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 46. ^ "Grace Cossington Smith" (in (French)). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 47. ^ a b c d e f g h "Conflicts 1945 to today, official artists". Awm.gov.au. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 48. ^ Defence, Dept of. Media Release "The Creation of the Army's Official Art Collection" [1] 49. ^ a b Ministry of Defence (MoD), Battles
  21. 21. 50. ^ Tolson, Roger. "A Common Cause: Britain's War Artists Scheme." CWM, 2005. 51. ^ Harrison, David. "War artist Arabella Dorman paints Iraq,"Telegraph (London). May 2, 2009. 52. ^ National Maritime Museum (NMM), The Fall of Nelson, Battle of Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 by Denis Dighton, c. 1825. 53. ^ National Portrait Gallery(NPG), Robert Ker Porter 54. ^ National Portrait Gallery, Expansion and Empire 55. ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB), Brierly, Sir Oswald Walters (1817–1894) 56. ^ Library of Congress (LOC), Simpson, William, 1823–1899 57. ^ "Bacon, 1868–1914". Artnet.com. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 58. ^ Charles Edwin Fripp; excerpt, "Fripp also held a commission in the Artists Rifles for 13 years ...." 59. ^ British Sporting Artists Trust (BSAT), Godfrey Douglas Giles 60. ^ WorldCat Identities: Prater, Ernest 61. ^ Brighton and Hove Museums, Melton Prior; Lee, Sidney. (2006). Dictionary of National Biography (DNB), Second Supplement, Vol. 3, p. 136. at Google Books 62. ^ a b c d "War artists". Mod.uk. 2007-03-14. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 63. ^ Imperial War Museum. "Gassed and Wounded [Art.IWM ART 4744]". IWM Collections Search. Retrieved 16 April 2013.; also a war artist in the Second World War. 64. ^ "John Hodgson Lobley, 1878–1954". BBC in partnership withThe Public Catalogue Foundation. 65. ^ "Witness – Highlights of First World War Art". Imperial War Museum. 66. ^ Imperial War Museum. "'Over The Top'. 1st Artists' Rifles at Marcoing, 30th December 1917 [Art.IWM ART 1656]". IWM Collections Search. Retrieved 16 April 2013.; also a war artist in World War II. 67. ^ Imperial War Museum. "The Menin Road [Art.IWM ART 2242]".IWM Collections Search. Retrieved 16 April 2013.; also a war artist in World War II. 68. ^ Imperial War Museum. "Paths of Glory [Art.IWM ART 518]". IWM Collections Search. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 69. ^ Imperial War Museum. "Harvest, 1918 [Art.IWM ART 4663]".IWM Collections Search. Retrieved 16 April 2013.; also a war artist in World War II. 70. ^ "WarMuseum.ca - Art and War - British artist - Edward Ardizzone" (in (French)). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 71. ^ "Edward Bawden" (in (French)). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 72. ^ "Henry Carr" (in (French)). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 73. ^ Thomas, Ronan; West End at War: Anthony Gross. Retrieved 24 April 2013 74. ^ Tate: Anthony Gross - Artist biography. Retrieved 24 April 2013 75. ^ "Eliot Hodgkin". Imperial War Museums. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
  22. 22. 76. ^ "Laura Knight" (in (French)). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 77. ^ "Philip Meninsky". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 2013-04-25. 78. ^ Portrait by Old at Imperial War Museum 79. ^ http://navigator.rafmuseum.org/results.do?view=detail&db=person&mode=1&id=8456 80. ^ "Ministry of Defence | About Defence | What we do | Defence Estate and Environment | MOD Art Collection | Ministry of Defence Art Collection". Mod.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 81. ^ "Albert Richards (1919–1945)". Collection.britishcouncil.org. Retrieved 2012-04-21. 82. ^ "Ruskin Spear" (in (French)). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 83. ^ "Graham Sutherland" (in (French)). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 84. ^ "Carel Weight" (in (French)). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 85. ^ Derek Eland (1 September 2011). "Helmand".derekeland.com. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 86. ^ a b c "Contemporary War Artists: Introduction". Imperial War Museum. 87. ^ "Contemporary War Artists: Peter Howson: Bosnia". Imperial War Museum. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 88. ^ "Contemporary War Artists: John Keane: The Gulf War".Imperial War Museum. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 89. ^ "Women at war: The female British artists who were written out of history". Independent. 8 April 2011. 90. ^ "Falklands War 1982, Linda Kitson's artistic record". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 91. ^ "Alfred Bastien" (in (French)). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 92. ^ a b Brandon, Laura. "'Doing Justice to History:' Canada's Second World War Official Art Program." CWM, 2005. 93. ^ a b c d e f g Art Gallery of Ontario, "Canvas of War: Masterpieces from the Canadian War Museum," October 2001 – January 2002. 94. ^ "North Korea: The Forgotten War," CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Company). July 18, 2003. 95. ^ Johnson, Richard. "Kandahar Journal | National Post".nationalpost.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 96. ^ "Eric Aldwinckle - Nothing Uninteresting". ericaldwinckle.info. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 97. ^ "Donald Kenneth Anderson, RCAF: Official War Artist". Stephenmccanse.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21. 98. ^ Library and Archives Canada (LAC), Alan Brockman Beddoe 99. ^ "Molly Lamb Bobak". Epe.lac-bac.gc.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 100.^ "David Alexander Colville". Epe.lac-bac.gc.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 101.^ "Charles Fraser Comfort". Epe.lac-bac.gc.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 102.^ Library and Archives Canada (LAC), [2] 103.^ The Art of War," Canadian Army Journal, Vol. 12.3. Winter 2010. pp. 102–103.
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  24. 24. References[edit source | editbeta] McCloskey, Barbara. (2005). Artists of World War II. Westport: Greenwood Press. 10-ISBN 0313321531/13- ISBN 9780313321535;OCLC 475496457 Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 10-ISBN 0-674-01753-6; 13-ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 48943301 Okamoto, Shumpei and Donald Keene. (1983). Impressions of the Front: Woodcuts of the Sino Japanese War, 1894–95. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art. OCLC 179964815 Further reading[edit source | editbeta] Brandon, Laura. (2008). Art and War. New York: I.B. Tauris. 10-ISBN 1845112377/13-ISBN 9781845112370; OCLC 225345535 Cork, Richard. (1994). A Bitter Truth: Avant-garde Art and the Great War. New Haven: Yale University Press. 10- ISBN 0300057040/13-ISBN 9780300057041; OCLC 185692286 Foot, Michael Richard Daniel. (1990). Art and War: Twentieth Century Warfare as Depicted by War Artists. London: Headline. 10-ISBN 0747202869/13-ISBN 9780747202868; OCLC 21407670 Gallatin, Albert Eugene. (1919). Art and the Great War. New York: E.P. Dutton. OCLC 422817 Hodgson, Pat (1977). The War Illustrators. London: Osprey. OCLC 462210052 Johnson, Peter (1978). Front-Line Artists. London: Cassell. 10-ISBN 030430011X/13-ISBN 9780304300112; OCLC 4412441 Jones, James (1975). WW II: a Chronicle of Soldiering. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. 1617592 Lanker, Brian and Nicole Newnham. (2000). They Drew Fire: Combat Artists of World War II. New York: TV Books. 10-ISBN 1575000857/13-ISBN 9781575000855; OCLC 43245885 Australia Reid, John B. (1977). Australian Artists at War: Compiled from the Australian War Memorial Collection. Volume 1. 1885–1925; Vol. 2 1940–1970. South Melbourne, Victoria: Sun Books. 10-ISBN 0725102543/13-ISBN 9780725102548; OCLC 4035199 Canada Oliver, Dean Frederick, and Laura Brandon (2000). Canvas of War: Painting the Canadian Experience, 1914 to 1945. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. 10-ISBN 1550547720/13-ISBN 9781550547726; OCLC 43283109 Tippett, Maria. (1984). Art at the Service of War: Canada, Art, and the Great War. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 10-ISBN 0802025412/13-ISBN 9780802025418; OCLC 13858984 Germany
  25. 25. Gilkey, Gordon. War Art of the Third Reich. Bennington, Vermont: International Graphics Corporation, 1982). 10- ISBN 0865560188/13-ISBN 9780865560185; OCLC 223704492 Weber, John Paul. (1979). The German War Artists. Columbia, South Carolina: Cerberus. 10-ISBN 0933590008/13-ISBN 9780933590007;OCLC 5727293 New Zealand Haworth, Jennifer. (2007). The Art of War: New Zealand War Artists in the Field 1939–1945. Christchurch, New Zealand: Hazard Press. 13-ISBN 9781877393242/10-ISBN 187739324X; OCLC 174078159 South Africa Carter, Albert Charles Robinson. (1900). The Work of War Artists in South Africa. London: "The Art Journal" Office. OCLC 25938498 United Kingdom Gough, Paul. (2010). A Terrible Beauty: British Artists in the First World War. Bristol: Sansom and Company. 13- ISBN 9781906593001/10-ISBN 1906593000; OCLC 559763485 Harries, Meirion and Suzie Harries. (1983). The War Artists: British Official War Art of the Twentieth Century. London: Michael Joseph. 10-ISBN 071812314X/13-ISBN 9780718123147; OCLC 9888782 Harrington, Peter. (1983). British Artists and War: The Face of Battle in Paintings and Prints, 1700– 1914. London: Greenhill. 10-ISBN 1853671576/13-ISBN 9781853671579; OCLC 28708501 Haycock, David Boyd. (2009). A Crisis of Brilliance: Five Young British Artists and the Great War. London: Old Street Publishing. 13-ISBN 9781905847846/10-ISBN 190584784X; OCLC 318876179 Hichberger, J.W.M. (1988). Images of the Army: The Military in British Art 1815–1914. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 10-ISBN 0719025753/13-ISBN 9780719025754; OCLC 17295891 Sillars, Stuart (1987). Art and Survival in First World War Britain. New York: St. Martins Press. 10-ISBN 031200544X/13-ISBN 9780312005443; OCLC 14932245 Holme, Charles. (1918). The War Depicted by Distinguished British Artists. London: The Studio. OCLC 5081170 United States Cornebise, Alfred. (1991). Art from the trenches: America's Uniformed Artists in World War I. College Station: Texas A & M University Press. 10-ISBN 0890963495/13-ISBN 9780890963494; OCLC 22892632 Harrington, Peter, and Frederic A. Sharf. (1988). A Splendid Little War; The Spanish-American War, 1898; The Artists' Perspective. London: Greenhill. 10-ISBN 1853673161/13-ISBN 9781853673160; OCLC 260112479