Andrea Corrigan
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  • 1. Introduction to Fire
  • 2. The Fire Triangle Heat Fuel  Matches  Wood  Sun  Oil  Cigarette Butts  Paper  Ignition Sources  Gases Air, Oxygen, or Oxidizers All three elements must be present to initiate a fire.
  • 3. The Fire Tetrahedron Heat Fuel  Matches  Wood  Sun  Oil  Cigarette Butts  Paper  Ignition Sources  Gases Chemical Chain Reaction Air, Oxygen, or Oxidizers Once a fire has started it can only be suppressed when one of the three elements is removed, thus stopping the chemical chain reaction.
  • 4. The Fire Tetrahedron Heat Fuel Water:  Matches  Wood Eliminates Heat  Sun  Oil  Cigarette Butts  Paper  Ignition Sources  Gases Chemical Chain Reaction Air, Oxygen, or Oxidizers CO2: Dry Chemical: Eliminates Oxygen Gas Shutoffs: Eliminates Fuel
  • 5. Fire Myths and Fire Truths: Visibility Myth Visibility is clear. Kurt Russell in Backdraft Other great Kurt Russell movies include Silkwood, Tango & Cash, Tequila Sunrise, and Miracle. Truth Fires are dark. Note that the firefighter in the doorway cannot be seen.
  • 6. Fire Myths and Fire Truths: Time Myth There is ample time. Truth There is little or no time.
  • 7. Fire Myths and Fire Truths: Death Myth People burn to death. Truth People die from smoke inhalation. Carbon Monoxide. This is why smoke detectors are of greater value than heat detectors in most instances.
  • 8. Classifications of Fire
  • 9. Class A Ordinary Combustibles • • • Paper Wood Plastics Class A fires will generally leave an ash.
  • 10. Class B Flammable Liquids and Flammable Gases • • • Gasoline Oil Acetone
  • 11. Class C Class A or B Fires with an Electrical Hazard • • Energized Electrical Equipment Outlets
  • 12. Class D Combustible Metals • • • Potassium Magnesium Sodium
  • 13. Class K (Kitchen) Cooking Oil and Fat
  • 14. Types of Fire Extinguishers
  • 15. Class A Water • Eliminates Heat
  • 16. Class AB Foam • Eliminates Oxygen
  • 17. Class BC CO2, Dry Chemical, or Halon • Eliminates Oxygen
  • 18. Class ABC Dry Chemical • Eliminates Oxygen
  • 19. Class D Dry Powder • Eliminates Oxygen
  • 20. Class K (Kitchen) Wet Chemical • Eliminates Oxygen Note: Many Class K extinguishers are also suitable for Class A fires.
  • 21. Class AC Water Mist • Eliminates Heat & Protects Equipment
  • 22. Using an Extinguisher
  • 23. When To Use? • When it is absolutely necessary. • When the is a fire between you and your escape route. • When the fire is relatively contained; e.g., a garbage can. • When there is a realistic opportunity to put out the fire. YES NO
  • 24. Positioning • • • Between the fire and an exit or escape route. Back three to four feet from the front of the fire. Always back away from the fire, keeping an eye out for flareups.
  • 25. P.A.S.S. • • • • Pull the Pin Aim (base & front of fire) Squeeze (the handle) Sweep (moving front to back)
  • 26. Fire Alarm Systems
  • 27. Alarm Activation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Pull Station Heat Detector Smoke Detector Sprinkler Electrician Malfunction
  • 28. Fire Suppression Systems
  • 29. Hoses & Standpipes • Hoses are a LAST resort. • Standpipes are for fire department use only. Do not uncap them.
  • 30. Sprinklers • Individual sprinklers will activate when heated to the appropriate temperature. • Release about 75 to 150 liters/minute.
  • 31. INERGEN®; Halon; CO2 Systems • Deprive fires of oxygen. • Dangerous for humans in such areas. • LSC, Chemical Stores Facility, Tupper.
  • 32. Fire Evacuation Procedures
  • 33. Upon Hearing an Alarm • • • • • • • Exit the room. Close the door behind you (leave unlocked). Follow the wardens instructions. Follow set evacuation routes. Exit the building. Keep back from the building (min 50m). Wait for instructions from wardens, Dal Security, or the HRM Fire Service.
  • 34. If YOU Discover Fire • Try and put out if it meets previous criteria. • Close the door to the room and activate a pull station. • Exit the building. • Give all information to wardens, Dal Security, or HRM Fire Service.
  • 35. Persons with Disabilities • If you have a disability that prevents you from leaving a building via stairwells, set up a buddy-system. • Stay in designated “shelter-in-place” areas.
  • 36. Re-Entering a Building • DO NOT re-enter a building until given the “OK” by the wardens, Dal Security, or the HRM Fire Service.
  • 37. The Law • You MUST leave a building upon hearing an alarm, even in the case of a fire alarm drill. • The Fire Service has the authority to fine people who do not evacuate buildings.
  • 38. Final Thoughts
  • 39. Fires are Dangerous • Treat fire and fire safety with respect. • There are rarely second chances. • Open flames are not permitted at Dalhousie unless cleared through the Safety Office.
  • 40. Fires are Rare on Campus • Dalhousie has had fires in the past, but over the past decade they have been small, with minimal damage and no serious injuries or deaths. • Small houses and buildings, prevalent at Dalhousie, present the highest risk of fire.