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Capítulo VI. Sistemas de Información Gerencial, James O´Brien. - Por el Profesor presentación Powerpoint
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Capítulo VI. Sistemas de Información Gerencial, James O´Brien. - Por el Profesor presentación Powerpoint

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  • Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-
  • Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-
  • Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-
  • A network is an interconnected or interrelated chain, group, or system Connections created by nodes follows the pattern of exponential growth. The number of possible connections on a network is N ( N – 1) or N 2 – N N = number of nodes (points of connection) Example: 10 computers on a network = 10(10 –1) = 10x9 = 90 possible connections Metcalfe’s Law The usefulness, or utility, of a network equals the square of the number of users The more users on a network, the more useful it becomes Early on, changes in technology only affect the technology, after a critical mass in the number of users is reached, a change in technology causes changes in social, political, and economic systems Result: With the exponential growth in the Internet, we can expect more value, for less cost, virtually every time we log on. Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-
  • Telecommunications Network Components Terminals Any input/output device that uses networks to transmit or receive data Telecommunications processors Devices that support data transmission, reception Telecommunications channels Media over which data are transmitted, received Computers All sizes and types Host, front-end processor, or server Telecommunications control software Controls telecommunications activities Manages the functions of telecommunications networks Network management programs Telecommunications monitors (mainframes) Network operating systems (network servers) Web browsers (microcomputers) Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-
  • Analog or digital - method used to convert information into an electrical signal Analog - power of an electrical current proportional (analogous) to the quantity The higher the value the more volts are sent 83 degrees - generate 8.3 volts Digital - quantity expressed as a number 83 degrees send on/off pulses in patterns to represent numbers in base 2 83 = 1010011 = 64+16+2+1 Twisted-Pair Wire Ordinary telephone wire Copper wire is twisted into pairs Unshielded 2 million bps Shielded 10 million bps Why difference? Coaxial Cable Sturdy copper or aluminum wire wrapped with spacers to insulate and protect it 200-500 million bps 2 – 5 times faster than twisted pair Long distance Lakes, oceans Short distance Cities, buildings Fiber-Optic Cable One or more hair-thin filaments of glass fiber wrapped in a protective jacket 100 x faster than coaxial cable Requires few repeaters The Problem of the “Last Mile” Different technologies used Network providers use fiber optic cable as a communications backbone Houses connected to the backbone are wired with twisted pair Users don’t benefit from the faster, better technology Copper media Power weakens Need repeater Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-
  • Communications Satellites Geosynchronous orbit Serve as relay stations Use microwave radio signals Earth stations beam signals to the satellites Not suitable for interactive, real-time processing Time vs distance Wireless LANS Uses wireless radio-wave technology to connect PCs within an office or a building Can be high-frequency, similar to digital cellular, or low frequency (spread spectrum) Bluetooth Short-range wireless technology Connects PCs to devices, such as a printer Fairly low cost to implement Other Wireless Systems Cellular phones Mobile radio PDAs Telecommunications networks now play vital and pervasive roles in Web-enabled e-business processes Electronic commerce Enterprise collaboration Other applications that support business operations, management, and strategic objectives Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-
  • Other Wireless Systems Cellular phones Mobile radio PDAs Telecommunications networks now play vital and pervasive roles in Web-enabled e-business processes Electronic commerce Enterprise collaboration Other applications that support business operations, management, and strategic objectives Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-
  • Wireless Internet access is growing as Web-enabled information appliances proliferate Smart telephones, pagers, PDAs All are very thin clients in wireless networks Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-
  • Most common type of communications processor Converts a digital signal to an analog frequency that can be transmitted over phone lines, then back into a digital signal Modulation and demodulation Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-
  • Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-
  • Traffic Management Manage network resources and traffic to avoid congestion and optimize service levels Security Provide authentication, encryption, firewall, auditing, and enforcement Network Monitoring Troubleshoot and watch over the network, alerting administrators of potential problems Capacity Planning Survey network resources, traffic patterns, and users’ needs Determine the best way to accommodate the needs of the network as it grows and changes Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-
  • Protocol A standard set of rules and procedures for the control of communications in a network Handshaking The process of exchanging predetermined signals and characters so devices can agree on a communications protocol. Information transfer rate, coding alphabet, parity, interrupt procedure, and other protocol or hardware features. Network Architecture Master plan of standard protocols, hardware, software, and interfaces between end users and computer systems Goal is to promote an open, simple, flexible, and efficient telecommunications environment Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-
  • Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model A seven-layer standard model for network architectures Each layer adds functions Controls how messages should be transmitted between two points in a network Guides product developers so that their products will work consistently with other products. Multimedia Lecture Support Package to Accompany Basic Marketing Lecture Script 6-

Capítulo VI. Sistemas de Información Gerencial, James O´Brien. - Por el Profesor presentación Powerpoint Capítulo VI. Sistemas de Información Gerencial, James O´Brien. - Por el Profesor presentación Powerpoint Presentation Transcript

  • CAPITULO 6 Telecomunicaciones y RedesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Objetivos de Aprendizaje• Entender el concepto de una red• Identificar los principales acontecimientos y tendencias en las industrias, tecnologías y aplicaciones de negocio de las telecomunicaciones y tecnologías de Internet• Dar ejemplos del valor de negocio de las aplicaciones de Internet, intranet y extranet 6-2
  • Objetivos de Aprendizaje• Identificar los componentes básicos, funciones y tipos de redes de telecomunicaciones utilizadas en los negocios• Explicar las funciones de los componentes principales de hardware, software, medios y servicios de redes de telecomunicaciones 6-3
  • Conceptos de redes• Permiten que cadenas, grupos y/o sistema estén interconectados• Las conexiones a través de nodos• Presenta crecimiento exponencial• Ley de METCALF – utilidad de una red • Es igual al cuadrado del número de usuarios • Más usuarios = más útil• Al principio, los cambios en la tecnología sólo afectan a la tecnología• Cuando las computadoras están en red, convergen dos industrias: computación y comunicaciones, y el resultado es bastante más que la suma de las partes. 6-4
  • Tendencias telecomunicaciones 6-5
  • Espectro de los servicios basados en telecomunicaciones 6-6
  • Usos populares de Internet 6-7
  • Internet para los negocios 6-8
  • Las intranets 6-9
  • Las extranets 6-10
  • Alternativas y componentes de las redes 6-11
  • Medios de Telecomunicación• Cable de par trenzado de alambre – Al igual que cable de teléfono• Cable coaxial – Alambre envuelto con aislamiento• Cable de fibra óptica – Uno o más filamentos finos de pelo de vidrio 6-12
  • Tecnologías inalámbricas• Los satélites de comunicaciones – Órbita géosincrona – Servir como estaciones de relevo• LAN inalámbricas – Tecnología Inalámbrico de radio de onda• Bluetooth – Tecnología inalámbrica de corto alcance• Otros sistemas inalámbricos – Los teléfonos celulares, radio móvil, PDA• Telecomunicaciones vital y omnipresente – Web habilitado para procesos de e -business 6-13
  • Tecnologías inalámbricas• Telecomunicaciones omnipresente papel – Web habilitado para procesos de e -business – Comercio electrónico – De colaboración empresarial – Otras aplicaciones • Operaciones comerciales, de gestión, los objetivos estratégicos 6-14
  • Web inalámbrica• Web permitió la proliferación de aparatos – Teléfonos inteligentes, localizadores, PDA – Todos los clientes son muy delgadas en las Smart redes inalámbricas telephones, pagers, PDAs – All are very thin clients in wireless networks 6-15
  • Procesadores de Telecomunicaciones• Módems – El tipo más común – Modulación y demodulación • Convertidores para la transmisión sobre líneas telefónicas • De señal digital a analógica • Analógica a la digital 6-16
  • Telecommunications Software• Puede residir en PCs, servidores, mainframes, y procesadores de comunicaciones – Parte vital de todas las redes de telecomunicaciones – Se utiliza para gestionar el rendimiento de la red – WAN a menudo utilizan los monitores de las telecomunicaciones o los monitores de teleproceso – Otras redes utilizan software de sistema operativo – Middleware ayuda a diversas redes comunicarse entre sí 6-17
  • Funciones de gestión de redes• Seguridad• Red de Monitoreo• Planificación de la capacidad• Gestión del tráfico 6-18
  • Arquitecturas de red y los protocolos• Protocolo – Normas y procedimientos• Handshaking – El intercambio de predeterminada a un acuerdo sobre un protocolo• La arquitectura de red – Plan maestro de las normas – El objetivo es promover un entorno de telecomunicaciones abierto, sencillo, flexible y eficiente 6-19
  • Modelo OSI• Modelo de Interconexión de Sistemas Abiertos – Estándar de siete capas para arquitecturas de red – Controla la cantidad de mensajes deben ser transmitidos – Garantiza la consistencia entre productos• Protocolo de Control de Transmisión/Protocolo de Internet y conocido como TCP/IP 6-20