Remediation

ARIN
6903
Computers
as
Culture
:
Seminar
Presentation
:
Andra
Keay



Bolter
&
Grusin
(1999)
“…
we
call
the
r...


This
picture
has
perspective,
there
is
a
vanishing
point.
There
are
also
remnants

of
a
more
symbolic
representation
as
...
Slide
11:
Old
Media

Film,
photography
and
before
that,
the
telegraph,
were
all
digital
media.
Small

bits
of
information
...
Most
of
these
paintings
were
also
repurposed
from
stories,
myths
or
legends.

This
is
in
a
similar
fashion
to
the
series
o...
Slide
21:


Siftables
are
real.
3
dimensional
interactive
computing
cubes.

See
David
Merrill’s
talk
at
TED
February
2009
...


According
to
Baudrillard’s
The
Precession
of
Simulacra
“It
is
no
longer
a
question

of
imitation,
nor
duplication,
nor
e...
The
Idea
of
Altermediacy

Altermediacy
is
the
property
of
change
in
the
remediation
of
the
real.
Neither

real,
nor
the
il...
Altermediacy
,
reflecting
recent
readings

Having
just
finished
the
moodled
reference;
“Video
Games:
Remediation
and

Syne...
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Remediation : Understanding New Media TEXT

  1. 1. Remediation
 ARIN
6903
Computers
as
Culture
:
Seminar
Presentation
:
Andra
Keay
 
 Bolter
&
Grusin
(1999)
“…
we
call
the
representation
of
one
medium
in
another
 remediation,
and
we
will
argue
that
remediation
is
a
defining
characteristic
of
 the
new
digital
media.”
 Media
 In
the
arts,
media
(the
plural
of
medium)
describes
the
material
and
techniques
 used
by
an
artist
to
produce
work.
In
cultural
theory,
media
is
the
means
of
 communicating
information.
McLuhan
stretched
the
concept
of
media
to
include
 all
technology;
books,
clothes,
roads,
cars,
they
all
mediate
our
existence.
 Mediation/Remediation
 The
Talmud
says,
“We
see
the
world
not
as
it
is,
but
as
we
are.”
All
is
mediated…

 Slide
2:
From
Sound
to
Word

to
Image
 In
the
beginning
was
sound.
And
the
sound
became
word.
And
word
became
 written.
As
we
progressed
from
symbolically
coding
sound
in
speech,
to
the
 writing
of
our
symbols,
we
displaced
our
early
oral
culture
with
a
culture
of
copy
 and
recording.


 
 The
primacy
of
visual
representation
in
the
history
of
western
art
began
and
 embodies
our
cultural
quest
to
hold
a
mirror
to
ourselves.
 
 “Whence
did
the
wond’rous
mystic
art
arise,
 Of
painting
SPEECH,
and
speaking
to
the
eyes?
 That
we
by
tracing
magic
lines
are
taught,
 How
to
embody,
and
to
colour
THOUGHT?”
William
Massey
 Slide
3:
Perspective

 The
renaissance
development
of
linear
perspective
is
inextricably
bound
up
in
 Bolter
and
Grusin’s
double
logic
of
remediation,
immediacy
and
hypermediacy.

 
 Perspective
literally
means
“seeing
through”.
Albrecht
Durer.

 
 Andre
Bazin
calls
perspective
the
first
mechanical
reproduction,
giving
the
artist
 the
means
to
create
an
illusionary
3
dimensional
reality.
Alan
Turing,
remediated
 this
meme
when
he
christened
the
computer
‘a
simulation
machine’.
 Slide
4:
Windows
 In
1455,
Alberti
wrote
‘On
Painting’….
“I
draw
a
rectangle
of
whatever
size
I
 want,
which
I
regard
as
an
open
window
through
which
the
subject
to
be
painted
 is
seen.”
 
 Artists
of
the
Renaissance
created
a
more
real
representation
of
real.
Not
simply
 a
more
successful
illusion,
but
by
mathematizing
space
and
measuring
the
world,
 geometry
created
repeatable,
definite,
transferable
and
almost
tangible
realities.

  2. 2. 
 This
picture
has
perspective,
there
is
a
vanishing
point.
There
are
also
remnants
 of
a
more
symbolic
representation
as
the
people
are
represented
proportionally
 to
their
importance
not
their
physical
distance.
 Slide
5:
Erasure
 To
further
the
immediacy
effect,
the
brush
stroke
and
other
signs
of
the
artist
 must
be
concealed.
Bryson
argues
that
in
Western
art
tradition,
oil
paint
is
 primarily
an
erasive
medium,
erasing
the
surface
of
the
picture
plane.
 Slide
6:
Death
 Photography
so
successfully
erased
the
artist
that
it
was
only
recently
 considered
art.
Roland
Barthes
sees
the
photograph
as
a
death
more
than
an
 erasure.
It
shows
what
was,
not
what
is
now
and
in
the
stillness
of
the
image,
the
 captured
moment,
the
drying
of
light,
it
highlights
the
loss
of
the
actual.
 
 This
hypermediated
reading,
was
overturned
by
the
moving
image.
Film
set
the
 viewpoint
free.

 Slide
7:
Movement
 Although
in
reality
film
is
far
more
mediated
than
photography,
it
seems
more
 transparently,
hypnotically
real.
Metz
believed
that
film
was
more
real
because
 we
perceive
the
movement
of
film
in
the
same
way
as
we
perceive
‘real’
 movement,
therefore
doing
away
with
a
level
of
mediation
or
difficulty,
softening
 the
edge
or
rupture.
 
 Our
normal
way
of
viewing
the
world
is
mimicked
and
we
enjoy
a
subjective
 feeling
of
reality.
 Slide
8:
Interaction
 Film
is
multiple
directed
frames.
We
have
no
control.
Even
if
our
digital
 computer
experiences
are
less
seamless
visually
than
the
filmic,
our
viewpoint
 has
come
under
our
own
control
again.
Our
multiple
windows
are
participatory,
 and
interactive
creating
a
more
immersive
illusion
of
immediacy.
 
 Slide
9:
Multiplication
 Immediacy
is
in
constant
oscillation
with
hypermediacy.
(stated
later
too)
Our
 awareness
of
the
frame
around
our
windows
is
moved
aside
whenever
we
 choose
to
immerse
ourselves
in
an
image.
The
ruptures
are
as
likely
to
be
links
 and
connections.
And
within
our
multiple
windows
we
are
able
to
contain
all
of
 our
old
media.
This
is
the
beautiful
promise
of
digital
culture.
 
 Slide
10:
New
Media
 New
media
encompasses
digital,
computerized
or
networked
information
and
 communication.
There
is
an
implicit
dating.
New
is…
well,
relatively
recent.


  3. 3. Slide
11:
Old
Media
 Film,
photography
and
before
that,
the
telegraph,
were
all
digital
media.
Small
 bits
of
information
connected
into
a
linear
flow,
or
remediated
by
technology.
 However,
they
are
no
longer
new
although
they
may
repurpose
and
refashion
 new
media
to
the
point
almost
of
abandonment
or
absorption.
 Slide
12:
Alan
Kay
 Alan
Kay,
a
founder
of
Xerox
Palo
Alto
Research
Center
(PARC)
is
best
known
for
 the
idea
of
personal
computing,
the
concept
of
the
intimate
laptop
computer,
and
 the
inventions
of
the
now
ubiquitous
overlapping‐window
interface
and
modern
 object‐oriented
programming.

 
 Alan
Kay
in
1987
reintroduces
Ivan
Sutherland’s
Sketchpad,
which
was
the
first
 graphical
interface
and
used
the
first
Window
and
arguably
the
first
use
of
 cathode
ray
tube
display.
Around
this
time
in
the
early
1960s,
the
first
 interactive
computer
game
‘Spacewar’
was
written
by
students
at
MIT.

 
 (Dueling
players
fired
at
each
other´s
spaceships
and
used
early
versions
of
 joysticks
to
manipulate
away
from
the
central
gravitational
force
of
a
sun
as
well
 as
from
the
enemy
ship.)
 
 And
if
you
watch
Engelbart’s
‘mother
of
all
computer
demos’
as
well,
you’ll
see
 that
almost
every
feature
of
computing
was
developed
50
years
ago.
Graphical
 interface,
the
use
of
icons,
keyboard
and
mouse
interface,
games,
laptops,
office
 applications,
personal
computing,
the
internet,
hypertext,
email.
 Slide
13:
History
 So,
hypermediacy
has
been
around
for
a
long
time.
Nested
symbols,
 interconnecting
spaces.
Multiplicity,
frames,
edges
and
awareness.

 
 In
fact,
there
are
some
old
inventions
that
haven’t
really
been
incorporated
yet,
 like
shifting
viewpoints
of
data
rather
than
linking
to
extra
or
other
material.
 Slide
14:
Immediacy/Hypermediacy
 We
continue
to
oscillate
between
these
states.
One
contains
and
conceals
all
it’s
 workings
and
utilizes
technology
to
immerse
us
in
a
socially
constructed
reality.

 
 The
other
glorifies
in
a
multiplicity
of
messages
and
diverse
connections
 simulating
our
perceptional
reality,
“the
rich
sensorium
of
human
experience”.
 B&G
p34
 
 “The
appeal
to
authenticity
of
experience
is
what
brings
the
logics
of
immediacy
 and
hypermediacy
together.”
B&G
p71
 Slide
15:
Repurposing
 Most
of
the
time
we
don’t
even
notice
repurposing
remediation.
The
online
 gallery
allowing
us
to
view
photos
or
artworks.
The
DVD
shop.
They
offer
us
a
 seamless
reissue
of
the
old.
All
have
repurposed
from
one
media
to
another.

 

  4. 4. Most
of
these
paintings
were
also
repurposed
from
stories,
myths
or
legends.
 This
is
in
a
similar
fashion
to
the
series
of
adaptions
of
Jane
Austen
which
don’t
 explicitly
refer
to
the
book
from
which
they
originated
but
nonetheless
 reproduce
it
recognizably
in
another
form.
Knowledge
of
one
is
not
required
to
 allow
knowledge
of
the
other.
 Slide
16:
Refashioning
 Refashioning
however
is
remaking
not
retelling.
It’s
the
overt
manipulation
of
 other
media
and
requires
an
awareness
of
the
other
sources
of
the
media
 involved.
An
appreciation
of
the
process
by
which
they
have
been
remediated
is
 implicit
in
the
experience.
The
old
can
refashion
new
too.

 Slide
17:
Absorbing
 Finally
absorption
is
a
form
of
remediation.
The
old
media
no
longer
exist
on
 their
own
but
exist
within
the
new.
This
slide
is
deliberately
ironic
(as
is
the
use
 of
the
word
slide).
Newspapers
particularly
are
succumbing
to
the
digital
 onslaught
and
perhaps
that
crossed
Pranav
Mistry’s
mind
when
he
picked
this
 way
of
demonstrating
sixth
sense
computing.

 
 The
video
and
the
film
have
been
absorbed,
as
have
the
vinyl
record,
the
cassette
 and
perhaps
soon
the
CD,
for
general
purposes
although
there
are
still
specialist
 features
in
each
of
those
medium…
except
perhaps
for
video
tape.
 Slide
18:
Breaking
Through
 Rheingold
(1991)
In
the
1990s,
VR
technology
is
taking
people
beyond
and
 through
the
display
screen
into
virtual
worlds.”
 
 VR
has
been
disappointing
in
terms
of
the
wire
or
headset
but
virtual
worlds
 have
become
a
far
more
popular
medium
than
predicted.
 
 I
have
remediated
the
work
of
our
Computers
As
Culture
lecturers
in
these
slides
 btw.
This
is
from
the
2006
Second
Life
Symposium
on
the
Remediation
of
Art
in
 the
New
Media
Consortium’s
Virtual
Campus.
 Slide
19:
Moving
In
 Jay
Bolter
said
in
a
2007
discussion
with
Lev
Manovich
that
if
he
rewrote
 remediation,
he
would
reduce
their
focus
on
the
visual
interface
and
incorporate
 more
about
the
influence
of
the
social
and
network
society.
 
 Is
remediation
sufficient
to
reveal
the
interplay
with
older
forms
as
we
dance
 around
the
edges
and
spaces
of
new
realities?
 Slide
20:
Turing
ON
 We’ve
broken
through,
moved
in
and
are
now
Turing
on.
Haptic
interfaces,
touch
 devices,
ubiquity,
convergence
and
3
dimensional
computing,
The
simulation
 machine
is
spreading
its
wings.
 
 The
touch
screen
is
a
passing
phase.
3
dimensional
interactive
computing
cubes
 and
wearable
computers
are
real
now.


  5. 5. Slide
21:

 Siftables
are
real.
3
dimensional
interactive
computing
cubes.
 See
David
Merrill’s
talk
at
TED
February
2009

 Slide
22:

 Reactable
interactive
musical
instrument
used
by
Bjork.
 Sixth
Sense
is
wearable
interface
demoed
at
TED
from
MIT.

 Slide
23:
 I
don’t
know
about
Pranav
Mistry,
but
Alan
Kay
was
initially
a
musician
before
 turning
to
computers,
as
was
Ray
Kurzweil,
as
are
the
Reactable
crew
and
David
 Merrill
of
Siftables.
 
 Perhaps
he’s
a
dancer
and
I
think
it’s
to
the
physical
and
musical
arts
that
we
 have
now
turned
away
from
the
primacy
of
the
visual.
 Slide
24:

 The
keyboard
and
mouse
were
invented
over
50
years
ago.
I
believe
that
the
 shift
in
the
last
decade
to
always
on
connectivity,
mobility
and
touch
interfaces
 show
the
start
of
the
really
new
media.
The
singularity
is
nearer.
It’s
almost
 within
touching
distance.
 Slide
25:
 Where
do
we
go
when
we’ve
moved
inside
the
machine?
 Slide
26:
 Remediation
is
a
valuable
way
to
examine
the
interplay
of
interfaces
in
our
 mirrored
and
windowed
world,
but
I
think
that
Bolter
&
Grusin
could
extend
 their
dialectic
into
the
3
dimensional
digital
space.
Immediacy
and
hypermediacy
 have
also
the
dimension
of
altermediacy.

 
 Our
links
to
previous
media
have
loosened
and
there
is
no
easy
way
to
put
the
 genie
back
in
the
bottle.
This
century’s
digital
media
cannot
be
reverse
 remediated
without
reference
to
multiple
media
and
the
ways
in
which
we
relate
 to
it
have
multiplied
far
beyond
the
hyperspace.
In
this,
they
are
metamedia
as
 Turing,
Kay
and
Manovich
proclaim.

 
 The
ways
in
which
we
are
constrained
to
interact
or
operate
with
and
upon
the
 media
become
the
most
important
feature
of
the
remediation.
The
reforming
of
 reality.

Altermediacy.
 
 This
is
the
logical
combination
of
Manovich
and
Kay’s
Metamedia
and
Bolter
&
 Grusin’s
Remediation,
otherwise
we
risk
running
down
an
infinite
looping
path
 or
remediation,
rupture
and
dissolution.
 
 “The
goal
of
remediation
is
to
refashion
or
rehabilitate
other
media.
 Furthermore,
because
all
mediations
are
both
real
AND
mediations
of
the
real,
 remediation
can
also
be
understood
as
a
process
of
reforming
reality
as
well.”
 B&Gp?
 

  6. 6. 
 According
to
Baudrillard’s
The
Precession
of
Simulacra
“It
is
no
longer
a
question
 of
imitation,
nor
duplication,
nor
even
parody.
It
is
a
question
of
substituting
the
 signs
of
the
real
for
the
real.”
 
 That
representation
now
precedes
and
determines
the
real.
This
is
McLuhan’s
 message.
We
shaped
the
tools
first
but
are
now
being
shaped.
This
is
more
than
 immediate,
more
than
hyper,
it
is
alter.
 Slide
27:
 We
are
Alice
through
the
looking
glass
and
this
new
world
may
turn
our
 perceptions
internetside
out.
 References
(brief)
 Remediation:
Understanding
New
Media
–
Bolter
&
Grusovin
 Many
Artworks
by
Madeline
Von
Foerster
 Windows
and
Mirrors
–
Bolter
&
Gromola
 Remediation
of
the
Artspace
in
Second
Life
–
LytheWitt
&
AnyaIxchel
 Mirror
States
–
Kathy
Cleland
&
Lizzie
Muller
 Computer
History
Museum,
TED
Talks
and
also….

 Undertanding
Media
–
Marshall
McLuhan
 The
Medium
is
the
Massage
–
Marshall
McLuhan
 Writing
Space
–
Jay
Bolter
 Online
Debate
on
Digital
Aesthetics
and
Communication
–
Bolter,
Manovich,
 Jensen,
Fetveit,
Stald
 Alan
Kay’s
Universal
Media
Machine
–
Lev
Manovich
 What
is
Digital
Cinema
–
Lev
Manovich
 What
is
Cinema
–
Andre
Bazin
 Image
Music
Text
–
Roland
Barthes
 Simulacra
and
Simulations
–
Jean
Baudrillard
 Participation,
Remediation,
Bricolage
–
Mark
Deuze
 Interface
as
Image
–
Ian
Gwill
 Exploring
Visual
Culture
–
ed
Matthew
Rampley
 Videos
of
talks
and
demos
by
Alan
Kay,
Doug
Engelbart,
Ivan
Sutherland,

 Video/demos
Pranav
Mistry,
David
Merrill
and
Reactible.
 Apologies
for
all
unmentioned
influences!

 I
have
also
added
a
section
on
my
“Ideas
of
Altermediacy”
to
the
notes.


  7. 7. The
Idea
of
Altermediacy
 Altermediacy
is
the
property
of
change
in
the
remediation
of
the
real.
Neither
 real,
nor
the
illusion
of
real
nor
the
augmentation
of
real,
altermediacy
describes
 the
state
or
rate
of
flux
between
our
remediated
reality,
our
immediacy
and
 hypermediacy.
 
 Altermediacy
in
Remediation
 Altermediacy
can
reference
the
way
in
which
an
individual
is
finding
meaning
in
 the
media
or
a
group
or
network
finding/making
meaning
in
the
media.

 
 INDIVIDUAL
 Fast
contact
and
strong
 Technologically
limited,
 feeling
of
conversation
 small
screens,
clumsy
 possible
but
reply
can
be
 platforms,
many
steps.
 lost
in
the
crowd
or
if
 However
links
to
extra
 you’ve
switched
off.
 information/media
poss.
 GROUP/SOCIAL
 Mobilizing
action
or
 Weakening
connections
 sinking
into
 through
lack
of
depth
 insignificance?
Few
 and
excess
multiplicity.
 groups
gain
strength
and
 Move
of
advertizing
into
 identity
from
process.
 space.

 
 IMMEDIACY
 HYPERMEDIACY
 
 Using
twitter
as
an
example
of
mapping
altermediacy,
you
can
ascribe
a
value
to
 the
way
in
which
twitter
as
a
whole
remediates
our
communications
and
also
 use
one
value
to
contrast
with
another
value
by
way
of
social,
gender,
economic
 status
etc.
 
 Altermediacy
can
measure
both
the
state
AND
rate
of
change
and
is
in
play
when
 there
is
oscillation
between
immediacy
and
hypermediacy.
However,
that
is
 indicative
of
rate
of
altermediacy
only.
It
is
possible
for
there
to
be
no
significant
 rate
or
oscillation
between
states
and
yet
for
a
state
to
be
highly
compelling,
 delivering
a
message
of
force.
 Altermediacy
and
Media
Ecology
 Altermediacy
can
also
be
used
to
explain
the
‘direct’
relationship
beween
media
 but
as
‘directly’
is
effectively
removing
the
mediating
or
remediating
subject,
the
 relationship
beween
media
as
a
flow
is
more
rightly
media
ecology
or
network
 society.
 Altermediacy
,
the
Subjective
and
the
Social
 Altermediacy
on
the
individual
level
is
highly
subjective
and
open
to
 psychological,
literary
and
semiotic
analysis.
 
 Altermediacy
on
the
social
level
is
highly
political
and
open
to
network,
cultural
 and
sociological
analysis.
 
 Altermediacy
is
always
open
to
an
aesthetic
or
philosophical
analysis.

  8. 8. Altermediacy
,
reflecting
recent
readings
 Having
just
finished
the
moodled
reference;
“Video
Games:
Remediation
and
 Synergy”
by
Geoff
King
and
Tanya
Krzywinska,
I
was
struck
by
the
use
of
 hypermediacy
to
describe
a
‘heightened
or
hyper
reality’
with
a
greater
effect
 than
media
with
immediacy.
 
 While
this
is
a
logical
expansion
of
the
use
of
multiplicity
as
a
sign
of
hypermedia
 and
a
great
appeal
of
hypermedia
is
the
utilization
of
the
multiple
perceptions
(&
 workings)
available
to
us,
I
find
that
use
of
hypermediacy
consistent
with
Arthur
 C.
Clark’s
quote
in
Bolter
&
Grusovin
(p
163)
that
“Virtual
Reality
won’t
merely
 replace
TV,
it
will
eat
it
alive!”
 
 However,
I
didn’t
think
that
Bolter
and
Grusovin
support
a
‘hyper’
as
‘greater’
 meaning.
In
fact,
a
definition
of
hypermediacy
as
‘a
greater
illusion
of
reality
and
 greater
presence’
is
contrary
to
B&G’s
definition
from
Remediation
(p41),
that
 “In
all
its
various
forms,
the
logic
of
hypermedicay
expresses
the
tension
 between
regarding
a
(visual)
space
as
mediated
and
as
a
‘real’
space
that
lies
 beyond
mediation.”
 
 Therefore,
hypermediacy
requires
the
acknowledgement
of
the
media.
 
 Altermediacy
would
answer
the
need
to
describe
a
heightening
of
effect
(or
 reduction)
as
a
way
of
describing
a
media
or
a
remediation.
 
 Andra
Keay
August
2009
 
 


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