Pengaruh teknologi digital terhadap anak dan remaja

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  • This presentation is called Know IT All - for Parents . Note: the word “parent” is used throughout the presentation and includes anyone who has a parent like relationship with a child. It has been designed for you to use in order to educate other adults about issues surrounding internet safety. Guidance for presenters has, where appropriate, been provided in the form of notes at the bottom of the screen in NORMAL VIEW. You are able to print these notes, if you wish, by selecting PRINT, then in the PRINT WHAT box select NOTES PAGE. We do recommend that presenters go through the presentation before delivering to an audience as some of the slides are animated and contain more information than may appear on the normal view screen. The presentation includes an interactive simulation and a film that you may want to show your audience. These resources can be accessed from these websites: Froguts www.froguts.com Cyberbullying film – “Let’s Fight It Together”: www.digizen.org It also contains reference to a film called Jenny’s Story that can be ordered from the Childnet website: www.childnet.com/order Information about Jenny’s Story can be found on www.childnet.com/jenny
  • This slide outlines the format of the presentation and two of the reports that have informed the content. 1) Children Go Online – a report produced by the London School of Economics. The study outlined differences between children’s use, experiences and attitudes of the internet compared with that of adults. 2) Fair Game? An in depth study into the commercial risks faced by children online, for example, a number of children’s websites were found to hold inappropriate advertising.
  • This section outlines why internet safety is important for young people and for adults.
  • If MySpace was a country, it would be the 8th largest in the world 93% of children use a computer and phone 8 out of 10 teenagers have a home computer, mobile phone and games console 1,400,000 UK pupils have their own web space There are over 107 million registered users of MySpace There are over 2.7 billion searches on Google each month The number of text messages sent every day exceeds the total population of the planet The sources for these statistics can be found at: http://www.lps.k12.co.us/schools/arapahoe/fisch/didyouknow/sourcesfordidyouknow.doc & at: http://www.schoolzone.co.uk/resources/newsletter/issues/2007/Sept07/SepPrim.pdf
  • Ask your audience some questions to ascertain their usage of the internet E.g. Who uses email? Who uses Instant Messenger? Has anyone booked a holiday here or shopped online? Does anyone download music? Anyone play online games? Has anyone created their own website E.g. Facebook, MySpace etc? Generally the answers highlight that adults mostly download i.e. take information from the internet. But children and young people are more likely to use it as a means of socialising by contributing to the information online, i.e. by uploading or creating their own content in the form of photos, films, blogs (web logs - similar to an online diary) or interact with other people whilst using games or instant messenger. This changing environment is explored more in the next slide.
  • You may have heard of the terms web 1.0 and web version 2.0. This slide tries to explain the meanings of these two different “environments”. One of the main differences between web 1.0 and web 2.0 is how they are used . Web 1.0 allows users to view information created by large corporations e.g. Microsoft, Amazon, BBC etc . In order to create your own website you had to have computer programming skills. Web 2.0 is the name given to the environment that the internet has now become. As more people added their own content onto the internet the environment began to change to become more interactive and personal. E.g. These days most newspaper homepages are not restricted to simply holding news articles, they interact with the user through offering videos, podcasts, quizzes, blogs - we can still view news articles of course but we are also invited to make or add our own comments.
  • Traditionally in schools, entertainment and social networking sites are banned. There are often firewalls to prevent unsuitable material getting in to the school system and effective filters that stop young people from accessing information deemed inappropriate by the school. These measures have been taken to protect both the pupils and the school. The previous slide highlighted how young people are using interactive technologies, but if they aren’t being taught how to use them safely in school, where can they learn? Supervision differs so greatly when children are out of school. In the home, in internet cafes and at friend’s houses young people’s online behaviour is supervised, monitored, and filtered differently.
  • New uses of technology can be rather overwhelming but parents still have a crucial role to play in ensuring that their children are safe online. Being net literate is no replacement for being life literate . In the same way that children are taught the green cross code, not to talk to strangers and to say please and thank you we must share good netiquette rules with children to ensure safety in the virtual world. It is about transferring offline wisdom into the online world.
  • This section highlights the positive and constructive ways young people are using the internet and mobile technologies.
  • This slide looks at how young people may be using new technologies. DISCOVER - Children are able to travel the world without leaving their rooms by typing a landmark or postcode into Google earth and other similar software. They can continue their learning outside the classroom by using some of the interactive educational resources available on the internet (one of which is featured later in the presentation - froguts.com). CONNECT - Young people stay in touch with each other in a variety of ways. They are likely to use Instant Messenger (IM) an example of which you can see here. As the name suggests this tool allows you to have a real time “conversation” with a friend who is logged onto IM. Some versions of IM use a webcam and a headset, thus allowing you to have a video call with someone – anywhere in the world (and included in the cost of the internet connection). CREATE – This is often the area that interests young people the most and is part of the web 2.0 phenomenon. Children are able to upload their own content for the whole world to see – how empowering! Here is an example of the Sorted website created by an 18 year old. He wanted to provide a website for young people and adults to help them use computers and the internet safely. If any of your audience are unfamiliar with what a Trojan is and are uncertain about spyware and adware, or want to know how to install a firewall or anti-virus software, then this is a great place to learn!
  • Another example of how the internet has been used in a very positive way is Froguts.com. Froguts was originally created as a graduate project. The creator now develops e-learning products in the area of biology. This resource is accessible from the internet as a demo so it is free. It is a good idea to show froguts to parents to highlight the educational benefits of using the internet. It is also available on the Know IT All for Parents CD Rom. See www.childnet.com for more information.
  • This is an example of MSN Instant Messenger- sometimes known as “IM” or simply “messenger”. As the name suggests it enables you to have a real-time conversation with someone, and also share files, and therefore you must be online at the same time as the person you are contacting – unlike an email where you can write message to be read at the other person’s convenience. The left side of the screen shows the user’s account with all of their friends or “contacts” as they are known online. The right hand side shows the screen that comes up once two contacts are having a conversation. As soon as one contact finishes typing their message they press enter and the message will appear on the correspondents screen. More than two people can be part of an messenger conversation. Contacts have to be online to have an instant message conversation with each other. Users of Instant Messenger are able to block contacts who they don’t want to talk to (See icon on screen ) and save conversations they are having. Ask parents what they think this symbol stands for…blocking a contact. The best thing about being able to block a contact is that the blocked contact is not aware they have been blocked. The user that blocked them just appears offline – but in reality they can still be online chatting to their other contacts. IM contacts are ‘invited’ or ‘accepted’ onto a contact list and therefore there is an inherent selection process that occurs. Contacts can also be grouped into categories such as: friends from school, friends from club, online only friends etc.
  • A number of factors play a part in the decision to choose one Social Networking Space (Facebook, MySpace, Bebo, Piczo etc) over another. Initially people will use the SNS used by their peers although some networks are created for those of like minds or similar tastes or interests. As they get older their tastes begin to develop and some users will migrate to another provider. Below is some information about some of the most popular SNS for young people in the UK: Facebook is typified by its personal content, users are able to upload photographs and other pieces of personal content. Users are also able to develop applications that are then embedded in Facebook and offered to other users. Current popular applications are horoscopes - users can choose to have twice weekly readings sent to their page, Political compass – users can take a test to show their political leaning, Photo editing – users can add this application which allows them to edit their photos without leaving the internet. MySpace is famous for being a place for self promotion. Budding performers are able to upload content for other users to look at and give feedback on. These may be short stories, poetry, film, music etc Bebo is one of the fastest growing SNS and offers many of the applications available from other providers. Users are able to personalise the look of their space by choosing different “skins”. These skins/looks are available from other users and from Bebo itself. Piczo and MSN Spaces are also popular SNS used by young people. The best way to understand why young people are using these technologies really is to have a go yourself!
  • The Sorted website was developed by an 18 year old. On this site there is information about many of the risks we face online and ways that we can avoid having problems with viruses, spam, identity theft, etc. It is good place to start if you are uncertain about what these terms mean and how they can affect your computer. The presenter may want to review this website for the audience – it will be of use when answering technical questions from your audience. It also gives information and advice on how to get rid of spam, and how to install a firewall or anti-virus software.
  • The next part of the presentation goes on to highlight some of the risks associated with technology. It is important to point out that it is not the technology at fault but people who find ways of misusing it.
  • This slide highlights some of the potential online risks for children (and adults!). Users face 3 types of risks online: Commercial risks are often overlooked and viewed as simply being part of being online. Young people and adults regularly sign up for things online. Signing up often requires entering personal details. Ask your audience if anyone has read a privacy policy. Many people don’t read them as they are long and very dry documents. A privacy policy will often highlight if your information will be passed onto a third party and used for marketing purposes. If you sign up for something online and then get targeted by lots of SPAM/junk mail, generally this is as a result of your information being passed on. The Mousebreaker example here shows how adult advertising is prominent on a website frequented by young people. On the internet users face content risks – there is a lot of inaccurate information on the internet. Medical advice is given out for free but how can the writer be verified as having proper training? Minority groups gather on the internet and share biased views, children need to be taught how to be discerning readers in order to distinguish between fact and opinion. Adult content such as gambling and pornography sites are also available and entice users through aggressive advertising on other websites. Children can end up on these sites by accident, having unknowingly clicked on a advertisement. More and more young people are also at risk as a result of content that they create. Too much personal information and inappropriate images can attract unwanted attention from peers or others. It is important to be aware of the contact risks associated with the internet. Sex offenders do use the internet as a way of contacting young people. In addition, some people are choosing to abuse others using the internet and mobile technologies –this is commonly known as cyberbullying.
  • A recent study conducted by the National Consumer Council and Childnet highlights some of the commercial risks faced by young people on the internet. Many websites popular with young people are targeted by adult advertising e.g. gambling and dating, as shown in this example. At times the advertising is very difficult to separate from the main content of the website thus making it very easy for children to accidentally view an adult page. At times pop ups may appear in the form of error messages. Children often fear computer problems and worry that they may get into trouble with their parents. Typosquatting can be a problem for young people and adults – often well known website addresses are mimicked by commercial websites wanting to poach web traffic. A famous example is www.disney.com and www.dinsey.com The mimic websites often contain adults content.
  • This slide highlights another strategy for targeting young people in order to extract free marketing information. This slide offers children the opportunity to fill out a “wish list” of their favourite products from this website and then email this list to an adult!
  • This slide puts the spotlight on content risks that can be viewed by young people. The screen grab is of www.martinlutherking.org, this website is on the first page of a Google search results page. The website address appears legitimate, but on closer inspection it is a racist hate site. The website in the background has the title “White Woman Awake Save the White Race”, it has a creativity for children competition on the homepage and is another example of the sorts of derogatory information available to children online.
  • The interactive nature of the internet is very attractive for young people. The bullet points on the slide point out just a few ways to contact other people online. There are risks associated with these mediums (some of which have already been looked at on a previous slide). File sharing can be a risky business, particularly if the site is illegal. It is thought that up to 50% of files on illegal file sharing websites have viruses attached to them. Some of these viruses are downloaded without the users knowledge and can contain spyware that watches user online habits and keystrokes – thus potentially allowing third party access to passwords and banking details. Chatrooms are very popular for young people and can be a very positive experience for some. There are specific interest chatrooms where young people can talk about their hobbies and interests with like minded people. Unfortunately predators can lurk in these open environments and young people never really have any way of verifying who they are speaking to.
  • This slide offers the audience an opportunity to interact with the subject matter, make comments and ask any questions that they think may be relevant to the presentation.
  • Cyberbullying can occur in different ways. A good reference to support this slide is available on the digizen website: http://www.digizen.org/cyberbullying/fullguidance / Threats and intimidation Threats sent to people by mobile phone, email, or online. Harassment or stalking Repeated, prolonged, unwanted contact or monitoring of another person. Vilification / defamation / prejudice-based bullying These may be general insults or racist, homophobic or sexist bullying. Ostracising / peer rejection / exclusion Set up of a closed group refusing to acknowledge one user on purpose. Identity theft, unauthorised access and impersonation ‘ Hacking’ by finding out or guessing a username and password. Publicly posting, sending or forwarding information or images Disclosing information on a website. Manipulation May involve getting people to act or talk in a provocative way.
  • Cyberbullying can occur in different ways. A good reference to support this slide is available on the digizen website: http://www.digizen.org/cyberbullying/fullguidance /
  • We are seeing a number of differences between cyberbullying and other types of bullying as highlighted in this slide. On an encouraging note, targets are able to collect evidence if they are being cyberbullied. This may be making a log of the times of anonymous calls, saving Instant Messenger conversations, printing malicious comments that have been left on websites…
  • This section looks at the use of mobile phones.
  • These days young people have access to a computer by reaching into their pocket to retrieve their mobile phone. With the advent of 3G technology anything that was once restricted to a computer is now available on phones. The diagram illustrates that anything that can be accessed online – positive or negative – can also be accessed via a mobile phone with the added considerations that mobile phones are often constantly switched on and that many young people use their mobile phone for calls, texts, online chat away from adult supervision.
  • Mobile phones should be treated in the same way as computers as they have many of the same compatibilities, however some other considerations should be made for these specific communication devices.
  • Some points that you may want to expand on: 1) Visiting some unscrupulous sites/downloading can result in viruses and other malware being added to your computer without you knowing it, which might collect information about you and your online habits can be collected – software can help to solve the problem. There is lots of free software on the internet! 2) Many computers in the home are shared by all the family so be aware that online activities can have implications for the online experience of your children (adult pop ups etc.). 3) Encourage all family members to use TWO email addresses. One can be personal and used for friends and family and the other can be a family email address that is used by everyone when signing up for things online. There are lots of advantages to making this decision – your personal email account will not get blocked up with SPAM ( if your family one does you can easily discard it without worrying about losing contact with friends and family) and you can keep an eye on what your children are signing up for online. 4) Use the free technology available: Google for example have a toolbar that you can install that has an inbuilt FREE pop-up blocker. You can also find many FREE spam filters for Outlook and other email programmes by doing a search. For example: Spam Fighter or Spam Butcher! 5) It’s a good idea to look out for a padlock and https in the address bar if you are providing banking information. This will mean that your information will be encrypted and less likely to be intercepted by a third party.
  • 1) Try to get to know the safety features available on browsers, games, search engines and either teach your children how to use them or let them show you how they keep themselves safe in these different environments. 2) It is a good idea – particularly if you have younger children to set a search filter. This means that adult content will not be as accessible to young children. 3) It’s also a good idea to add safe sites to a list of favourites. If you’re not sure how to do it – ask your children! This way you don’t need to remember if the address is .com or .co.uk so you will be visiting the same website you have previously visited. 4) If you are looking for guidance for the best filter for your family www.getnetwise.org provides a wealth of information. It offers the option to enter your filter requirements into a form that will search their database for a best fit solution. 5) Half the battle is over if you find appropriate and engaging websites that you know are safe for your children to use. Like Froguts for example, or the BBC.
  • Get involved – the emphasis must be maintaining open channels of communication with your child. To do this you must find out more about the technology – be an informed involved parent. And set time limits for their use. There is a growing concern about addiction in this area. Encourage your children to use the technologies to explore offline pursuits e.g. drama, sports, music and then get them out to experience them in the real world! Make sure your children know they don’t have to feel uncomfortable or worried about anything that happens to them online – that there is ALWAYS someone they can tell. Young children can find it hard to distinguish between general information and personal information. Go over the SMART rules ( you can view these on www.kidmart.org.uk ) and encourage children to think about safe general things they may want to discuss with online friends. Childnet’s advice is that the best online friends are friends we know in real life. At times it isn’t always possible to keep a computer in a family room. If a computer is in a bedroom it is a good idea to have rules such as the door should always be open and consequences should be put in place if a screen disappears when an adult comes into the room. Safe internet rules should be discussed as a family and if possible all members of the household should follow these rules. Kids love it when their parents have to follow the same rules as them.
  • The SMART rules are a good place to start when thinking about internet safety for children. Encourage young children to meet Dongle the rabbit on www.kidsmart.org.uk/movies/Safe_Surfing.swf to help them make sensible online decisions.
  • Childnet also produces a large range of other resources that are available to order from www.childnet.com/order
  • Pengaruh teknologi digital terhadap anak dan remaja

    1. 1. Andri Priyatna, S.Sos.Pengaruh TeknologiDigital Terhadap Anakdan Remaja
    2. 2. This presentationWhy is internet safety important?What about mobiles?What are the risks?Why is the internet so great?
    3. 3. Why is internet safetyimportant?
    4. 4. Statistics41,777,240 Facebook users in Indonesia (thesecond largest in the world),872,461 Linkedin Indonesia users, 5,600,000twitter users and3,725,258 members of Kaskus, all of them arein 2011 alone.Fantastic, isn’t it?Source: klixdigital.pandu padmanegara
    5. 5. Different usageYOUNG PEOPLEInteractive chat, IM,Music, Games, BlogPARENTSMostly email & webfor research28% of parents who use the internet describe themselves as beginnerscompared with only 7% of childrenKnow IT All
    6. 6. Changing environmentDownloading + UploadingConsuming + CreatingCorporate + PersonalSeparate media + Converged mediaStatic + Truly interactiveWEB v 1.0 WEB v 2.0
    7. 7. SupervisionIN SCHOOLSupervised, filtered& monitoredOUT OF SCHOOLOften nosupervision, filteringor monitoring30% of students report having received no lessons at all on using the internet.79% of young people use the internet privately without their parent’ssupervisionKnow IT All
    8. 8. Knowledge vs. WisdomWISDOMUnderstanding howto behave in avirtual worldKNOWLEDGEMany children pickup technologyquicker!TECHNOLOGY IS THROWING UP NEWIMPORTANT SAFETY ISSUES WHICH CHILDRENMAY NOT SEEHELP YOURCHILDREN TOUNDERSTANDTHE CONTEXT
    9. 9. Why is the internetso great?
    10. 10. World Wide Web Search engines Homework Projects Personal interest Amazing factsThe biggest library inthe world Blogs (web log) Vlogs (video log) Web sites Text & pictures Music/photo/videoAnyone canbecome a publisherConnect CreateDiscover Email/chat VoIP - Skype Instant Messenger Multi-user games Social networksBrings peopletogether
    11. 11. Discover: educationalresources
    12. 12. Connect: Instant Messenger(IM)Block contactAdd anothercontact to theconversationOnline friends“contacts”
    13. 13. Connect: Social networkingsites
    14. 14. Create: websites by youngpeople
    15. 15. What are the risks?
    16. 16. Potential risks 73% of online adverts are not clearly labelled making it difficult for children andadults to recognise them 57% of 9-19 yr olds have come into contact with online pornography accidentally. 4 in 10 pupils aged 9-19 trust most of the information on the internet. 1/3 of young people have received unwanted sexual or nasty comments online. Only7% of parents think their child has received such comments.Content ContactCommerce Inaccurate andharmful Adult content Illegal content Inappropriatecontact Cyberbullying Sex offenders Privacy Advertising &information Invasive software
    17. 17. Commercial risks• Blur betweencontent &advertising• Subtlerequests formarketinginformation-“Tell a friend”• Invasiveprogrammes -adware/popups
    18. 18. Commercial risks20% of children claimthey mustn’t fill inonline forms, comparedwith 57% of parents whodo not allow it.Know IT All
    19. 19. Content viewed Inaccurate content Extreme material Pornography4 in 10 pupils aged 9-19 trust most of theinformation on the internetKnow IT All57% of 9-19 yr olds have come into contactwith online pornography. Only 16% ofparents think that their child has seenpornography on the internet.
    20. 20. Contact risks Social networking sites Instant messaging (eg MSN) P2P (filesharing) Multi-user online games Chat rooms49% of kids say that they have given out personal information5% of parents think their child has given out such informationKnow IT All
    21. 21. Over to you…What do YOU think is the biggest risk tochildren online?
    22. 22. What is Cyberbullying?ThreatsHacking ManipulationStalkingPublicpostingsExclusionPrejudice
    23. 23. Cyberbullying• Threats and intimidationThreats sent to people by mobile phone, email, or online.• Harassment or stalkingRepeated, prolonged, unwanted contact or monitoring of anotherperson.• Vilification / defamation / prejudice-based bullyingThese may be general insults or racist, homophobic or sexist bullying.• Ostracising / peer rejection / exclusionSet up of a closed group refusing to acknowledge one user on purpose.• Identity theft, unauthorised access and impersonation‘Hacking’ by finding out or guessing a username and password.• Publicly posting, sending or forwarding information or imagesDisclosing information on a website.• ManipulationMay involve getting people to act or talk in a provocative way.
    24. 24. Differences• 24/7 contactNo escape at home• ImpactMassive potential audience reachedrapidly. Potentially stay onlineforever• Perception of anonymityMore likely to say things online• Profile of target/bullyPhysical intimidation changed• Some cases are unintentionalBystander effect• EvidenceInherent reporting proof
    25. 25. What about mobiles?
    26. 26. The pros and consContent ContactCommerceDiscover Connect CreatePortable Always on and reachablePersonal Away from supervision
    27. 27. What is Sexting? Sending pictures from a cell phone mayseem like fun, but it can have long-lastingramifications. A picture sent from a cell phone caneasily be forwarded to hundreds of cellphones. It can also be easily downloadedon to the Internet and passed on. These pictures can easily find their wayon social networking sites, such asMySpace and Facebook.
    28. 28.  Once a picture is sent, it can not be takenback. The National Campaign to Prevent Teenand Unwanted Pregnancy says one in fiveteenage girls between the ages of 13 and16 years old say they have electronicallysent or posted online, semi-nude or nudephotos of themselves. It has also shownthat 21 percent of teenage girls and 18percent of teenage boys have sent imagesof themselves.
    29. 29. Mobile phone advice Know how your child’s phone works (e.g.Bluetooth, Internet access)Agree the type of content that you would behappy for them to download, knowinglyreceive or send on to others Save any abusive messages/inappropriateimages for evidence purposes Decide together what are acceptable bills Encourage balanced use – switching off atmealtimes, bedtime.
    30. 30. Commerce Install software to protect your computer’s security Be careful which sites the rest of the family visit Use a family email address for shopping and onlineforms Use the free technology: pop-up blockers & SPAMfilters; and your good judgement: don’t reply toSPAM! Check sites for extra security (padlock/https)What you can do…
    31. 31.  Talk to your children about what to do if they do come acrosssomething unpleasant and teach them to be critical Use child-friendly search engines or set a search filter Encourage them to use browser tools – Bookmarks & History Install filtering but don’t rely on it Find appropriate sites to visit and try not to overreact – lotsof inappropriate content viewed accidentallyContentWhat you can do…
    32. 32.  Get involved with your children online and encouragebalanced use – set time limits Make sure they know who to talk to if they feeluncomfortableTalk about the consequences of giving out personal info ormaking information public Keep the computer in a family room Agree rules as a family – meeting upContactWhat you can do…
    33. 33. SMART rulesSAFE – Keep safe by being careful not to give out personalinformation – including full name and email address - to peoplewho you don’t trust online.MEETING – Meeting up with someone you have only been in touchwith online can be dangerous. Only do so with your parent’s/carer’spermission and even then only when they can be present.ACCEPTING – Accepting e-mails, IM messages or openingfiles from people you don’t know can be dangerous – they maycontain viruses or nasty messages!RELIABLE – Someone online may be lying about who theyare, and information you find on the internet may not be true.Check information and advice on other websites, in books or asksomeone who may know.TELL – Tell your parent/carer or teacher if someone orsomething makes you feel uncomfortable or worried, or you orsomeone you know is being cyberbullied.
    34. 34. Resources:www.childnet.comwww.kidsmart.org.ukwww.digizen.org

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