• Post disaster stage or third stage of disaster management cycle.
• It involves the initial actions taken as the event takes place.
• It involves efforts to minimize the hazards created by a disaster.
• Examples: evacuation; search and rescue; emergency relief.
SALIENT FEATURES OF DISASTER
• Evacuation is a risk management strategy which may be
used as mitigating the effects of an emergency or disaster
on a community.
• It involves the movement of people to a safer location.
• To be effective, it should be properly planned and
TYPES OF EVACUATION
• An evacuation resulting from a hazard impact, that forces immediate
action, thereby allowing little action or no warning and limited preparation time.
• Hazardous material accidents, air crash ,wildfires and earthquakes are examples
of events that require immediate action.
• Pre-warned evacuation:
• An evacuation resulting from an event that provides adequate warning and does
not unduly limit preparation time.
• Examples of this type of evacuation include floods, cyclones and storm surge.
• At the fundamental level, the concept of evacuation is simple—move people away
from danger. In reality, evacuations, particularly evacuations on a mass scale, are
• The most obvious problem is the sheer scope of the event. Hurricane evacuations
may involve millions of people over hundreds of thousands of square miles.
• In addition, because evacuations are inconvenient and disruptive, evacuees often
delay travel decisions until the threat appears imminent, thus compressing the
enormous travel demand into shorter time periods.
This can be understood by the following example:
HURRICANE KATRINA (U.S.A):
• Hurricane Katrina hit South east of New Orleans (largest city and
metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana) on 29 August 2005. It
resulted into intense flooding and heavy rainfall in the city.
• Official death toll, according to the Louisiana department of
health, was 1,464 people and several injuries were caused.
• Actual evacuation issue was based on the highway-based aspects
of the evacuation, including demand, capacity.
• It was planned to evacuate more than 60 percent, or 30,000
vehicles, over a 12-hour period.
• However, this plan was rejected because of high cost and time
required to escape from alternate route.
• Local governments had been blamed for poor planning and not
providing adequate transportation and shelters to evacuees. For
example, it was widely known that some 112,000 people did not
have access to personal vehicles at the time of the storm.
A major failure of the plans for evacuating the low-mobility
population was the lack of communication. Evacuation plans can
only be effective if people are aware of them, and evacuation
orders can only be heeded if they are received in time.
GUIDELINES FOR EVACUATION
General Evacuation Procedures
• Remain as calm as possible, do not rush or panic
• Gather your keys, medication and valuables if it is safe to
• Close, but do not lock, your office door and window if it is
safe to do so
• Use the nearest safe stairs (do not use the elevator) and
proceed to the nearest exit
• Test closed doors for heat and/or fire by touching the door
with the back of your hand; do not proceed if hot
• Proceed calmly and safely to the designated Emergency
Assembly Area (EAA)
• Follow instructions from emergency responders
• Do not re-enter building until you are instructed to do so
Emergency Evacuation Guidelines
• Individuals who need assistance during an evacuation should identify and discuss with
someone, in advance, who might assist them in leaving the building and/or who will
inform emergency personnel of their presence and where they are located so that further
assistance can be provided.
• Persons with disabilities are encouraged to inform their Facility Manager of their regular
presence in the building.
• They should provide information to include name, office/room location, phone number,
type of assistance requested and/or where they are to be directed in case of emergency.
• Stay In Place: In certain cases, where evacuation is not possible, readily available, a
person with a disability should stay in place and inform the floor captain and others of their
location. This information is to be provided immediately to emergency rescue personnel.
• Good communication is a vital part to ensuring success during the evacuation.
ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS
• How do you know what is needed?
• How do you decide?
• How will you collaborate with people in disaster-affected areas?
• Will your giving do good or do unintentional harm?
• Don’t act alone: Collaborate with proven on the ground partners. Mostly Learn
from mistakes and successes. send money
CHECKLIST FOR EFFECTIVE DISASTER RESPONSE
• Decide which phase/s of pre, during and/or post disaster intervention you want to
support in what way and why.
• First, give money directly to proven NGOs (and agencies like UN World Food
Program and UNICEF) that has a presence on the ground in the disaster zone.
• Obtain up-to-date maps of the crisis area
PARTNERING, PLANNING AND MISSION CONSISTENCY
• How does the project align with your organization’s mission? How will you partner with other
• Can United Nations agencies and international NGOs support your efforts?
• Combine and integrate the short term acute disaster and long term chronic disaster approaches
to produce measurable savings of energy and time and increase impact so that what you do in
the present sustains the future
• Choose clear, easy to use planning tools when bringing partners together. Use more complex
tools to integrate details once everyone understands their primary responsibilities.
• Assess the political climate in all countries through which goods must flow. Check security
SHIPPING SUPPLIES OR ACQUIRING THEM LOCALLY
• What specific items and equipment meet documented needs in ways
that are suitable, durable, safe, and culturally appropriate?
• Which goods should you ship from outside the country and which
should you buy in the region of the impact zone?
• Consider engaging a logistician or other humanitarian specialist to advise your
organization or to carry out the work
• Arrange for shipping and transport before collecting any kind of material
• Recognize that transferring funds into a disaster zone can result in their
inappropriate use or theft and plan accordingly.
• Coordinate purchases or combine orders with other organizations responding to
the crisis. Identify and work with the central coordinating body for the specific
• Be aware of ethnic, cultural, religious and political sensitivities regarding
packaging, instructions, and logos.
MOVEMENT OF GOODS
• How will goods be transported?
• What combination of boat, train, plane, truck and local options such as pack
animals or human carriers, will get goods to those who need them?
• What routes will be used?
• What is your step-by-step logistics plan for ordering, shipping, payment, customs
• Consult partners and appropriate websites32 for the security situation. Assess any
political, military, or environmental impediments to shipping and receiving donated goods
along the supply route.
• If partnering with a UN agency, request and follow their guidelines to ensure the proper
party is taking responsibility to clear customs. Pack and package supplies to meet
international relief standards. Specify safe, secure shipping containers and platforms that
meet international standards.
• Confirm shipping methods, costs and timetable from manufacturer to port of entry. Ensure
that packing lists are in duplicate clean copy at port of entry to avoid surprise taxes or
requests for bribes.
DISTRIBUTION OF GOODS IN THE IMPACT ZONE
• How will local organizations in the impact zone distribute the goods to
• How will the goods be secured until they reach the hands of end users?
• Develop a plan for informing beneficiaries about eligibility and the place and time
of distribution. Publicize as appropriate. Recognize that distribution of supplies
too long before they are needed can result in their unintended sale so they may be
unavailable to households when needed. If possible, warehouse the goods until the
critical time of use. For example, store heaters or blankets until temperatures drop
MONITORING AND COMMUNICATION
• How will you monitor the transport of goods to their destination?
• How will partners along the route inform one another that goods have been
received and reshipped?
• How will people in the field communicate with people at headquarters?
• How will you deal with loss, damage or corruption along the way?
• Specify how and when offices along the supply chain will exchange information
• Ensure there are reliable communication facilities and technologies where goods are
dispatched and arrive. Equip drivers or distribution vehicles with mobile
• Monitor the management of both goods and process all along the supply chain.
• Ask distribution teams to take digital pictures and video that show involvement of
staff, local leaders, volunteers and recipients. Send via the Internet to project
CREATING INDEPENDENCE NOT DEPENDENCE
• How will beneficiaries be involved in planning and implementation?
• How can your project move beyond charity to promote community self-
sufficiency and empowerment?
• Ensure that emergency response is community-based and human- rights oriented, as
outlined in the UN Humanitarian Charter. 42 Recognize that women, men, girls and
boys, the handicapped and people of diverse backgrounds enjoy equal rights under
• Work in partnership with affected communities to understand priorities, capacities and
resources. Take care that all community members are protected and their basic needs are
met. Design all aspects of the program accordingly: program assessments, planning,
setting of goals, objectives and strategies, project implementation, monitoring and
evaluation and protection strategies themselves.
• Do not treat issues in isolation. Do not view people in crisis as helpless and passive
• While respecting culture do not tolerate traditional practices that violate the rights of
women and girls, disabled people, or members of ethnic groups or other minorities. Be
aware of social and economic roles and identify groups at specific risk and be alert to
instances of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV).
EVALUATION, LESSONS LEARNED AND CAPACITY
• How will you gather stories about the process and the outcomes?
• How will you track both the good practices and failures of the project so everyone
can learn from them?
• How will lessons learned be recycled in training for future projects?
• Assign one or more people to document the project from day one. Take notes on key
decisions, pivotal moments, mid-course corrections, new insights, breakthroughs in
understanding, personal stories of challenge and triumph
• Budget time and resources to gather stories about processes and outcomes. Account
for both successes and failures. Track lessons learned in a productive, positive manner.
• Base evaluation on criteria for success and standards of project completion that all
partners agreed to in the beginning of the project. Integrate monitoring data in
• Document the project with digital photography, video, and audio, including in all
• Based upon the outcome of your evaluation, develop a list of actions to build the
capacity of your organization. Monitor these improvements and assess their impact.
SEARCH AND RESCUE
• To look through (a place, an area, etc.) carefully in order to find something missing
• To free or deliver from confinement OR
Search and rescue (SAR) is the process of identifying the location of disaster victims
that may be trapped or isolated and bringing them to safety and medical attention.
• Rescue the greatest number of people in the shortest amount of time.
• Rescue lightly trapped victims first
• To prevent loss of life and injury through search and rescue forewarning, responding and
aiding activities using public and private resources.
• Optimize use of resources in conducting SAR
• Minimize search duration and crew risk during SAR missions
• Rescuers include trained personnel and volunteers.
• Tools depend on their availability and the needs of the situation. For example, storm or
earthquake damage may require tools for lifting debris whereas flood damage may require
boats, ropes, and life preservers.
• Time may be very limited for some victims. The first 24 hours after a disaster has been
called the "Golden Day" that period during which injured or trapped victims have an 80
percent chance of survival if rescued.
• SAR involving planes, helicopters etc. and air
observers or even parachutists and winch-men to
search and rescue those people who are trapped in
any danger. And provide medical aid to them.
• Specialist military units do train exclusively to do
AIR SAR but so do other teams as a part of their
• Coastal Search and Rescue usually involves SAR in the land and water along the
coast. This includes the littoral areas and including cliffs and shorelines by and
actually in the water.
• Therefore it includes the use of aircraft / helicopters, surface boats and submarine
vessels especially if it involves the littoral areas and continental
• It involve SAR of persons trapped in fire areas
with specialized equipment such as fire retardant
clothes and breathing apparatus.
• ‘Fire-Fighters’ are trained and equipped to
extinguish fires in all sorts of environments such
as buildings like offices or homes but also cars and
• They also usually train as a rescuer, to rescue
people from car accidents, collapsed buildings and
several other hazardous and complex situations.
• Mountain SAR occurs in a
mountainous, high elevation and
wilderness type environment.
• There are Mountain Rescue teams and
groups all over the world and usually
members of a larger Mountain Rescue
Council or Association.
• It is one of those disciplines which has
civilian and Military operators and
also, internationally, has a lot of paid and
unpaid volunteer members.
• USAR, also referred to as heavy urban search and rescue (HUSAR), is the location
and rescue of persons from collapsed buildings or other urban and industrial
• Due to the specialized nature of the work, most teams are multi-disciplinary and
include personnel from police, fire and emergency medical services.
• US&R responders also have basic training in structural collapse and the dangers
associated with live electrical wires, broken natural gas lines and other hazards.
• While earthquakes operations, terrorist attacks and extreme weather such
as tornadoes and hurricanes also involve USAR
• Ground SAR is searching for and/or rescuing persons who have become lost or injured
in any ground surface setting
• In many cases, the victims are able to be specially categorized and behaviour predicted
from groups like lost or missing children, despondent or suicidal people, lost hikers and
walkers, and the elderly who have wandered away from their residences or nursing
• SAR of persons on and around the environment of
ice– such as frozen lakes or alpine mountains.
• These include how to roll, crawl, or swim away
from an ice hole and using any personal ice rescue
equipment used by the organization
• Rescuers train to enter frozen lakes or ice holes and
recover victims whilst practicing practical methods
of weight distribution and appropriate use of
rope, equipment and extrication vehicles.
During the disaster, the priority is usually to treat casualties and the sick or
Disasters like earthquakes often involve the management of mass casualties
which normally requires them following activities:
1. Search, rescue and first aid
2. Transport of health facilities and treatment
5. redistribution of patients between hospitals when necessary
1) Finalize emergency preparedness plan.
2)Prepare hazard specific emergency plan at district level and allocate resources for
preparedness and emergency response activities.
3) Develop a team of doctors for mobile health services (clinics) in advance and
inform all doctors about their duties of the potential disaster in the district. Stockpile
medicines and vaccinations e.g. snack venom serum, cholera
vaccination etc. Check serviceability of all ambulances thorough regular
4) Compile list of health department assets at district level which may include laboratories, x
ray machines, surgery facilities, oxygen cylinders, ambulances etc. The capacity of private
health services such as private clinics, NGOs health service centres, Edhi Trust, PRCS,
chemist shops etc. in the district to be also documented.
5)Organize training on first aid for health and community workers, boys scouts, girls guide
and NGOs in the district. Produce IEC material in local languages on health and hygiene.
6)Coordinate with community female health workers (Prime Minister's programmed) and assign
health related task in emergency response.
7) Draw up list of NGOs and other social welfare organizations working in health sector in the
district and ensure their participation in preparing contingency planning and emergency response.
DISEASE EARLY WARNING
The main communicable diseases are:
1)Diseases transmitted by contact – Acute respiratory infections.
2)Vector transmitted diseases are caused by mosquitoes.
3) Disease can also be transmitted through contaminated water.
Preventing and reducing outbreaks of communicable
Preventing communicable diseases outbreak
Intervention at the source to prevent the development of infectious agents that can
attack susceptible individuals.
Intervention to modify immune status (vaccination, general health Status.
Intervention at the biological stage (minimize opportunities to Exposure)
Intervention at the aftermath of a disease (managing communicable diseases outbreak).
1)Levels of intervention
a)Primary Prevention – can be defined as the biological and clinical
manifestations of an infection. For example immunization and sanitation as well
as awareness education on basic hygiene and sanitation methods.
b)Secondary Prevention – means preventing a harmless form of a disease from
developing into a more serious form responsible to cause death or complications. The
use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) at the beginning of a diarrheal attack, for
example, prevents the development of dehydration.
c) Tertiary Prevention – covers rehabilitation following the illness
(social réintégration, nutritional-rehabilitation after measles, etc.)
2) Curative Actions
The following is a list of measures for communicable-disease control:
a)The use of interviews for rapid assessment of communicable diseases in emergencies
c)Tests carried out in the field
f) Health education
Diseases Description/Cause Signs and
Malaria Vector disease
caused by various
parasites. The host
is the Anopheles
chills Fever at
nights. Pain in the
be taken for a
long time. It is
Cholera Acute intestinal
infection that is
A combination of
drugs- it is more
effective and if
one does not
work the other
DISEASE EARLY WARNING SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN
The Disease Early Warning System (DEWS) is a program by which health care workers
can detect signs of an epidemic at an early stage in order to rapidly respond and to limit
the impact. DEWS was first set up in 2005 in Pakistan in response to the earthquake
crisis, and has since been expanded to other emergency affected areas in Pakistan.
Currently, DEWS is expanding into the areas affected by the 2010 flooding disaster.
The overall goal of DEWS is to minimize sickness and death due to communicable
diseases. The objective is to detect potential outbreaks at its earliest possible stage and to
facilitate timely interventions.
Disease early warning for rapid detection and prompt response to outbreaks is one of the
significances during a humanitarian crisis, as communicable diseases can be a major cause
of sickness and death in emergencies.
ASSESSSMENT FOR HEALTH SERVICES
Assessment undertaken after a major change, such as an earthquake or sudden refugee
displacement. It provides information about the needs, possible intervention types and
resource requirements. A rapid assessment normally takes one week or less.
The aim of the health service assessment is to identify the main communicable
disease threats, outline the public health needs and plan priority interventions. Other
important objectives of the risk assessment are to assess the extent of communicable
disease risk and threats of outbreaks, and to define the type and size of interventions
and priority activities needed.
The flood affected areas of Pakistan are at high risk of waterborne diseases (acute
watery diarrhea, Hepatitis A and E, shigellosis, and typhoid), diseases associated with
overcrowding (measles and meningitis), and vector borne diseases such as malaria
The use of interview as a rapid assessment method:
Very often those involved in relief in emergencies may not always have access to
sources of information which can allow them to determine the main communicable
disease that are affecting the population.
Opportunities for direct investigation with a population are limited, and it is usually
difficult to start off by running biological tests in order to diagnose the main
Such interview may prove adequate to indicate which measures need to be taken,
depending on the data sought
The relief phase follows immediately after the rescue phase, and may last between one
and three months depending on the severity of the earthquake and the resources of the
Government is usually the central point, followed by additional resources from NGOs
and international organizations.
Drinking water can be contaminated by breaks in sewage lines.
These factors can facilitate the spread of disease after a disaster.
Providing potable drinking water to victims and adopting alternative
methods of sanitation must be a priority after a disaster.
Food shortages are often an immediate health consequence of disasters.
In these situations, food relief programs should be started.
In addition to food, these populations should be given nutritional supplements whenever
After a disaster, victims must be protected from hazardous climatic conditions, such as
severe temperatures or precipitation.
People should be kept dry, reasonably well clothed, and able to access emergency shelter.
Health Kits that contain essential medical supplies are often provided to victims through the
collaboration of various relief organizations
During the recovery phase, social and other infrastructure is restored and the
The rehabilitation/reconstruction phase typically starts at the end of the relief
phase and may last for several years.
The short-term plans for the recovery process are clearance of debris, building
housing units, and
restoration of lifelines and infrastructure, while the long-term objective is to build
a safer and sustainable living.
Resettlement of families
Often, in the aftermath of a disaster, there is a growing concern among experts and
government officials to promote a safer location for settlement of people at risk.
Experience shows, however, that resettlement of population on new sites is a
complex issue and presents major challenges.
If resettlement is being considered as an option, the following issues must be
•A resettlement programe should go beyond the provision of housing and should
address other needs of the population such as social infrastructure, livelihoods and
•The programme needs to take into consideration the fundamental issues of
disaster management and risk reduction.
•This requires more in-depth analysis of the new site with regard to hazards and
• Risk mapping should be prepared prior to development of new site to avoid
• It is important that the relocation decisions and selection of resettlement sites are made in a
consultative manner with full participation of the affected communities.
•Communities need to be prepared and informed before they agree to accept voluntary
•Appropriate mechanisms should be put in place to ensure secure land and housing tenure.
Natural disasters, as well as some human-caused disasters, lead to human suffering.
Examples of disasters include hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, earthquakes, drought.
When any such disaster strikes, a variety of organizations offer relief to the affected area.
Architecture for Humanity
Founded in 1999, Architecture for Humanity helps build emergency shelters and necessary
buildings after natural disasters and war.
The non-profit organization holds design competitions and workshops to encourage
economical, sustainable reconstruction and to promote humanitarian and social design.
Partnering with other relief organizations, Architecture for Humanity provides financial
aid, construction materials, and architectural services.
In addition to constructing shelters for people in need, Relief International offers a variety of
services for communities in crisis.
RI's programs include health, education, agriculture, and food.
The primary mission of this non-profit organization is to bridge emergency relief and long term