0
15-1
Groups, Teams and
Organizational Effectiveness
• Group
– Two or more people
who interact with
each other to
accomplis...
15-2
Groups, Teams and
Organizational Effectiveness
• Team
– A group whose members work intensely
with each other to achie...
15-3
Groups, Teams and
Organizational Effectiveness
• Two characteristics distinguish teams
from groups
– Intensity with w...
15-4
Groups and Teams as
Performance Enhancers
• Advantage of synergy
– People working in a group are able to
produce more...
15-5
Groups and Teams as
Performance Enhancers
• Factors that contribute to synergy
– Ability of group members to bounce i...
15-6
Groups and Teams as
Performance Enhancers
• To take advantage of the potential for
synergy, managers need to make sur...
15-7
Groups’ and Teams’ Contributions to
Organizational Effectiveness
Figure 15.1
15-8
Groups and Teams and
Responsiveness to Customers
• Responsiveness to Customers
– Cross-functional teams can provide t...
15-9
Teams and Innovation
• Innovation
– The creative development of new products,
new technologies, new services, or new
...
15-10
Groups and Teams as Motivators
• Members of groups, and particularly
teams, are often better motivated and
satisfied...
15-11
The Types of Groups and Teams in
Organizations
Figure 15.2
15-12
Formal Groups
• Cross-functional teams
– composed of members from different
departments
• Cross-cultural teams
– com...
15-13
The Types of Groups and Teams
Type of Team
Top-management
team
A group composed of the CEO, the president,
and the h...
15-14
The Types of Groups and Teams
Type of Team
Self-managed work
team
A group of employees who supervise their
own activ...
15-15
Self-Managed Work Teams
How can Form effective self managed teams?
– Give the team enough responsibility and autonom...
15-16
Group Size
• Advantage of small groups
– Interact more with each other and easier to
coordinate their efforts
– More...
15-17
Group Size
• Advantages of large groups
– More resources at their disposal to achieve
group goals
– Enables managers...
15-18
Group Size
• Disadvantages of large groups
– Problem of communication and coordination
– Lower level of motivation
–...
15-19
Group Tasks
• Group tasks impact how a group
interacts.
– Task interdependence shows how the work
of one member impa...
15-20
Group Dynamics: Interdependence
• Pooled
– Members make separate, independent
contributions to group such that group...
15-21
Group Dynamics: Interdependence
• Sequential
– Members perform tasks in a sequential
order making it difficult to de...
15-22
Group Dynamics: Interdependence
• Reciprocal
– Work performed by one group member is
mutually dependent on work done...
15-23
Types of Task Interdependence
15-24
Group Roles
• Group Roles
– The set of behaviors and tasks that a group
member is expected to perform because of
his...
15-25
Group Roles
• In cross-functional teams, members are
expected to perform roles in their specialty.
• Managers should...
15-26
Group Leadership
• Effective leadership is a key ingredient in high
performing groups, teams, and organizations.
• F...
15-27
The Stages of Group Development
Figure 15.4
15-28
Stages of Group Development
• Forming
– Group members get to know each other and
reach common goals.
• Storming
– Gr...
15-29
Stages of Group Development
• Performing
– The group begins to do its real work.
• Adjourning
– Only for task forces...
15-30
Group Norms
• Group Norms
– Shared guidelines or rules for behavior that
most group members follow
– Managers should...
15-31
Group Dynamics
• Conformity and Deviance
– Members conform to norms to obtain rewards,
imitate respected members, an...
15-32
Group Cohesiveness
• The degree to which members are
attracted to their group
• Three major consequences
– Level of ...
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Effective team

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Transcript of "Effective team"

  1. 1. 15-1 Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness • Group – Two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs.
  2. 2. 15-2 Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness • Team – A group whose members work intensely with each other to achieve a specific, common goal or objective. – All teams are groups but not all groups are teams. • Teams often are difficult to form. • It takes time for members to learn how to work together.
  3. 3. 15-3 Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness • Two characteristics distinguish teams from groups – Intensity with which team members work together – Presence of a specific, overriding team goal or objective
  4. 4. 15-4 Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers • Advantage of synergy – People working in a group are able to produce more outputs than would have been produced if each person had worked separately
  5. 5. 15-5 Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers • Factors that contribute to synergy – Ability of group members to bounce ideas of one another – To correct one another’s mistakes – To bring a diverse knowledge base to bear on a problem – To accomplish work that is too vast for any one individual to achieve
  6. 6. 15-6 Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers • To take advantage of the potential for synergy, managers need to make sure groups are composed of members who have complementary skills and knowledge relevant to the group’s work
  7. 7. 15-7 Groups’ and Teams’ Contributions to Organizational Effectiveness Figure 15.1
  8. 8. 15-8 Groups and Teams and Responsiveness to Customers • Responsiveness to Customers – Cross-functional teams can provide the wide variety of skills needed to meet customer demands. • Teams consist of members of different departments.
  9. 9. 15-9 Teams and Innovation • Innovation – The creative development of new products, new technologies, new services, or new organizational structures • Individuals rarely possess the wide variety of skills needed for successful innovation. • Team members can uncover each other’s flaws and balance each other’s strengths and weaknesses • Managers should empower the team and make it accountable for the innovation process.
  10. 10. 15-10 Groups and Teams as Motivators • Members of groups, and particularly teams, are often better motivated and satisfied than individuals. – Team members are more motivated and satisfied than if they were working alone. – Team members can see the effect of their contribution to achieving team and organizational goals. – Teams provide needed social interaction and help employees cope with work-related stressors.
  11. 11. 15-11 The Types of Groups and Teams in Organizations Figure 15.2
  12. 12. 15-12 Formal Groups • Cross-functional teams – composed of members from different departments • Cross-cultural teams – composed of members from different cultures or countries
  13. 13. 15-13 The Types of Groups and Teams Type of Team Top-management team A group composed of the CEO, the president, and the heads of the most important departments Research and development team A team whose members have the expertise and experience needed to develop new products Command groups A group composed of subordinates who report to the same supervisor, also called a department or unit, Task forces A committee of managers or nonmanagerial employees from various departments or divisions who meet to solve a specific, mutual problem; also called an “ad hoc” committee
  14. 14. 15-14 The Types of Groups and Teams Type of Team Self-managed work team A group of employees who supervise their own activities and monitor the quality of the goods and services they provide. Virtual team A team whose members rarely or never meet face to face and interact by using various forms of information technology such as email, computer networks, telephone, faxand video conferences. Friendship group An informal group composed of employees who enjoy each other’s company and socialize with each other. Interest group An informal group composed of employees seeking to achieve a common goal related to their membership in an organization.
  15. 15. 15-15 Self-Managed Work Teams How can Form effective self managed teams? – Give the team enough responsibility and autonomy to be self-managing. – Select members carefully for their diversity, skills, and enthusiasm. – Managers should guide and coach, not supervise. – Determine training needs and be sure it is provided.
  16. 16. 15-16 Group Size • Advantage of small groups – Interact more with each other and easier to coordinate their efforts – More motivated, satisfied, and committed – Easier to share information – Better able to see the importance of their personal contributions
  17. 17. 15-17 Group Size • Advantages of large groups – More resources at their disposal to achieve group goals – Enables managers to obtain division of labor advantages
  18. 18. 15-18 Group Size • Disadvantages of large groups – Problem of communication and coordination – Lower level of motivation – Members might not think their efforts are really needed
  19. 19. 15-19 Group Tasks • Group tasks impact how a group interacts. – Task interdependence shows how the work of one member impacts another; as interdependence rises, members must work more closely together.
  20. 20. 15-20 Group Dynamics: Interdependence • Pooled – Members make separate, independent contributions to group such that group performance is the sum of each member’s contributions
  21. 21. 15-21 Group Dynamics: Interdependence • Sequential – Members perform tasks in a sequential order making it difficult to determine individual performance since one member depends on another.
  22. 22. 15-22 Group Dynamics: Interdependence • Reciprocal – Work performed by one group member is mutually dependent on work done by other members.
  23. 23. 15-23 Types of Task Interdependence
  24. 24. 15-24 Group Roles • Group Roles – The set of behaviors and tasks that a group member is expected to perform because of his or her position in the group.
  25. 25. 15-25 Group Roles • In cross-functional teams, members are expected to perform roles in their specialty. • Managers should clearly describe expected roles to group members when they are assigned to the group. • Self-managed teams may assign the roles to members themselves.
  26. 26. 15-26 Group Leadership • Effective leadership is a key ingredient in high performing groups, teams, and organizations. • Formal groups created by an organization have a leader appointed by the organization. • Groups that evolve independently in an organization have an informal leader recognized by the group.
  27. 27. 15-27 The Stages of Group Development Figure 15.4
  28. 28. 15-28 Stages of Group Development • Forming – Group members get to know each other and reach common goals. • Storming – Group members disagree on direction and leadership. Managers need to be sure the conflict stays focused. • Norming – Close ties and consensus begin to develop between group members.
  29. 29. 15-29 Stages of Group Development • Performing – The group begins to do its real work. • Adjourning – Only for task forces that are temporary. – Note that these steps take time!
  30. 30. 15-30 Group Norms • Group Norms – Shared guidelines or rules for behavior that most group members follow – Managers should encourage members to develop norms that contribute to group performance and the attainment of group goals
  31. 31. 15-31 Group Dynamics • Conformity and Deviance – Members conform to norms to obtain rewards, imitate respected members, and because they feel the behavior is right. – When a member deviates, other members will try to make them conform, expel the member, or change the group norms to accommodate them. – Conformity and deviance must be balanced for high performance from the group. – Deviance allows for new ideas in the group.
  32. 32. 15-32 Group Cohesiveness • The degree to which members are attracted to their group • Three major consequences – Level of participation – Level of conformity to group norms – Emphasis on group goal accomplishment
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