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Proceeding of Brunei International Conference on Engineering and Technology 2012

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Proceeding of Brunei International Conference on Engineering and Technology 2012. …

Proceeding of Brunei International Conference on Engineering and Technology 2012.
25th-26th January 2012, Rizqun International Hotel, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam.

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION OF BICET 2012 WELCOME COMMITTEES PROGRAMME & ABSTRACTS EVENT SCHEDULE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS KEYNOTE SPEAKER© BICET 2012Institut Teknologi Brunei A Technology UniversityJalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 ISSN 2226-3306Brunei Darussalam.
  • 2. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam The Brune Internation Conferenc in Engineering and Tech ei nal ce hnology (BICE 2012 ET) has as its main theme “Sustainable Developmen through Ad e nt dvances in Engineer? ?ing and Tech hnology”. This conference marks the fo s ourth BICET organised by Institu Teknologi B ut Brunei. Since its inception in 2001, BIC CET has been a platform f rigorous a for academic disc cussion and the exchange of expert knoowl-edge involving international researchers, scientists an practitione aiming to address nd ers major adv vances and is ssues in the areas of engin neering and teechnology. BICET 2012 invites loc and intern cal national resea archers, scien ntists and prac ctitioners to contribbute to the ac cademic debate focusing o the confere on ence theme “Sustaina able Developmment through Advances in Engineering and Tech-nol h logy”. The confe erence offers an excellent opportunity f paper con for ntributors and d participan to exchan nts nge views regarding curren developme in their re nt ent espective fields of e expertise.
  • 3. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam WELCOME TO BICET 2012 Congratulations! You have been invited to present your papers at the Brunei International Conference on Engineering and Technology (BICET) from 25 to 26 January 2012 in Negara Brunei Darussalam. It is our privilege and pleasure to welcome you to this conference. BICET was established as an annual international forum for the presentation, exchange and discussion of information on academic and practical knowledge concerning advances and issues in the areas of industrial management, civil engineering, computing and information systems, electrical and electronic engineering, energy, mechanical engineering, and petroleum and chemical engineering. BICET presents a valuable opportunity to actively exchange ideas and network with participants from universities, public utilities, industry, and consultancies from around the world. The theme for this year’s BICET 2012 is “Sustainable Development through Advances in Engineering and Technology”. This conference marks the fourth BICET organised by Institut Teknologi Brunei, Brunei Darussalam. Today, industrial globalisation and the rapid advancement of technology and engineering in response to consumer demand constantly improve our quality of life. However, the adverse effects of rapid advances in technology and engineering raise issues such as: climate change, CO2 emissions, political instability, financial crises, public health and safety and internet and network security. These issues must not be overlooked and need to be thoroughly looked into. BICET 2012 will provide an excellent opportunity for representatives and students to share their state-of- the-art research and experience and to discuss crucial scientific and technical issues with colleagues and friends from around the world. This year, a great number of contributors submitted papers. In fact, a total of 100 submissions were received, and after going through review processes 39 papers have been accepted for presentation. These various contributions with related topic areas will be presented in parallel sessions running from Wednesday 25 January to Thursday 26 January 2012. Furthermore, the programme of parallel paper sessions will also feature presentations from internationally renowned keynote experts on the theme, “Sustainable Development through Advances in Engineering and Technology”. We look forward to welcoming a large and interested audience. The Executive and the local organising committees have made every effort to ensure that your stay in Brunei Darussalam will be fruitful and socially enjoyable. We trust you will enjoy your time with us in the “Abode of Peace”. ------------------------------------------------------------------ Pg Dr Haji Md Esa Al-Islam bin Pg Haji Md Yunus Chairman of BICET 2012 Deputy Dean of Faulty of Engineering
  • 4. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam ADVISOR Dato Paduka Dr Haji Omar bin Haji Khalid (Vice Chancellor, ITB) Professor Michael Cloke (Academic Advisor, ITB) Dr Hajah Naemah binti Haji Khalid (Assistance Chancellor, ITB) Dyg Jennifer Hiew Lim (Register & Secretary, ITB) BICET ORGANISING COMMITTEES Pg Dr Haji Mohd Esa Al-Islam bin Pg Haji Mohd Yunus (Chairperson, ITB) Dr Ahmad Nazri Wahidudin (Deputy Chairperson, ITB) Dr Hajah Noor Maya binti Haji Mohd Salleh (Secretary I, ITB) Pg Dr Haji Saiful Baharin bin Pg Haji Duraman (Secretary II, ITB) Secretariat: Awg Haji Ady Syarmin bin Haji Mohd Taib (Chairperson, ITB) Dyg Hajah Mariam binti Haji Abd Rahman (Deputy Chairperson, ITB) Dyg Serina binti Haji Mohd Ali (member, ITB) Dyg Siti Asmahlati Bolkini binti Ahmad (member, ITB) Awg Md Hairol bin Haji Mohd Ali (member, ITB) Ak Haji Azhan bin Pg Haji Ahmad (member, ITB) Dyg Thulasi Munohsamy (member, ITB) Dyg Hajah Siti Mariam binti Haji Amit (member, ITB) Technical Committee: Dr Tan Soon Jiann (Co-chairperson, ITB) Dr Franky Looi Hong Cheong (Co-chairperson, ITB) Awg Haji Asari bin Haji Abd Rashid (Deputy Chairperson, ITB) Dyg Siti Mazulianawati binti Haji Majid (Secretary I, ITB) Dyg Hong Shyang Pei (Secretary II, ITB) Awg Ahmad Syamaizar bin Haji Ahmad Sabli (member, ITB) Dk Dr Noor Muneerah binti Pg Haji Jeludin (member, ITB) Dk Hajah Noralam binti Pg Haji Tuah (member, ITB) Dr Haji Mohd Khairul Ja’afar bin Haji Masri (member, ITB) Dr Saiful Islam (member, ITB) Dr Teh Keng Watt (member, ITB) Awg Ismawi bin Haji Md Yussof (member, ITB) Awg Wong Pong Kit (member, ITB) Awg Peter Shannon (member, ITB) Awg Radin Jefri bin Radin Mas Basiuni (member, ITB) Awg Saiful Bahri bin Haji Md Ja’afar (member, ITB) Dyg Ummul Hasanah binti Haji Hassan (member, ITB) Awg Syed Bilal Hassan (member, ITB) Awg Murhamdilah bin Morni (member, ITB) Financial Committee: Dyg Husni binti Haji Matusin (Chairperson, ITB) Dyg Hanisah binti Haji Mohd Salleh (Deputy Chairperson, ITB) Awg Soh Seng Hu (member, ITB) Dyg Salinawati binti haji Awg Damit (member, ITB) Dyg Siti Nur Didiareawati binti Jali (member, ITB) Awg Jumat bin Mohd Yacob (member, ITB)
  • 5. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Dyg Hadhimah binti Hashim (member, ITB) Fair and Exhibition Committee: Awg Asmaal Muizz Salehin bin HM Sultan (Chairperson, ITB) Awg Ibrahim bin Edris (Deputy Chairperson, ITB) Awg Saiful Bahri bin Haji Md Ja’afar (member, ITB) Awg Mohd Kamarulzaman bin Abdullah (member, ITB) Awg Khairuddin bin Haji Abd Ghafar (member, ITB) Pg Abd Mutallib bin Pg Haji Kamaluddin (member, ITB) Awg Syed Bilal Hassan (member, ITB) Ceremony and Logistic Committee: Awg Haji Morsidi bin Haji Kassim (Co-Chairperson, ITB) Awg Joffry bin Haji Bongsu (Co- Chairperson, ITB) Dyg Elizah binti Raden Mas Ismail (Announcer, ITB) Dyg Serina binti Haji Mohd Ali (Announcer, ITB) Dyg Siti Hanisah Hj Mohd Salleh (Announcer, ITB) Awg Haji Meraj bin Haji Suhaili (member, ITB) Pg Siti Awa binti Pg Haji Mahmud (member, ITB) Awg Hj Abu sofian bin Haji Yusof (member, ITB) Awg Syed Bilal Hassan (member, ITB) Awg Haji Aftab Hassan (member, ITB) Pg Muhd Nazri bin Pg Haji Ahmad (member, ITB) Awg Khairuddin bin Haji Abd Ghafar (member, ITB) Pg Mutallib bin Pg Haji Kamalluddin (member, ITB) Awg Awang Sidi bin Mohammad (member, ITB) Awg Muhammad Kamarulzaman bin Abdullah (member, ITB) Awg Muhamad Nizam bin Mahali (member, ITB) Dyg Aslina binti Md Salleh (member, ITB) Dyg Zaitonah bte Sisa/Judin (member, ITB) Awg Haidi bin Hilmi (member, ITB) Awg Hasri bin Ibrahim (member, ITB) Awg Muhammad Nur Aiman bin Haji Jahari (member, ITB) Awg Mohammad Rahim bin Haji Yakub (member, ITB) Awg Muhammad Amirul Hardilah bin Jali (member, ITB) Awg Adi Rusydi bin Omar (member, ITB) Dyg Siti Amira binti Naim (member, ITB) Awg Shabillellah Ikhwan bin Haji Ramlee (member, ITB) Dk Alizah Nurul Ita binti Pg Haji Ali (member, ITB) Dyg Siti Simaa Suhaillina binti Azmi (member, ITB) Dyg Nursyazwani binti Bujang (member, ITB) Awg Muhammad Izzat bin Haji Muhd Ismat Hazim (member, ITB) Awg Muhammad Kamil @ Omar Abdul Aziz bin Kifli (member, ITB) Dyg Noorus Sadikin binti Haji Metussin (member, ITB) Abg Muhd Salih Hanafi bin Abg Mustafa (member, ITB) Awg Md Nabil Fikri bin Mudim Haji Suhaili (member, ITB) Dk Nurul Aziemah binti Pg Haji Muizzuddin (member, ITB) Dyg Nurul Hazrina Shahba binti Md Shahrun (member, ITB) Awg Marcelino Z. Taru III (member, ITB) Welfare and Accommodation Committee: Awg Mohamad Zawawi bin Bahari (Chairperson, ITB) Awg Murhamdillah bin Morni (member, ITB)
  • 6. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Awg Haji Ismit bin Haji Mohamad (member, ITB) Dyg Hajah Nurazmina binti Haji Lingas (member, ITB) Dyg Hajah Halimah binti Dato Haji Kassim (member, ITB) Sponsorship, Promotion and Publicity Committee: Awg Haji Rudy Erwan bin Haji Ramlie (Chairperson, ITB) Dyg Ida binti Idris (Deputy Chairperson, ITB) Awg Haji Abd Majid bin Haji Moksin (member, ITB) Awg Ramli bin Haji Yaman (member, ITB) Dyg Hajah Shanafizahwatty binti Haji Mat Salleh (member, ITB) Dyg Rafidah binti Haji Tengah (member, ITB) Dyg Nuroul’ain binti Abdul Khalid (member, ITB) Publishing Committee: Dr. Ang Swee Peng (Chairperson, ITB) Pg Muhd Nazri bin Pg Haji Ahmad (Deputy Chairperson, ITB) Awg Hj Abu sofian bin Haji Yusof (member, ITB) Awg Khairuddin bin Haji Abd Ghafar (member, ITB) Dk Rafidah binti Pg Haji Petra (member, ITB) Awg Saiful Bahri bin Haji Ja’afar (member, ITB) Awg Syed Bilal Hassan (member, ITB) Dk Norhafizah binti Pg. Haji Muhammad (member, ITB) Awg Mohammad Adi Mukmin bin Haji Sarbini (member, ITB) Dk Noraidah binti Pg Haji Mohammad (member, ITB) Dk Aidah binti Pg Haji Ahmad (member, ITB) Dyg Zaitonah binti Sisa/Judin (member, ITB) Dyg Aslina binti Md Salleh (member, ITB) Awg Mohamad Nizam bin Mahali (member, ITB) Awg Mohammad Sia bin Abdullah (member, ITB) Dyg Hajah Noraidah binti Haji Madin (member, ITB) Awg Abd Hafidz bin Haji Ali Hassan (member, ITB) Awg Mohammad Hadie bin Haji Marsidi (student, ITB) Dyg Nurasilah binti Haji Ismail (student, ITB) Dyg Hajah Nurulhanisah binti Haji Suhaili@Haji Sebeli (student, ITB) Invitation and Protocol Committee: Awg Muhd Al-Qusairy bin Haji Abd Kahar (Co-Chairperson, ITB) Dk Raden Tutimuliawati bini Pg Haji Mahmud (member, ITB) Awg Ibrahim bin Haji Md Tahir (member, ITB) Awg Jumat bin Yakob (member, ITB) Awg Md Safiuddin bin Abdullah (member, ITB) Awg Azmee bin Ahmad (member, ITB) Awg Mohd Zaiddin bin Abdul Qayyum Sirul (member, ITB) Dyg Hadhinah binti Hashim (member, ITB) Dyg Rusaimah binti Haji Md. Idris (member, ITB) Awg Khairul Anuar bin Haji Omar (member, ITB) Dyg Alya Nur Baizura binti Haji Fadzillah (member, ITB) Awg Muhammad Nazmi bin Mahali @ Nazmo (member, ITB) Awg Md. Asymawi bin Abdullah (member, ITB) Dyg Nur Zawani binti Haji Musa (member, ITB) Dyg Nurul Khairunnisa binti Haji Abdullah (member, ITB) Dk. Nur Faizah binti Pg. Suhaimi (member, ITB)
  • 7. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Awg Md Afi bin Md. Firdaus Chee (member, ITB) Dyg Nur Hayatul Majeedah binti Haji Ramlee (member, ITB) Dyg Faeiqah Nadzirah binti Awg Yakof (member, ITB) Awg Farhan Nuradli bin Abdul Karim (member, ITB) Dyg Nur Amirah binti Haji Marsidi (member, ITB) Dyg Rafidah binti Haji Junaidi (member, ITB) Awg Muhammad Yazid bin Awg Yussof (member, ITB) Refreshment Committee: Dyg Hajah Roslynna binti Haji Rosli (Chairperson, ITB) Dyg Hajah Adlina Diyanah binti Haji Abdul Hamid (Deputy Chairperson, ITB) Dyg Hajah Siti Ratiyah binti Haji Ibrahim (member, ITB) Dk Ida Nurul Fitri binti Pg Haji Kahar (member, ITB) Dk Seri Rahayu binti Pg Haji Ya’akub (member, ITB) Dk Hajah Faridah binti Pg Haji Md Tahir (member, ITB) Dyg Siti Aminah binti Bangok (member, ITB) Dyg Zaitonah binti Sisa/Judin (member, ITB) Awg Kamarudzaman bin Abu Bakar (member, ITB) Photography Committee: Awg Rajul Adli bin Haji Asli (Chairperson, ITB) Awg Mohd Audi Athir bin Haji Abd Ghani (member, ITB) Dyg Amal Nabilah binti Mohd Amin (member, ITB) Dyg Hajah Nooranisah binti Haji Idris (member, ITB) Awg Muhd Fadhli bin Haji Lamat (member, ITB) Awg Muhd Afiq bin Haji Tebian (member, ITB) Car and Traffic Committee: Awg Ali Hashim bin Haji Taha (Chairperson, ITB) Awg Kamarudzaman bin Abu Bakar (Deputy Chairperson, ITB) Awg Muslim bin Haji Lakim (member, ITB) Awg Rozaidi bin Haji Lamit (member, ITB) Awg Muhd Nizam bin Mahali (member, ITB) Awg Azmee bin Ahmad (member, ITB) Awg Jumat bin Yacob (member, ITB) Awg Hasri bin Ibrahim (member, ITB) Awg Haji Md Abu Yazid bin Haji Awg Damit (member, ITB) Souvenirs and Certificates Committee: Dyg Rozeana binti Haji Mohd Juani (Chairperson, ITB) Dyg Armanadurni binti Abdul Rahman (Deputy Chairperson, ITB) Dyg Hadijah binti Abdul Hadi (member, ITB) Ak Haji Azhan bin Pg Haji Ahmad (member, ITB) Dyg Hajah Norimah binti Haji Abdul Kadir (member, ITB) Dyg Roslizaharyanti binti Rosli (member, ITB) Dyg Saadiah binti Bangkol (member, ITB) Dyg Hajah Kartini binti HAJI kadar (member, ITB) Dyg Masdianah binti Raini (member, ITB) Awg Jumat bin Yakob (member, ITB) Awg Azmee bin Ahmad (member, ITB)
  • 8. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam BICET PANEL OF REVIEWERS    Ahmad Syamaizar bin Ahmad Sabli  Aijaz Ahmad  Ak Hj Azhan Pg Hj Ahmad  Armanadurni binti Abdul Rahman  Asmaal Muizz Sallehin bin H M Sultan  Dk Dr Noor Muneerah binti Pg Haji Jeludin  Dr Ahmad Nazri Wahidudin  Dr Franky Looi Hong Cheong  Dr Hasnul Hidayat bin Hashim  Dr Hj Afzaal Seyal  Dr Hj Md Gholam Yazdani  Dr Hj Mohd Khairul Ja’afar bin Hj Masri  Dr Mohammad Nurul Islam  Dr Sharina Yunus  Dr Sushma Nair  Dr Tan Soon Jiann  Dr Tariq Mahmood  Felix Weerakkody  Hj Ady Syarmin bin Hj Md Taib  Hj Mohd Noah bin Hj Abd Rahman  Hj Rudy Erwan bin Hj Ramlie  Hjh Roslynna binti Hj Rosli  Ibrahim bin Edris  Khairuddin Abd Ghafar  Md Hairol bin Hj Md Ali  P K Wong  Paul Turton  Peter Shanon  Pg Dr Hj Md Esa bin Pg Yunus  Pg Dr Hj Saiful Baharin bin Pg Hj Duraman  Pg Muhd Nazri Pg Hj Ahmad  Rajul Adli bin Hj Asli  Rozeana binti Hj Md Juani  Serina binti Hj Mohd Ali  Siti Noorfatimah bin Hj Awang Safar  Syed Bilal Hassan  Ummul Hasanah binti Haji Hassan  Yap Yok Hoe  Zuliana binti Nayan 
  • 9. BICET 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTSTABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................ - 1 -WELCOME TO BICET 2012 ......................................................................................................... - 2 -BICET COMMITTEES .................................................................................................................. - 3 -CONFERENCE INFORMATION .................................................................................................... - 8 -GENERAL INFORMATION .........................................................................................................- 12 -OPENING CEREMONY ..............................................................................................................- 15 -WELCOMING DINNER ..............................................................................................................- 16 -CLOSING CEREMONY ...............................................................................................................- 17 -TECHNICAL PROGRAMME ........................................................................................................- 18 - PLENARY SESSIONS .............................................................................................................. - 18 - PARALLEL SESSION 1............................................................................................................. - 19 - PARALLEL SESSION 2............................................................................................................. - 21 - PARALLEL SESSION 3............................................................................................................. - 23 - PARALLEL SESSION 4............................................................................................................. - 25 -CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS ........................................................................................................- 26 - PLENARY SESSIONS .............................................................................................................. - 26 - PARALLEL SESSION 1............................................................................................................. - 26 - PARALLEL SESSION 2............................................................................................................. - 31 - PARALLEL SESSION 3............................................................................................................. - 34 - PARALLEL SESSION 4............................................................................................................. - 38 -ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................................................- 41 -MAPS ......................................................................................................................................- 42 --1-|Page
  • 10. BICET 2012 WELCOME TO BICET 2012 Congratulations! You have been invited to present your papers at the Brunei International Conference on Engineering and Technology (BICET) from 25 to 26 January 2012 in Negara Brunei Darussalam. It is our privilege and pleasure to welcome you to this conference. BICET was established as an annual international forum for the presentation, exchange and discussion of information on academic and practical knowledge concerning advances and issues in the areas of industrial management, civil engineering, computing and information systems, electrical and electronic engineering, energy, mechanical engineering, and petroleum and chemical engineering. BICET presents a valuable opportunity to actively exchange ideas and network with participantsfrom universities, public utilities, industry, and consultancies from around the world.The theme for this year’s BICET 2012 is “Sustainable Development through Advances in Engineeringand Technology”. This conference marks the fourth BICET organised by Institut Teknologi Brunei,Brunei Darussalam. Today, industrial globalisation and the rapid advancement of technology andengineering in response to consumer demand constantly improve our quality of life. However, theadverse effects of rapid advances in technology and engineering raise issues such as: climate change,CO2 emissions, political instability, financial crises, public health and safety and internet and networksecurity. These issues must not be overlooked and need to be thoroughly looked into. BICET 2012will provide an excellent opportunity for representatives and students to share their state-of-the-artresearch and experience and to discuss crucial scientific and technical issues with colleagues andfriends from around the world.This year, a great number of contributors submitted papers. In fact, a total of 100 submissions werereceived, and after going through review processes 39 papers have been accepted for presentation.These various contributions with related topic areas will be presented in parallel sessions runningfrom Wednesday 25 January to Thursday 26 January 2012. Furthermore, the programme of parallelpaper sessions will also feature presentations from internationally renowned keynote experts on thetheme, “Sustainable Development through Advances in Engineering and Technology”. We lookforward to welcoming a large and interested audience.The Executive and the local organising committees have made every effort to ensure that your stay inBrunei Darussalam will be fruitful and socially enjoyable. We trust you will enjoy your time with us inthe “Abode of Peace”.------------------------------------------------------------------Pg Dr Haji Md Esa Al-Islam bin Pg Haji Md YunusChairman of BICET 2012Deputy Dean of Faulty of Engineering-2-|Page
  • 11. BICET 2012 BICET COMMITTEES ADVISORDato Paduka Dr Haji Omar bin Haji Khalid (Vice Chancellor, ITB)Professor Michael Cloke (Academic Advisor, ITB)Dr Hajah Naemah binti Haji Khalid (Assistant Vice Chancellor, ITB)Dyg Jennifer Hiew Lim (Registrar & Secretary, ITB) BICET ORGANISING COMMITTEESPg Dr Haji Mohd Esa Al-Islam bin Pg Haji Mohd Yunus (Chairperson, ITB)Dr Ahmad Nazri Wahidudin (Deputy Chairperson, ITB)Dr Hajah Noor Maya binti Haji Mohd Salleh (Secretary I, ITB)Pg Dr Haji Saiful Baharin bin Pg Haji Duraman (Secretary II, ITB)Secretariat:Awg Haji Ady Syarmin bin Haji Mohd Taib (Chairperson, ITB)Dyg Hajah Mariam binti Haji Abd Rahman (Deputy Chairperson, ITB)Dyg Serina binti Haji Mohd Ali (member, ITB)Dyg Siti Asmahlati Bolkini binti Ahmad (member, ITB)Awg Md Hairol bin Haji Mohd Ali (member, ITB)Ak Haji Azhan bin Pg Haji Ahmad (member, ITB)Dyg Thulasi Munohsamy (member, ITB)Dyg Hajah Siti Mariam binti Haji Amit (member, ITB)Technical Committee:Dr Tan Soon Jiann (Co-chairperson, ITB)Dr Franky Looi Hong Cheong (Co-chairperson, ITB)Awg Haji Asari bin Haji Abd Rashid (Deputy Chairperson, ITB)Dyg Siti Mazulianawati binti Haji Majid (Secretary I, ITB)Dyg Hong Shyang Pei (Secretary II, ITB)Awg Ahmad Syamaizar bin Haji Ahmad Sabli (member, ITB)Dk Dr Noor Muneerah binti Pg Haji Jeludin (member, ITB)Dk Hajah Noralam binti Pg Haji Tuah (member, ITB)Dr Haji Mohd Khairul Ja’afar bin Haji Masri (member, ITB)Dr Saiful Islam (member, ITB)Dr Teh Keng Watt (member, ITB)Awg Ismawi bin Haji Md Yussof (member, ITB)Awg Wong Pong Kit (member, ITB)Awg Peter Shannon (member, ITB)Awg Radin Jefri bin Radin Mas Basiuni (member, ITB)Awg Saiful Bahri bin Haji Md Ja’afar (member, ITB)Dyg Ummul Hasanah binti Haji Hassan (member, ITB)Awg Syed Bilal Hassan (member, ITB)Awg Murhamdilah bin Morni (member, ITB)Financial Committee:Dyg Husni binti Haji Matusin (Chairperson, ITB)Dyg Hanisah binti Haji Mohd Salleh (Deputy Chairperson, ITB)-3-|Page
  • 12. BICET 2012Awg Soh Seng Hu (member, ITB)Dyg Salinawati binti haji Awg Damit (member, ITB)Dyg Siti Nur Didiareawati binti Jali (member, ITB)Awg Jumat bin Mohd Yacob (member, ITB)Dyg Hadhimah binti Hashim (member, ITB)Fair and Exhibition Committee:Awg Asmaal Muizz Salehin bin HM Sultan (Chairperson, ITB)Awg Ibrahim bin Edris (Deputy Chairperson, ITB)Awg Saiful Bahri bin Haji Md Ja’afar (member, ITB)Awg Mohd Kamarulzaman bin Abdullah (member, ITB)Awg Khairuddin bin Haji Abd Ghafar (member, ITB)Pg Abd Mutallib bin Pg Haji Kamaluddin (member, ITB)Awg Syed Bilal Hassan (member, ITB)Ceremony and Logistic Committee:Awg Haji Morsidi bin Haji Kassim (Co-Chairperson, ITB)Awg Joffry bin Haji Bongsu (Co- Chairperson, ITB)Dyg Elizah binti Raden Mas Ismail (Announcer, ITB)Dyg Serina binti Haji Mohd Ali (Announcer, ITB)Dyg Siti Hanisah Hj Mohd Salleh (Announcer, ITB)Awg Haji Meraj bin Haji Suhaili (member, ITB)Pg Siti Awa binti Pg Haji Mahmud (member, ITB)Awg Hj Abu sofian bin Haji Yusof (member, ITB)Awg Syed Bilal Hassan (member, ITB)Awg Haji Aftab Hassan (member, ITB)Pg Muhd Nazri bin Pg Haji Ahmad (member, ITB)Awg Khairuddin bin Haji Abd Ghafar (member, ITB)Pg Mutallib bin Pg Haji Kamalluddin (member, ITB)Awg Awang Sidi bin Mohammad (member, ITB)Awg Muhammad Kamarulzaman bin Abdullah (member, ITB)Awg Muhamad Nizam bin Mahali (member, ITB)Dyg Aslina binti Md Salleh (member, ITB)Dyg Zaitonah bte Sisa/Judin (member, ITB)Awg Haidi bin Hilmi (member, ITB)Awg Hasri bin Ibrahim (member, ITB)Awg Muhammad Nur Aiman bin Haji Jahari (member, ITB)Awg Mohammad Rahim bin Haji Yakub (member, ITB)Awg Muhammad Amirul Hardilah bin Jali (member, ITB)Awg Adi Rusydi bin Omar (member, ITB)Dyg Siti Amira binti Naim (member, ITB)Awg Shabillellah Ikhwan bin Haji Ramlee (member, ITB)Dk Alizah Nurul Ita binti Pg Haji Ali (member, ITB)Dyg Siti Simaa Suhaillina binti Azmi (member, ITB)Dyg Nursyazwani binti Bujang (member, ITB)Awg Muhammad Izzat bin Haji Muhd Ismat Hazim (member, ITB)Awg Muhammad Kamil @ Omar Abdul Aziz bin Kifli (member, ITB)Dyg Noorus Sadikin binti Haji Metussin (member, ITB)Abg Muhd Salih Hanafi bin Abg Mustafa (member, ITB)Awg Md Nabil Fikri bin Mudim Haji Suhaili (member, ITB)Dk Nurul Aziemah binti Pg Haji Muizzuddin (member, ITB)-4-|Page
  • 13. BICET 2012Dyg Nurul Hazrina Shahba binti Md Shahrun (member, ITB)Awg Marcelino Z. Taru III (member, ITB)Welfare and Accommodation Committee:Awg Mohamad Zawawi bin Bahari (Chairperson, ITB)Awg Murhamdillah bin Morni (member, ITB)Awg Haji Ismit bin Haji Mohamad (member, ITB)Dyg Hajah Nurazmina binti Haji Lingas (member, ITB)Dyg Hajah Halimah binti Dato Haji Kassim (member, ITB)Sponsorship, Promotion and Publicity Committee:Awg Haji Rudy Erwan bin Haji Ramlie (Chairperson, ITB)Dyg Ida binti Idris (Deputy Chairperson, ITB)Awg Haji Abd Majid bin Haji Moksin (member, ITB)Awg Ramli bin Haji Yaman (member, ITB)Dyg Hajah Shanafizahwatty binti Haji Mat Salleh (member, ITB)Dyg Rafidah binti Haji Tengah (member, ITB)Dyg Nuroul’ain binti Abdul Khalid (member, ITB)Publishing Committee:Dr Ang Swee Peng (Chairperson, ITB)Pg Muhd Nazri bin Pg Haji Ahmad (Deputy Chairperson, ITB)Awg Hj Abu sofian bin Haji Yusof (member, ITB)Awg Khairuddin bin Haji Abd Ghafar (member, ITB)Dk Rafidah binti Pg Haji Petra (member, ITB)Awg Saiful Bahri bin Haji Ja’afar (member, ITB)Awg Syed Bilal Hassan (member, ITB)Dk Norhafizah binti Pg. Haji Muhammad (member, ITB)Awg Mohammad Adi Mukmin bin Haji Sarbini (member, ITB)Dk Noraidah binti Pg Haji Mohammad (member, ITB)Dk Aidah binti Pg Haji Ahmad (member, ITB)Dyg Zaitonah binti Sisa/Judin (member, ITB)Dyg Aslina binti Md Salleh (member, ITB)Awg Mohamad Nizam bin Mahali (member, ITB)Awg Mohammad Sia bin Abdullah (member, ITB)Dyg Hajah Noraidah binti Haji Madin (member, ITB)Awg Abd Hafidz bin Haji Ali Hassan (member, ITB)Awg Mohammad Hadie bin Haji Marsidi (student, ITB)Dyg Nurasilah binti Haji Ismail (student, ITB)Dyg Hajah Nurulhanisah binti Haji Suhaili@Haji Sebeli (student, ITB)Invitation and Protocol Committee:Awg Muhd Al-Qusairy bin Haji Abd Kahar (Co-Chairperson, ITB)Dk Raden Tutimuliawati bini Pg Haji Mahmud (member, ITB)Awg Ibrahim bin Haji Md Tahir (member, ITB)Awg Jumat bin Yakob (member, ITB)Awg Md Safiuddin bin Abdullah (member, ITB)Awg Azmee bin Ahmad (member, ITB)Awg Mohd Zaiddin bin Abdul Qayyum Sirul (member, ITB)Dyg Hadhinah binti Hashim (member, ITB)Dyg Rusaimah binti Haji Md. Idris (member, ITB)-5-|Page
  • 14. BICET 2012Awg Khairul Anuar bin Haji Omar (member, ITB)Dyg Alya Nur Baizura binti Haji Fadzillah (member, ITB)Awg Muhammad Nazmi bin Mahali @ Nazmo (member, ITB)Awg Md. Asymawi bin Abdullah (member, ITB)Dyg Nur Zawani binti Haji Musa (member, ITB)Dyg Nurul Khairunnisa binti Haji Abdullah (member, ITB)Dk. Nur Faizah binti Pg. Suhaimi (member, ITB)Awg Md Afi bin Md. Firdaus Chee (member, ITB)Dyg Nur Hayatul Majeedah binti Haji Ramlee (member, ITB)Dyg Faeiqah Nadzirah binti Awg Yakof (member, ITB)Awg Farhan Nuradli bin Abdul Karim (member, ITB)Dyg Nur Amirah binti Haji Marsidi (member, ITB)Dyg Rafidah binti Haji Junaidi (member, ITB)Awg Muhammad Yazid bin Awg Yussof (member, ITB)Refreshment Committee:Dyg Hajah Roslynna binti Haji Rosli (Chairperson, ITB)Dyg Hajah Adlina Diyanah binti Haji Abdul Hamid (Deputy Chairperson, ITB)Dyg Hajah Siti Ratiyah binti Haji Ibrahim (member, ITB)Dk Ida Nurul Fitri binti Pg Haji Kahar (member, ITB)Dk Seri Rahayu binti Pg Haji Ya’akub (member, ITB)Dk Hajah Faridah binti Pg Haji Md Tahir (member, ITB)Dyg Siti Aminah binti Bangok (member, ITB)Dyg Zaitonah binti Sisa/Judin (member, ITB)Awg Kamarudzaman bin Abu Bakar (member, ITB)Photography Committee:Awg Rajul Adli bin Haji Asli (Chairperson, ITB)Awg Mohd Audi Athir bin Haji Abd Ghani (member, ITB)Dyg Amal Nabilah binti Mohd Amin (member, ITB)Dyg Hajah Nooranisah binti Haji Idris (member, ITB)Awg Muhd Fadhli bin Haji Lamat (member, ITB)Awg Muhd Afiq bin Haji Tebian (member, ITB)Car and Traffic Committee:Awg Ali Hashim bin Haji Taha (Chairperson, ITB)Awg Kamarudzaman bin Abu Bakar (Deputy Chairperson, ITB)Awg Muslim bin Haji Lakim (member, ITB)Awg Rozaidi bin Haji Lamit (member, ITB)Awg Muhd Nizam bin Mahali (member, ITB)Awg Azmee bin Ahmad (member, ITB)Awg Jumat bin Yacob (member, ITB)Awg Hasri bin Ibrahim (member, ITB)Awg Haji Md Abu Yazid bin Haji Awg Damit (member, ITB)Souvenirs and Certificates Committee:Dyg Rozeana binti Haji Mohd Juani (Chairperson, ITB)Dyg Armanadurni binti Abdul Rahman (Deputy Chairperson, ITB)Dyg Hadijah binti Abdul Hadi (member, ITB)Ak Haji Azhan bin Pg Haji Ahmad (member, ITB)Dyg Hajah Norimah binti Haji Abdul Kadir (member, ITB)-6-|Page
  • 15. BICET 2012Dyg Roslizaharyanti binti Rosli (member, ITB)Dyg Saadiah binti Bangkol (member, ITB)Dyg Hajah Kartini binti HAJI kadar (member, ITB)Dyg Masdianah binti Raini (member, ITB)Awg Jumat bin Yakob (member, ITB)Awg Azmee bin Ahmad (member, ITB) PANEL OF REVIEWERSAhmad Syamaizar bin Ahmad Sabli Hj Rudy Erwan bin Hj RamlieAijaz Ahmad Hjh Roslynna binti Hj RosliAk Hj Azhan Pg Hj Ahmad Ibrahim bin EdrisArmanadurni binti Abdul Rahman Khairuddin Abd GhafarAsmaal Muizz Sallehin bin H M Sultan Md Hairol bin Hj Md AliDk Dr Noor Muneerah binti Pg Haji Jeludin Wong Pong KitDr Ahmad Nazri Wahidudin Paul TurtonDr Franky Looi Hong Cheong Peter ShanonDr Hasnul Hidayat bin Hashim Pg Dr Hj Md Esa bin Pg YunusDr Hj Afzaal Seyal Pg Dr Hj Saiful Baharin bin Pg Hj DuramanDr Hj Md Gholam Yazdani Pg Muhd Nazri Pg Hj AhmadDr Hj Mohd Khairul Ja’afar bin Hj Masri Rajul Adli bin Hj AsliDr Mohammad Nurul Islam Rozeana binti Hj Md JuaniDr Sharina Yunus Serina binti Hj Mohd AliDr Sushma Nair Siti Noorfatimah bin Hj Awang SafarDr Tan Soon Jiann Syed Bilal HassanDr Tariq Mahmood Ummul Hasanah binti Haji HassanFelix Weerakkody Yap Yok HoeHj Ady Syarmin bin Hj Md Taib Zuliana binti NayanHj Mohd Noah bin Hj Abd Rahman-7-|Page
  • 16. BICET 2012 CONFERENCE INFORMATION1. Conference Date, Venue and SecretariatDate : 25 - 26 January 2012Venue : Rizqun International Hotel, Abdul Razak Complex, Gadong, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei DarussalamLocated in the heart of Bruneis retail and entertainment district - Gadong, the Hotel is only 10minutes from Brunei International Airport and Bandar Seri Begawan.Secretariat : Awg Haji Ady Syarmin bin Haji Mohd TaibAddress : BICET 2012 Secretariat Institut Teknologi Brunei Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei DarussalamTelephone : +673-2461020 Fax : +673-2461035/6Email : bicet2012@itb.edu.bn Web : www.itb.edu.bn/bicet2012Web : bicet2012@gmail.com2. LanguageEnglish will be the conference language.3. Full Conference ProceedingsIn an effort to reduce the carbon footprint and to protect our environment, the organiser is providingeach registered participant with a CD-ROM which is available in the BICET 2012 carrying bag.4. Name Tags For ParticipantsA registered participant will be provided with a name tag. The name tag will allow access to sessionsand associated events. A name tag must be worn throughout the conference.5. RegistrationAll BICET 2012 attendees must register for the conference. Onsite registration desk will be availableat the Rizqun International Hotel (Level 4), Gadong on Tuesday 24th January 2012 from 16.00pm -21.00pm, and during the conference sessions from 13.15pm - 13.30pm (Wednesday, 25 Jan 2012),08.00am - 08.30am and 13.15pm – 13.30pm (Thursday 26 Jan 2012).Registration includes : Participation in the conference, a BICET 2012 carrying bag containing CD (includes full conference proceedings), coffee-breaks, lunches, and a welcoming dinner during the first day of the conference (25th January, 2012).The Registration fee is presented in the table below. Full payment is required to completeregistration. Registration Fee (1) International participants Registration by Registration after 15 December 2011 15 December 2011 Participants USD 200.00 USD 250.00 Full-time students USD 150.00* USD 187.50*-8-|Page
  • 17. BICET 2012 (2) Local participants Registration by Registration after 15 December 2011 15 December 2011 Participants USD 150.00 USD 200.00 Full-time student USD 112.50* USD 150.00**Full-time students will be eligible for a 25% discount provided that they attach a proof of enrolmentissued by their respective universities during registration.6. PaymentPayments are required to be made in USD.Payment must be made by: 1. Credit/Debit card (please complete credit/debit card payment form) 2. Telegraphic Transfer (TT) Account Name : Institut Teknologi Brunei Account No : 0-044854-007 Bank Name : Citibank Na, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam Address : No.12-15, Darussalam Complex, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8811, Negara Brunei Darussalam Swift Code : citibnbxNote :For submission of TT form and bank slip, please email to hanisah.salleh@itb.edu.bn7. Conference Floor PlanBICET 2011 will be held on the 4th floor in the Rizqun International Hotel.Parallel Sessions: Venue – Level 4, Rizqun International Hotel Parallel Songket Hall I Songket Hall II Meeting Room 4 sessions-9-|Page
  • 18. BICET 2012 Rizqun International Hotel, Gadong Songket Hall III Sutra Function Hall Songket Hall II Songket Hall I- 10 - | P a g e
  • 19. BICET 2012 Schedule of 2012 Brunei International Conference on Engineering and Technology (BICET 2012) DAY/DATE TIME EVENTS CONFERENCE VENUE SONGKET HALL I SONGKET HALL II MEETING ROOM 4 TUESDAY 16.00 – 21.00 Registration BICET Registration Desk, Level 4, Rizqun International Hotel 24 JAN 2012 WEDNESDAY 07.30 Opening Ceremony Songket Hall I, Level 4 25 JAN 2012 09.45 – 10.15 Coffee Break Sutra Function Hall, Level 4 10.30 – 11.30 Plenary Session: Keynote Speaker #1 Songket Hall I, Level 4 (Day 1) 12.00 – 13.15 Lunch Rizqun Coffee House, Ground Level 13.15 – 13.30 Registration BICET Registration Desk, Level 4 13.30 – 15.00 Parallel Session 1 CE-1 CIS-1 ME-1 (page19) (page20) (page 20 ) 15.00 – 15.30 Coffee Break Songket Hall III, Level 4 15.30 – 17.00 Parallel Session 2 CE-2 CIS-2 EEE-2 (page 21) (page21) (page 22) 19.00 BICET 2012 Welcoming Dinner Presidential Lounge, Level 8 THURSDAY 08.00 – 08.30 Registration BICET Registration Desk, Level 4 26 JAN 2012 08.30 – 09.30 Plenary Session: Keynote Speaker #2 Songket Hall I , Level 4 09.30 – 10.00 Coffee Break Songket Hall III, Level 4 (Day 2) 10.00 – 11.30 Parallel Session 3 CE-3 CIS-3 + IM-3 (page23) (page23) + (page24) 12.00 – 13.15 Lunch Rizqun Coffee House, Ground Level 13.15 – 13.30 Registration BICET Registration Desk, Level 4 13.30 – 15.00 Parallel Session 4 PCE-4 E-4 (page25) (page25 ) 15.30 Closing ceremony Songket Hall I, Level 4 Note: Abbreviations for the subject areas CE : Civil Engineering EEE : Electrical and Electronic Engineering ME : Mechanical Engineering CIS : Computer and Information Systems E : Energy PCE : Petroleum and Chemical Engineering IM : Industrial Management- 11 - | P a g e
  • 20. BICET 2012 GENERAL INFORMATIONThe City of Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam Welcome to Brunei Darussalam Just 443 km north of the equator, modern Bruneis 5,765-sq km land area is wedged between the Malaysian Borneo states of Sabah and Sarawak. Rainfall and humidity are high, with temperatures averaging 28 degrees Celsius throughout the year. Yet Brunei rests outside the tropical typhoon and earthquake belts. Brunei is comprised of four districts - Temburong, Tutong, Belait and Brunei-Muara. The nations riverfront capital, Bandar Seri Begawan, is in the Brunei-Muara district. Roughly two-thirds of the population is Malay, the rest are Chinese or members of indigenous tribes.Bahasa Melayu is the official language, although English is widely spoken and understood.The country is ruled according to Islamic values and traditions by the present Monarch, His MajestySultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Muizzaddin Waddaulah, the 29th ascendant of the worlds oldestcontinuously reigning royal line. Brunei is a Malay Muslim Monarchy, with over 600 years of recordedhistory.Brunei has emerged as an active and influential participant in international and regional core groups,including the Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC), Association of South East Asian Nations(ASEAN) and Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines - East Asian Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA).Such involvements have raised awareness of Brunei as one of the worlds most important developingeconomies.A haven for eco-tourism, over half of Brunei is unspoiled rainforest, a large proportion of which islocated in the Temburong district. Here fish hold station against the swift current of crystalline rivers.An occasional electric blue kingfisher may be soon streak low across the water. Among the vine-lacedtrees, unique flora and fauna flourish, from the parasitic pitcher plant to the distinctive hornbill.In conjunction with the Brunei Museum and the Belalong Rainforest Field Studies Centre, manyleading international research and environmental groups, including Londons Natural HistoryMuseum, continue to find and document newly discovered species.How to get hereBrunei is accessible by air with Royal Brunei Airlines (RBA), the national carrier, flying to 23 cities.Other airlines that fly to Brunei are Malaysia Airlines, Singapore Airlines and Thai AirwaysInternational.Brunei is also accessible by road from Sarawak and Sabah. A drive from Kuching, the capital city ofSarawak, takes approximately 13 hours while a drive from Kota Kinabalu, the capital of Sabah, takesapproximately 6 hours.- 12 - | P a g e
  • 21. BICET 2012ClimateEquatorial climate with temperatures ranging from 20°C to 35°C throughout the year.Population343,000.AirportBrunei International Airport is about 15 minutes drive from the capital (11 kilometer). Airport tax -International Departure: $12.CustomNo duty is charged to passengers carrying 200 cigarettes, 50 cigars or 277 grams of tobacco, twobottle of liquor (appox.2 quart) or 12 cans of beers for (non-muslim only), and a reasonable amountof perfume (0.33 litre).LanguageMalay is official language but English is widely used. Other language includes Chinese and dialect isalso spoken. Although the official religion is Islam, other faiths including Christianity and Buddhismare practiced.ShoppingMost shops open at 8.00am although department stores open an hour or so later. Many shopsremain open until 9.00pm. Department stores open seven days a while most other shops close onSundaysVisitor Info : Getting AroundGroundMany of Bruneis attractions lie within walking distance of each other in the heart of the capital city,Bandar Seri Begawan. A comprehensive public bus system serves the capital and other destinations.TaxisThere are no metered taxis in Brunei. Taxis are available at most hotels, shopping centres and theairport. In the capital, taxis are located at the Jalan Cator car park. It is advisable to prearrange yourtaxi rides by contacting the following numbers:-Bandar Seri Begawan: +673 2222214, +673 2226853 Kuala Belait : +673 3334581Seria : +673 3222020, +673 3222155 Airport Taxi Service: +673 2343671Car RentalsSelf-drive or chauffeur-driven cars are available for hire from major hotels and the airport.BusesThere are six bus routes serving Bandar Seri Begawan (BSB) area and Brunei Muara District - theCentral Line, Circle Line, Eastern Line, Northern Line, Western Line and Southern Line. They usuallyoperate from 6.30am - 7.00pm Fares start from B$1.00. Buses to other major towns such as Tutong,Seria and Kuala Belait depart from the bus terminal located at the Jalan Cator car park in downtownBandar.Water Taxis and Speedboat ServicesWater taxis are the most common means of getting to Kampong Ayer and can be hailed fromnumerous docking ports along the banks of the Brunei River. Speedboat Services to Temburong also- 13 - | P a g e
  • 22. BICET 2012available and you may purchased from the ticket counters at Jetty located in Jalan Residency at thecapital.Additional InformationUseful Malay PhrasesGood Morning Selamat Pagi No TidakGood Afternoon Selamat Petang Yes YaGood Night Selamat Malam How much? Berapa?Where is the toilet? Di mana tandas? Excuse me Maafkan sayaYoure welcome Sama-sama Thank you Terima KasihWhat is your name? Siapa nama awda? Turn right Belok KananMy name is ... Nama saya ... Turn left Belok KiriI want to go to ... Saya mahu pergi ke ... Go Straight Jalan Terus- 14 - | P a g e
  • 23. BICET 2012 OPENING CEREMONYThe executives and the organising committee of BICET cordially invite you to attend the openingceremony for the BICET conference 2012 which will take place as follows:Date : Wednesday, 25th Jan 2012Time : 7.30 amVenue : Songket Hall I, Level 4, Rizqun International Hotel, Gadong Programme07.30 : Arrival of Organising Committee members08.00 : Arrival and Registration of participants08.30 : Arrival of Guests09.00 : Arrival of the Guest of Honour Yang Berhormat Pehin Orang Kaya Indera Pahlawan Dato Seri Setia Awang Haji Suyoi bin Haji Osman Minister of Development, Negara Brunei Darussalam : Recital of Surah Al-Fatihah & Doa Selamat : Welcoming Speech by the Vice Chancellor of Institut Teknologi Brunei Yang Mulia Dato Paduka Dr Haji Omar bin Haji Khalid : Speech & Official Opening of BICET 2012 by the Guest of Honour : Souvenir Presentation to the Guest of Honour : Refreshments10.30 : Keynote Address 1 (Plenary) International Keynote Speaker 1Your presence to this event is very much appreciated, thank you.Note : Dress code – smart- 15 - | P a g e
  • 24. BICET 2012 WELCOMING DINNERThe executives and the organising committee of BICET cordially invite you to attend the WelcomingDinner which will take place as follows:Date : Wednesday, 25th Jan 2012Time : 19.00 pmVenue : Presidential Lounge, Level 8, Rizqun International Hotel, Gadong Programme19.00 : Arrival of Guests19.30 : Arrival of the Guest of Honour Yang Mulia Dato Paduka Dr Haji Omar bin Haji Khalid Vice Chancellor of Institut Teknologi Brunei : Recital of Surah Al-Fatihah and Doa Selamat : Speech by the Chairman of the Organising Committee of BICET 2012 Yang Mulia Pg Dr Hj Md Esa Al-Islam bin Pg Hj Mohd Yunus : Dinner : Cultural show by the ITB StudentsYour presence to this event is very much appreciated, thank you.Note : Dress code - smart- 16 - | P a g e
  • 25. BICET 2012 CLOSING CEREMONYThe executives and the organising committee of BICET cordially invite you to attend the closingceremony for the BICET conference 2012 which will take place as follows:Date : Thursday, 26th Jan 2012Time : 15.30 pmVenue : Songket Hall I, Level 4, Rizqun International Hotel, Gadong Programme15.30 : Arrival of the Guest of Honour - Yang Mulia Dato Paduka Dr Haji Omar bin Haji Khalid Vice Chancellor, Institut Teknologi Brunei : Recital of Surah Al-Fatihah and Doa Selamat : Speech by the Chairman of the Organising Committee of BICET 2012 Yang Mulia Pg Dr Haji Md Esa Al-Islam bin Pg Haji Mohd Yunus : Certificate Presentation : Closing Remarks : RefreshmentYour presence to this event is very much appreciated, thank you.Note : Dress code - smart- 17 - | P a g e
  • 26. BICET 2012 TECHNICAL PROGRAMMEThe technical programme, comprising a plenary and the main paper oral presentation sessions willbe held on January 25 and 26 2012, at Level 4, Rizqun International Hotel, Gadong, BruneiDarussalam. PLENARY SESSIONSWe are pleased to welcome a panel of international experts who will provide insights into the stateof research for sustainable development and new product development and innovation in recyclingof various rubber wastes.Keynote Speaker #1 : Professor Mark SpearingAffiliation : Professor of Engineering Materials / Pro Vice Chancellor (international) University of SouthamptonPresentation Title : Sustainable Development Through Engineering and TechnologyVenue : Songket Hall I, Level 4, Rizqun International HotelDate : 25th January 2012Time : 10.30 am - 11.30 amChairperson : Professor Michael Cloke (ITB)Keynote Speaker #2 : Professor Hanafi IsmailAffiliation : Deputy Dean, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering University Sains MalaysiaPresentation Title : Recycling of Various Rubber Wastes : New Product Development and InnovationVenue : Songket Hall I, Level 4, Rizqun International HotelDate : 26th January 2012Time : 08.30 am - 09.30 amChairperson : Dr Mathew Poulose (ITB)- 18 - | P a g e
  • 27. BICET 2012 Day 1 PARALLEL SESSION 1 CIVIL ENGINEERING (CE) Session: Time: Venue:Wednesday, 25th January 2012 CE-1 13.30-15.00 Songket Hall 1Chairman : ITB StaffPaper code Paper Title CE-1-1 : PREDICTION OF UNIT RESISTANCE FOR BORE PILE USING GLOBAL STRAIN EXTENSOMETER Ramli Nazir and Mohd Zahrullail Badrun CE-1-2 : SHALLOW SUBSURFACE PROFILE INVESTIGATION BY SEISMIC REFRACTION METHOD IN KUNDASANG, SABAH : APPLICATION TO SUBSURFACE DAMAGE ZONE EVALUATION Mohd Hazreek bin Zainal Abidin, Rosli bin Saad, Jamil bin Matarul, Fauziah binti Ahmad, Devapriya Chitral Wijeyasekera, Ahmad Fahmy bin Kamarudin and Azmi bin Ibrahim CE-1-3 : INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE MORPHOLOGY ON SHEAR STRENGTH AND DILATANCY OF SANDS Alvin John Lim Meng Siang, Devapriya Chitral Wijeyesekera, Adnan bin Zainorabidin and Ismail bin Hj Bakar CE-1-4 : OVERVIEW OF CURRENT FIELD GEOTECHNICAL TESTING FOR PEAT GROUND INVESTIGATION Rashidah Adon, Dato Haji Ismail bin Haji Bakar, Devapriya Chitral Wijeyesekera and Adnan bin Zainorabidin- 19 - | P a g e
  • 28. BICET 2012 COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS (CIS) Date: Session: Time: Venue: th Wednesday, 25 January 2012 CIS-1 13.30-15.00 Songket Hall II Chairman : ITB Staff Paper code Paper Title CIS-1-1 : SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTEPRISES (SMEs) IN MALAYSIA: IMPROVING ONLINE MARKETING EFFORTS BY EMBEDDING MULTIMEDIA ELEMENTS IN WEBSITE Ida Aryanie Bahrudin, Mohd Ezree Abdullah and Miswan Surip CIS-1-2 : POULTRY DISEASES EXPERT SYSTEM USING DEMPSTER-SHAFER THEORY Andino Maseleno and Md. Mahmud Hasan CIS-1-3 A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF UML PROFILE FOR HARD AND WEAKLY HARD REAL-TIME SYSTEMS Habibah Ismail, Yavuz Selim Sengoz and Dayang N. A. Jawawi MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (ME)Date: Session: Time: Venue: thWednesday, 25 January 2012 ME-1 13.30-15.00 Meeting Room 4Chairman : ITB StaffPaper code Paper Title ME-1-1 : INVESTIGATION ON AERODYNAMIC FORCES ON A HORSE CARRIAGE TOWING USED IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Md Gholam Yazdani, Siti Norbillah Sooni and Desmond Lee Wei Fatt ME-1-2 : FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF KAOLIN-BASED CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR LIQUID FILTRATION N.A. Badarulzaman, S.S. Jikan and R. Mahadi ME-1-3 : NANOFLUID HEAT TRANSFER IN A TUBE UNDER TURBULENT FLOW Viswanatha Sharma Korada, Wan Azmi Wan Hamzah, Kameswara Sarma Pullela and Rizalman Mamat ME-1-4 : DEVELOPMENT OF MODEL FOR THE ESTIMATION OF NANOFLUID HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT Wan Azmi Wan Hamzah, Viswanatha Sharma Korada, Kameswara Sarma Pullela and Rizalman Mamat- 20 - | P a g e
  • 29. BICET 2012 PARALLEL SESSION 2 CIVIL ENGINEERING (CE)Date: Session: Time: Venue: thWednesday, 25 January 2012 CE-2 15.30-17.00 Songket Hall IChairman : ITB StaffPaper code Paper Title CE-2-1 : MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HYBRID KENAF/ RECYCLED JUTE FIBERS COMPOSITES Ekhlas. A. Osman, Anatoli. Vakhguelt, Igor. Sbarski and Saad. A. Mutasher CE-2-2 : THE STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR OF PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE SANDWICH PANEL SUBJECTED TO ECCENTRIC LOAD N. Mohamad and S.L. Douvinda CE-2-3 : LOAD ANALYSIS AND RESPONSE OF OFFSHORE JACKET STRUCTURE Zulkipli Henry, Iberahin Jusoh and Amran Ayob COMPUTER AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS (CIS)Date: Session: Time: Venue: thWednesday, 25 January 2012 CIS-2 15.30-17.00 Songket Hall IIChairman : ITB StaffPaper code Paper Title CIS-2-1 : DEVELOPMENT OF A SUSTAINABLE KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR (KPI) MONITORING SYSTEM USING VIABLE SYSTEM MODEL Roliana Ibrahim, Suleiman Isah Sani, Ali Selamat and Aryati Bakri CIS-2-2 : MALAYSIAN COMPUTER SCIENCE PUBLICATIONS: A CITATION STUDY Aryati Bakri, Naomie Salim, Rose Alinda Alias and Siti Nisrin Mohd Anis CIS-2-3 : ASSESSING THE PERCEPTION OF ACADEMIC STAFF IN USING e-LEARNING: BRUNEIAN PERSPECTIVE Afzaal H. Seyal, Hj. Awg Yussof Hj. Awg Mohammad, Looi, H. C and Mohd Noah Abd Rahman- 21 - | P a g e
  • 30. BICET 2012 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING (EEE)Date: Session: Time: Venue: thWednesday, 25 January 2012 EEE-2 15.30-17.00 Meeting Room 4Chairman : ITB StaffPaper code Paper TitleEEE-2-1 : CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUNDING SYSTEMS UNDER HIGH IMPULSE CONDITIONS S. A. Syed Abdullah, N. Mohamad Nor and R. E. RajabEEE-2-2 : COMPARATIVE STUDY ON POWER LIMITATION OF A STALL REGULATED VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE Norzanah Rosmin, Suhaila Samsuri and Mohammad Yusri Hassan- 22 - | P a g e
  • 31. BICET 2012 Day 2 PARALLEL SESSION 3 CIVIL ENGINEERING (CE)Date: Session: Time: Venue:Thursday, 26th January 2012 CE-3 10.00-11.30 Songket Hall IChairman : ITB StaffPaper code Paper Title CE-3-1 : RHEOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ASPHALT BINDER CONTAINING WARM ASPHALT ADDITIVE Mohd Ezree Abdullah, Mohd Rosli Hainin, Kemas Ahmad Zamhari, Madi Hermadi, Nafarizal Nayan and Zhanping You CE-3-2 : THE IMPACT OF FOREIGN LABOURS REDUCTION IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Bachan Singh, Aminah Md Yusof and Ong Siong Wei CE-3-3 : THE EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN LABORS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Bachan Singh, Aminah Md Yusof and Ahmad Mahayuddin Ismail CE-3-4 : STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF LIMESTONE MINERAL ADDITION ON THE BEHAVIOR OF SUSTAINABLE MORTARS BASED ON SULFATE RESISTANT CEMENT L. Belagraa, W.Deboucha and M. Beddar CE-3-5 : SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL BY SEMI-AEROBIC SANITARY LANDFILL: TOWARDS ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (PENANG EXPERIENCE) Hamidi Abdul Aziz and Seyed Mohammad Hosseini COMPUTER AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS (CIS)Date: Session: Time: Venue: thThursday, 26 January 2012 CIS-3 10.00-11.30 Songket Hall IIChairman : ITB StaffPaper code Paper Title CIS-3-1 : ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN OPEN GOVERNMENT IMPERATIVES: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION BASE ON INTERACTIVITY LEVEL Mukesh Srivastava and Parwaiz Karamat CIS-3-2 : INTEGRATING INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) IN EDUCATION: THE BRUNEI PERSPECTIVE Hj Abd Rahim Derus, Franky HC Looi and Afzaal H. Seyal- 23 - | P a g e
  • 32. BICET 2012 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT (IM)Date: Session: Time: Venue: thThursday, 26 January 2012 IM-3 10.00-11.30 Songket Hall IIChairman : ITB StaffPaper code Paper Title IM-3-1 : INTERNET USAGE IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Ida idris- 24 - | P a g e
  • 33. BICET 2012 PARALLEL SESSION 4 PETROLEUM AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (PCE)Date: Session: Time: Venue: thThursday, 26 January 2012 PCE-4 13.30-15.00 Songket Hall IChairman : ITB StaffPaper code Paper TitlePCE-4-1 : THERMOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BRUNEI RICE HUSK AND SUITABILITY FOR THERMAL CONVESION VIA PYROLSIS PROCESS Muhammad S Abu Bakar and James O TitiloyePCE-4-2 : EFFICIENTLY DYE SENSITIZED AND METAL DOPED TIO2 CATALYSTS FOR PHOTOCATALYTIC WATER SPLITTING UNDER VISIBLE LIGHT Thi Thu- Le, M. Shaheer Akhtar and O-Bong Yang ENERGY (E)Date: Session: Time: Venue:Thursday, 26th January 2012 E-4 13.30-15.00 Songket Hall IIChairman : ITB StaffPaper code Paper Title E-4-1 : A STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF FEED IN TARIFF (FIT) FOR BIPV SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA H. Abdul Rahman , W.Z. Wan Omar, M.Y. Hassan and M.S. Majid E-4-2 : IMPROVING THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN ELECTRICAL MOTORS USING VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES Veronica Shabunko, C.M.Lim and S.Mathew E-4-3 : POWER PERFORMANCE OF 1:40 SCALED TIDAL CURRENT TURBINE MODEL Hjh Roslynna Hj Rosli- 25 - | P a g e
  • 34. BICET 2012 CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS PLENARY SESSIONS Keynote speaker #1Paper Title: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Professor Mark Spearing Keynote speaker #2Paper Title: RECYCLING OF VARIOUS RUBBER WASTES: NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION Professor Hanafi IsmailThe annual consumption of natural rubber is more than 15 million tons, and the output of rubberproducts is more than 31 million tons worldwide. In Malaysia, production of the pneumatic tyresalone in 2000 is 14.7 million while the tyre replacement market average is 1.3 million pieces permonth. About 35-40% go to tread market and 65-70% for disposal dumping or other use. With thedevelopment of rubber industry, a lot of waste rubber is produced in the world every year. Thediscarded scrap rubbers, which are cross-linked do not degrade rapidly enough and this causesenvironmental pollution. Among various methods for treatment of waste rubber products, recyclingis the most desirable approach to solve the problem. Recycling not only protects our environment,but also saves our limited petroleum resource from which the raw material is originating. Toovercome this problem there is a need to recycle rubber wastes. In this work, the effect of differentsizes of tire dusts and natural weathering on mechanical and morphological properties ofpolypropylene (PP)/waste tire dust (WTD) blends will be reported. PARALLEL SESSION 1 CIVIL ENGINEERING (CE)Paper code : CE-1-1PREDICTION OF UNIT RESISTANCE FOR BORE PILE USING GLOBAL STRAIN EXTENSOMETERRamli Nazir and Mohd Zahrullail BadrunA study was carried out generally to obtain the reliable range for Ultimate Skin Factor, Ksu andUltimate End Bearing Factor, Kbu with the change in Standard Penetration Test (SPT, N) valueestablished for soil in Malaysia. Pile instrumentation is to be done using state-of-the-art Global StrainExtensometer technology consists of a deformation monitoring system that uses advancedpneumatically anchored extensometers coupled with high-precision spring-loaded transducers, and anovel analytical technique to monitor loads and displacements down the shaft and at the toe offoundation piles. It was found that the Global Strain Extensometer method for the instrumentationfor the bored pile easier to install and will give good results. It also gives less risk on damaging theequipment during the installation. The results from Global Strain Extensometer show that the skinresistance factor (Ksu) is in the range of 2.0 and 2.3kN/m2 as found by Tan et. al (1998) andBalakrisnan et. al (1999). The results for base resistance factor (Kbu) for Global Strain Extensometeralso in the range between 7.0 and 10kN/m2 in agreement with Tan et. al (1998).- 26 - | P a g e
  • 35. BICET 2012Paper code : CE-1-2SHALLOW SUBSURFACE PROFILE INVESTIGATION BY SEISMIC REFRACTION METHOD INKUNDASANG, SABAH : APPLICATION TO SUBSURFACE DAMAGE ZONE EVALUATIONMohd Hazreek bin Zainal Abidin, Rosli bin Saad, Jamil bin Matarul, Fauziah binti Ahmad,Devapriya Chitral Wijeyasekera, Ahmad Fahmy bin Kamarudin and Azmi bin IbrahimNatural disaster such as mass movement can trigger and create new or existing ground damage zonein several areas particularly in Kundasang, Sabah. This study applied a seismic refraction method toinvestigate a subsurface profile damage zone mainly due to engineering geology and geotechnicalengineering assessment. Ground damage caused by a natural disaster can reflect a difficulty in theengineering investigation task especially to determine the possible subsurface damage zone forrehabilitation and maintenance purposes. Hence this study introduced the seismic refraction methodfrom geophysical techniques that used the concept of seismic waves generated by one of severaltypes of energy sources and detected by arrays of sensitive devices called geophones. The data wasprocessed by Optim software for generating the subsurface velocity structure (primary velocity, vp)and interpretation with supported by existing borehole information. The seismic refraction methodidentified three main velocity structures which consisted of top soil/residual soil (330 – 500 m/s) 0 –6 m, weathered zone with a possible mixtures of soil, boulder and rock fractured (700 – 1800 m/s) 2– 25 m and bedrock (> 2300 m/s) from 13 m depth. The thickness and width of damage zone variedwithin the survey line from 4 – 25 m and 57 m respectively with a velocity structure of 600 – 1800m/s. The seismic refraction survey produced a good similarity of results compared to the boreholeinformation in terms of geomaterial features. This study proved that the seismic refraction methodwas an appropriate technique to be applied in damage zone assessment in order to produce reliableinformation regarding the weak zone investigated. The utilization of seismic refraction method canincrease the effectiveness of civil engineering rehabilitation works in term of cost and time since itcan determine the subsurface information in two dimensional (2-D) profiles. Furthermore thisalternative method used a non destructive approach that can benefit the environment and besuitable for our sustainable development.Paper code : CE-1-3INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE MORPHOLOGY ON SHEAR STRENGTH AND DILATANCY OF SANDSAlvin John Lim Meng Siang, Devapriya Chitral Wijeyesekera, Adnan bin Zainorabidinand Ismail bin Hj BakarThe macroscale behaviour of granular materials such as sand results from particle level interactionsand the particle morphology (shapes and sizes). Clean sands are cohesionless (c = 0) but have a finitefriction angle (Ø). The shear strength of sands is entirely dependent on the density, normal stress andinterlocking particle structure. The latter is associated with the property of dilatancy (ψ) in particularwith sands. Well graded sand (SW), poorly graded uniform sand (SPuKahang), gap graded sand (SPg)from Kahang Malaysia and also (SPuL.Buzzard) uniform Leighton Buzzard sand from UK were tested in apneumatic direct shear box. The shapes of the sand particles were quantified using images obtainedfrom a digital microscope. It was found that the Øpeak, Øcr and ψ was the highest for (SW) whencompared with others. SPuL.Buzzard sands showed a significant decrease in the values with similarrelative density (Dr). The increase in normal stress (σ) caused a significant effect on the behaviour ofdilatancy. High normal stresses give very little variations in dilatancy (ψ) between the samples testedas compared to the lower normal stress that was used. This research contributes to furthering theunderstanding of the engineering behaviour of sand and also helps in predicting the occurrence ofdilation based on sand morphology in dynamic soil structure interaction.- 27 - | P a g e
  • 36. BICET 2012Paper code : CE-1-4OVERVIEW OF CURRENT FIELD GEOTECHNICAL TESTING FOR PEAT GROUND INVESTIGATIONRashidah Adon, Dato Haji Ismail bin Haji Bakar, Devapriya Chitral Wijeyesekera and Adnan bin ZainorabidinRapid pace of infrastructure development is seeing Malaysia and many other parts of the worldfacing decreasing areas of ‘suitable’ ground for infrastructure construction. Limited availability ofsites is forcing peat land to become a viable construction site for economic reasons. Although peatcauses problems to engineering, it has its own advantages in term of forestry and agriculture. Thispaper presents a critical review and discussion of recent and current geotechnical testing in peatground investigation with a variety of types of peat from several locations in Malaysia and othercountries. This paper represents data on fibric, hemic and sapric type of peat for loss of ignition(Organic Content), natural water content, liquid limit, plastic limit, density and specific gravity. Someof these tests were modified to suit peat testing. Sampling techniques to obtain undisturbed samplesfor strength testing is outlined. Shear strength is another signifiicant parameter and plays a vital rolein engineering design decisions. Various researchers and practitioners have used piezocone (CPTU)tests and vane test with correlation to in-situ vane tests or laboratory triaxial tests. This paper alsoreviews the innovative of CPTU testing on peat soil. COMPUTER AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS (CIS)Paper code : CIS-1-1SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTEPRISES (SMEs) IN MALAYSIA:IMPROVING ONLINE MARKETING EFFORTS BY EMBEDDING MULTIMEDIA ELEMENTS IN WEBSITEIda Aryanie Bahrudin, Mohd Ezree Abdullah and Miswan SuripThe idea of implementing multimedia to promote brands can be extremely beneficial. Multimediaelements such as text, graphics, animation, audio and video hold the key in attracting new clientsbusiness through digital marketing campaigns. The increased use of technology has brought aboutnumerous changes in the business world including for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) which isa major part of the industrial economies in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to investigate themultimedia element embedded in Malaysia SMEs website and to propose the guidelines in improvingonline marketing efforts. A sample of 55 Malaysia’s SMEs web sites was monitored and theembedded multimedia elements were analyzed. This data was collected in order to study the typesof multimedia elements on these web sites. The result of the study revealed that 83.6% used onlytext and graphics in their websites, 12.7% used text, graphics and animation, while only 3.6%embedded all multimedia elements in their websites. The results of this study provide helpful guidesto SMEs entrepreneurs in promoting their products.Paper code : CIS-1-2POULTRY DISEASES EXPERT SYSTEM USING DEMPSTER-SHAFER THEORYAndino Maseleno and Md. Mahmud HasanBased on World Health Organization (WHO) fact sheet in the 2011, outbreaks of poultry diseasesespecially Avian Influenza in poultry may raise global public health concerns due to their effect onpoultry populations, their potential to cause serious disease in people, and their pandemic potential.In this research, we built a Poultry Diseases Expert System using Dempster-Shafer Theory. In thisPoultry Diseases Expert System We describe five symptoms which include depression, combs, wattle,bluish face region, swollen face region, narrowness of eyes, and balance disorders. The result of theresearch is that Poultry Diseases Expert System has been successfully identifying poultry diseases.- 28 - | P a g e
  • 37. BICET 2012Paper code : CIS-1-3A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF UML PROFILE FOR HARD AND WEAKLY HARD REAL-TIMESYSTEMSHabibah Ismail, Yavuz Selim Sengoz and Dayang N. A. JawawiEmbedded systems that have timing constraints are classified as embedded real-time systems.Formally, embedded real-time systems are classified into three categories of timing constraints,named hard, soft and weakly hard. For hard real-time systems, no deadlines miss is tolerated, whilein soft real-time systems, deadlines miss is acceptable occasionally. Meanwhile, for weakly hard real-time systems, a missed deadline is tolerated but has to be stated precisely. By far, modeling timingconstraints and scheduling behavior through adaptation of modeling language are used to predictthe timing behavior and performance of sets concurrent tasks in embedded real-time systems.Nowadays, the widely used, well-known and most adopted modeling language for software modelingis Unified Modeling Language (UML). In this paper, we studied the UML profile for Schedulability,Performance and Time (SPT) as modeling language because it is known as suitable profile formodeling and analysis of embedded real-time systems. The objective of the paper is to compare thecapability of SPT profile to support both of hard real-time and weakly hard real-time requirements.Two case studies of embedded real-time systems used in this evaluation are: an elevator system casestudy which was chosen to represent a hard embedded real-time system and a mobile robot casestudy which was chosen to represent a weakly hard embedded real-time system. A set of importantcriteria to enable the modeling of timing requirements and scheduling analysis of embedded real-time systems were identified to conduct the comparative evaluation. The analysis results of thecomparative evaluation showed how UML-SPT profile can support the requirements modeling andanalysis of hard real-time systems and weakly hard real-time systems. A set of recommendation toimprove SPT profile in supporting the two types of timing requirements was concluded in this paper. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (ME)Paper code : ME-1-1INVESTIGATION ON AERODYNAMIC FORCES ON A HORSE CARRIAGE TOWING USED IN BRUNEIDARUSSALAMMd Gholam Yazdani, Siti Norbillah Sooni and Desmond Lee Wei FatThe aerodynamics of a car towing a load is an interesting problem in fluid mechanics. Since the aboveis both shape and flow dependant and no complete theory is available. As such, experimentaltechniques are thought to be useful to look into the aerodynamics of such a problem. In BruneiDarussalam, the type of horse carriage is towed normally by certain type Ford Ranger (FR) four-wheeldrive car. A scale model of 1:32 of the above is made to test in a subsonic 292 mm x 292 mm windtunnel. The ford ranger and ford ranger with horse carriage (HC) was tested separately in the abovementioned wind tunnel. The drag (CD), lift (CL) and the side forces (CS) coefficients are computedwith angle of attack (α) from 0° to 30° and Reynolds Number (Re) of 1.77 x 104 to 7.08 x 104. It iswell known that CD plays an important role in fuel economy. As expected CD for towing is generallyhigher than the CD for isolated car for all the above investigated ranges of α and Re. To reduce CD amodification on the body shape was suggested and tested in the wind tunnel. The modified bodyshape reduced CD to a minimum of 20% and a maximum of 53% for α = 0° in the investigated rangesof Re.- 29 - | P a g e
  • 38. BICET 2012Paper code : ME-1-2FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF KAOLIN-BASED CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR LIQUIDFILTRATIONN.A. Badarulzaman, S.S. Jikan and R. MahadiCeramic membranes for liquid filtration were fabricated via powder compaction method. Themembranes which comprise mixtures of local clay and combustible material were compacted at 2MPa and then, sintered at 1050oC. The studies on porosity, density and flow rate of the membranewere measured in order to evaluate its effectiveness. The results of the porosity and density tests ofthe membrane are 51.4% and 2.5348 g/cm3, respectively. Whereas, the flow rate test indicates thatthe membrane is able to flow at a rate of 197 ml/hour.Paper code : ME-1-3NANOFLUID HEAT TRANSFER IN A TUBE UNDER TURBULENT FLOWViswanatha Sharma Korada, Wan Azmi Wan Hamzah, Kameswara Sarma Pullela and Rizalman MamatThe thermo physical properties of nanofluids are required for the evaluation of convective heattransfer coefficients. Regression equations are developed as a function of concentration,temperature and particle size valid for metal and their oxide nanoparticles dispersed in water. Theequations are used for the estimation of Prandtl number and heat transfer coefficients. Theoreticaldetermination of nanofluid Nusselt number is undertaken using the eddy diffusivity equations ofSarma et al. The values from theory are compared with the available experimental data in theturbulent range of Reynolds number for volume concentration up to 3.7%. It is observed thatparticle size, concentration and operating temperature are to be considered simultaneously for thedetermination of heat transfer coefficients. The condition under which nanofluid aids enhancementis discussed.Paper code : ME-1-4DEVELOPMENT OF MODEL FOR THE ESTIMATION OF NANOFLUID HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTWan Azmi Wan Hamzah, Viswanatha Sharma Korada, Kameswara Sarma Pullela and Rizalman MamatIn the present study, nanofluids are considered as a homogenous medium and the parametersinfluencing the thermo physical properties identified. The property data available in the literature inthe temperature range of 20 to 70 °C are made dimensionless for undertaking regression analysis.The correlations developed are valid for Cu, CuO, TiO2, SiC, ZrO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 nanofluids havingparticles in the range of 20 to 170 nm diameter dispersed in water. The concept of Brownian motionis used in the development of the model for the evaluation of forced convective heat transfercoefficients. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between the values from the model and theexperimental data.- 30 - | P a g e
  • 39. BICET 2012 PARALLEL SESSION 2 CIVIL ENGINEERING (CE)Paper code : CE-2-1MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HYBRID KENAF/RECYCLED JUTE FIBERS COMPOSITESEkhlas. A. Osman, Anatoli. Vakhguelt, Igor. Sbarski and Saad. A. MutasherThe use of recycled natural, eco-friendly, renewable resources in composites, as a reinforcingmaterial, requires chemical or physical treatment to improve compatibility with the polymer matrix.The present study investigates the tensile, flexural and impact behaviours of kenaf/recycled jutevarious lengths hybrid composites. The composite materials were made from treated kenaf bast fibersize of 1-6 mm by adding 20 wt% weight percentages of fiber in unsaturated polyester resin forflexural and impact test while 30 wt% for tensile properties. These specifications of weight fractionsare due to maximum flexural, impact and tensile properties resulted from further relative study tothis research. The hybrid composites were made via adding different fraction of recycle jute fiberwith lengths of (10, 20 and 30) mm to kenaf fiber. Flexural strength and modulus of elasticity ofcomposites for all formulations were investigated in this research. Results indicated that generallythe flexural and impact properties of these various jute lengths composites systems were found todecrease significantly as the percentage of recycled jute various jute lengths was increased. Tensilestrength, modulus of elasticity and elongation of kenaf composites were improved for a certain valueof weight fraction and length of recycled jute. SEM test showed that incorporated different fiberdimensions in the composites, morphological changes take place depending upon interfacialinteraction between the varying dimensions of fiber and the resin matrix.Paper code : CE-2-2THE STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR OF PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE SANDWICH PANELSUBJECTED TO ECCENTRIC LOADN. Mohamad and S.L. DouvindaThe continuous awareness against the limited earth resources and global warming effect has urgedthe demand upon the technology that consumes less energy and dependencies to the naturalresources. The progressive research upon this issue has initiated the idea of using Precast LightweightFoam Concrete Sandwich Panel (PLFP) as an alternative to Industrialize Building System (IBS). ThePLFP consist of two wythes that enclosed a layer of polystyrene which functioned as insulation layer.Steel bar of 9 mm will be used for the horizontal and vertical reinforcements and 6 mm steel bent at45° will be used as shear truss connector. The purpose of this paper is to study the structural behaviorof the PLFP panel under the eccentric load. The study will involved the relationship between thedensity, slenderness ratio, compressive strength, crack pattern and the comparison of the structuralbehavior of PLFP under axial and eccentric load. The testing on the two samples of PLFP under axialand eccentric load shows that the PLFP will have lower strength capacity when tested under eccentricload. Consideration on this particular aspect will increase the reliability on the PLFP application in theconstruction field.Paper code : CE-2-3LOAD ANALYSIS AND RESPONSE OF OFFSHORE JACKET STRUCTUREZulkipli Henry, Iberahin Jusoh and Amran AyobAny structures installed in the ocean are subjected to external loadings. These loadings can be gravityloads, environmental loads, seismic loads, hydrodynamic loads, and accidental loads. Physically thestructural natural responses toward these loadings are in term of displacements and vibrations.- 31 - | P a g e
  • 40. BICET 2012In this paper, the structural response toward external loading is estimated in term of stress utilizationat structural component level. Stress utilization is a ratio of stress due to applied loading to theallowable stress of the member. The allowable stress is calculated based on the InternationalStandards or Guidelines such as American Institute of Steel Construction, AISC, InternationalStandard Organization, ISO, and American Petroleum Institute, API. Any installed structures aredesigned or reassessed to meet the requirement as stipulated in the international standards.In this paper the type of loading on the structures normally considered in the structural design aswell as structural reassessment, structural response toward the applied loadings and structuralutilization checks that use to measure the level of stress on structural member were addressed. Thestructures are defined as code compliance if all the all structural components meet the coderequirement such as stress utilization factor of less than 1.0. As for foundation, in addition to stressutilization check, the foundation is also check against the soil bearing capacity which is normally termas foundation utilization check. The foundation utilization is defined as ratio of summation appliedloading against soil bearing capacity and must be less than 1.0. Particular case study on fixed offshorestructure will be presented in the paper to demonstrate the load and response on the structures. COMPUTER AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS (CIS)Paper code : CIS-2-1DEVELOPMENT OF A SUSTAINABLE KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR (KPI) MONITORING SYSTEMUSING VIABLE SYSTEM MODELRoliana Ibrahim, Suleiman Isah Sani, Ali Selamat and Aryati BakriKey Performance Indicator (KPI) delivery process can be considered as a feedback process. It isneeded in the measurement of staff improvement and productivity in all types of organization. If theKPI delivery process is disrupted or destroyed, then generally the strategic goals of an organizationare likely to fail. Organization such as the Institution of Higher Learning (IHL) contains hundreds ofstaff at different levels, categories and designations. In the IHL, scholarly publication is one of the keyperformance index set by the management to their academic staffs. All academic staffs of an IHL areinvolved in the KPI delivery process within their organization in order to ensure staff achieve their KPItargets. However, with different levels, categories and designations of academic staffs, themanagement encounters difficulties in delivering and monitoring staffs’ achievement andperformance. This paper discusses the use of Viable System Model as diagnostic tool to analyze theKPI Delivery Process of scholarly publication by academic staffs in the Institution of Higher Learning.Using this model, the organizational analysis was done by selecting one IHL as case study andseparated it into meta-system and sub-system during the analysis. The results of the diagnostic werethen used to develop a sustainable framework for the development of Sustainable Key PerformanceIndicator Monitoring and Control System. The main capability highlighted by this system issustainable feedback features. The use of the ICT based system for monitoring and controlling theKPI delivery process is aim at ensuring the academic staff achieves their target KPI set by theirmanagement and support their organization’s mission, vision and strategic goals.Paper code : CIS-2-2MALAYSIAN COMPUTER SCIENCE PUBLICATIONS : A CITATION STUDYAryati Bakri, Naomie Salim, Rose Alinda Alias and Siti Nisrin Mohd AnisThis paper analyses the citation patterns of Malaysian computer science publications in the Web ofKnowledge (WOK) from 1987-2007. This is the first study focusing on a citation analysis of Malaysianpublication data in the field of computer science. The citation data consisted of searches of the WOKdatabases. The results showed a total of 481 citations with at least one citation for 125 articles. Theaverage number of citations per publication is 0.95, which is low. The main channel of publication is- 32 - | P a g e
  • 41. BICET 2012conference proceedings, which account for approximately 64% of the 204 out of 321 articles. Thetotal number of countries that cited Malaysian computer science articles is 43, with the highestcounts from China. As expected, the highest citers of Malaysian computer science articles areMalaysian universities – Universiti Multimedia, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, and UniversitiMalaya.Paper code : CIS-2-3ASSESSING THE PERCEPTION OF ACADEMIC STAFF IN USING e-LEARNING : BRUNEIAN PERSPECTIVEAfzaal H. Seyal, Hj. Awg Yussof Hj. Awg Mohammad, Looi, H. C and Mohd Noah Abd RahmanThe present study investigates the eighty-six academics from the two faculties of a technicaluniversity to identify the factors responsible for establishing the intentions to adopt e-Learning. Thestudy uses the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) as a reference framework to understand the e-learning behavioral intentions and is based upon survey methodology. The result shows that majorityof staff have a positive attitudes toward the e-learning with a mean of 3.64. The result furthersuggests that staff’s attitude toward e-learning and subjective norms; the two important underlyingconstructs of TRA are significantly related to their intention to use e-learning systems. Theimplications of these findings are discussed, and some conclusions are drawn for the relevantauthorities. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING (EEE)Paper code : EEE-2-1CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUNDING SYSTEMS UNDER HIGH IMPULSE CONDITIONSS. A. Syed Abdullah, N. Mohamad Nor and R. E. RajabThe characteristics and behavior of grounding systems are important in order to minimize dangerouselectrical shock. Up to this date, little publication has been made on the field test compared tolaboratory and computational method. This could be due to the difficulty to carry out the field test asit requires a lot of time and high cost for man power and transportation to handle the heavy andbulky equipment. So far, most studies investigated the grounding systems under low-magnitude orlow-frequency test (steady-state). This present study investigates the characteristic profile ofgrounding system under impulse condition on purposely-built grounding systems in MultimediaUniversity (MMU). The impulse test was also conducted at several grounding systems in order to gainbetter understanding on the behavior of the system under impulse. The results from this workprovide the closest link to the real grounding systems under impulse conditions.Paper code : EEE-2-2COMPARATIVE STUDY ON POWER LIMITATION OF A STALL REGULATED VARIABLE SPEED WINDTURBINENorzanah Rosmin, Suhaila Samsuri and Mohammad Yusri HassanThis paper deals with power limitation for a small-sized stall-regulated variable speed wind energyconversion system. Here, a Power Loop Control using a Proportional Integral (PI) controller and PolePlacement method are presented. Control effort is focused to control the generated power and thegenerator torque corresponding to the wind speed variation above the rated wind speed. A simpletuning method of PI controller for Power Loop Control is briefly explained. For pole placementmethod, the influence of different damping ratios is shown. Finally, the comparison of the transientresponse of both methods is demonstrated.- 33 - | P a g e
  • 42. BICET 2012 PARALLEL SESSION 3 CIVIL ENGINEERING (CE)Paper code : CE-3-1RHEOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ASPHALT BINDER CONTAINING WARM ASPHALT ADDITIVEMohd Ezree Abdullah, Mohd Rosli Hainin, Kemas Ahmad Zamhari, Madi Hermadi, Nafarizal Nayanand Zhanping YouRecently, the asphalt industry is making a tremendous effort in reducing fuel consumption andemissions in plants by addition of warm asphalt additive (WAA). Several studies have been conductedevaluating the properties of the warm mix asphalt; however, little documented research on therheology of the binders containing WAA is available especially when dealing the sources of binders.In this paper, rheology characteristics of the Malaysian asphalt binder containing WAA wereconducted using rotational viscosity test and dynamic mechanical analysis using a dynamic shearrheometer (DSR). The results of the investigation indicate that the WAA had a significant reduction ofrequired heat for mixing and compaction effort and also shows lower permanent deformation whencompared to the base binders.Paper code : CE-3-2THE IMPACT OF FOREIGN LABOURS REDUCTION IN CONTRUCTION INDUSTRYAbdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Bachan Singh, Aminah Md Yusof and Ong Siong WeiMalaysia Government has taken the stiffer action for the recruitment of the foreign labours and therepatriation of those who were here illegally since April 2002. However, only a few days before theenforcement of Immigration Act 1959/63 (Amended 2002), government had decided to continueallowing the recruitment of foreign labour including Indonesian Labour. This flip flop policy is evenpersisted until now. The main issue is that until when Malaysia is able not to depend on foreignlabour especially Indonesia labours in construction industry? How about the impact of reducingforeign labour in construction industry? Hence, the aim of this research project was to was toexamine the impact of foreign labours reduction in the construction industry. A total of 20 sets ofquestionnaire forms had been distributed to the contractors at construction sites around JohorBahru, Malaysia. The data was analyzed using average index method to show the frequency of theanswers. Form the findings, the result show that reducing of foreign labour would create somenegative impacts to the development of construction industry due to shortage of manpower. Thisproved that our countries still need to depend on foreign labour. To overcome the problems in thelong run, government has to establish more efficient and comprehensive policies to reduce thenumber of foreign labour.Paper code : CE-3-3THE EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN LABORS IN THE CONTRUCTION INDUSTRYAbdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Bachan Singh, Aminah Md Yusof and Ahmad Mahayuddin IsmailRapid economic growth due to current Economic Transformation Plan had offered a lot of jobopportunities across many sectors in Malaysia, including construction industry. However, demandagainst supply of manpower has forced the construction industry to import and use foreign laboursas the primary source. However, their lack of skills and academic background has given variousproblems to the construction industry. Therefore, a study has been carried out in order to identifythe reasons why they are been used widely in the construction industry, their impact towards thequality of works and the need of their welfare. Fifteen (15) respondents from the management levelof construction firms around Johore, Malaysia have been chosen to respond to the questionnaires,which were distributed in two kinds of methods, by postal and by hand. The results indicated that- 34 - | P a g e
  • 43. BICET 2012utilising foreign labours in the construction industry has produced a lot of benefits to the contractorsand players in the construction industry. This can be proven by the reasons they are here, theirquality of works and need of their welfare.Paper code : CE-3-4STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF LIMESTONE MINERAL ADDITION ON THE BEHAVIOR OF SUSTAINABLEMORTARS BASED ON SULFATE RESISTANT CEMENTL. Belagraa, W.Deboucha and M. BeddarThis study aims at developing the limestone fillers combined with the cement blend in theproduction of a sustainable sulfate resistant cement based mortars. The first part of this researchwork investigates the physical properties of the mortar containing an increasing percentage of thelimestone fillers (LF) [0, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%]. The second part studies the behaviour of themortars regarding mechanical response when the limestone fillers are incorporated to produce muchmore sustainable compound cement materials. The results obtained showed that, the mechanicalresponse at early age of the mortars based on sulfate resistant cement with limestone fillersaddition(LM) gave more or less similar values to that of the control mortar(CM) without addition, andwhich decreased at a long-term for 28 days age and beyond. The absorption was much more limitedin the case of sulfate resistant cement mixes with limestone fillers addition. However, normalconsistence is greater for mortars with fillers (LM) in comparison with reference mix (CM).Paper code : CE-3-5SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL BY SEMI-AEROBIC SANITARY LANDFILL : TOWARDS ACHIEVING ASUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (PENANG EXPERIENCE)Hamidi Abdul Aziz and Seyed Mohammad HosseiniMost of the existing solid waste landfill sites in developing countries are practicing either opendumping or unsanitary landfilling. Some are located at the upstream of water intakes or at sensitivegroundwater catchment area. Most of these sites are simply dumping grounds without anyenvironmental protection. This practice is very unsustainable and creates a lot of problems such asfires due to landfill gases, rodents, bad odours and leachate pollution. Leachate is formed whenwater passes through the waste in the landfill cell. The water mainly comes from rain and fromwaste degradation process. As the liquid moves through the landfill, many organic and inorganiccompounds, like heavy metals, are transported in the leachate. This moves to the base of the landfillcell and may pollute the groundwater. Organics in the wastes decompose to produce CH4 and CO2gases, trace amounts of toxic substances, and bad odours, which are the side products ofdecomposition. CH4 and CO2, both greenhouse gases, contribute to global warming. This paperhighlights the basic rule in sustainable waste disposal by means of a semi-aerobic landfillingtechnology which is more environmental friendly. Some of the important design criteria of semi-aerobic landfill and their advantageous will be highlighted, backed with technical data asimplemented in Malaysia. Local experience in effectively handling and treating the leachate up tothe standard discharge limit will be discussed. The recovery of landfill gases for use as an energyresource has become the center of interest in recent years since it solves both environmentalpollution and energy shortage. In view of this, gas emissions data sampled at selected semi-aerobiclandfill in Malaysia will be shared. The Clean development mechanism (CDM) approach in reducinggreenhouse gas emissions for a developing country will also be highlighted.- 35 - | P a g e
  • 44. BICET 2012 COMPUTER AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS (CIS)Paper code : CIS-3-1ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN OPEN GOVERNMENT IMPERATIVES: AN EMPIRICALINVESTIGATION BASED ON INTERACTIVITY LEVELMukesh Srivastava and Parwaiz KaramatModern Internet and communication technologies (ICT) are the enabling technologies of the OpenGovernment initiative. ICT provide new and effective ways to share information, interact withdiverse constituents, and establish mutually beneficial relationships among government agencies andwith other public and private organizations. A rapidly growing list of a variety of social media tools isfinding application in the implementation of the open government initiative in what has come to becalled Government 2.0. Practical guidance, largely from federal government practitioners andindustry analysts, provides lessons learned and general guidance in implementation. However, theliterature does not offer a means to assess the current landscape of the suite of tools in a mannerconducive to measuring effective use in a timely and comprehensive manner. This paper proposes amodel for the assessment of social media tools as applied to open government. The model is thenused to evaluate the application of social media tools by federal, state, and local governments.Results are captured by level of government, tool use as compared to model predictions, andcorrelation to various demographic measures. These formatting guidelines are prepared to ensurethat all papers submitted meet the conferences presentation requirements. It is necessary forauthors to follow these guidelines to help ensure presentation uniformity in the conferenceproceedings and ensure that publication time is met. A template has been prepared for the use of allauthors. Note that submissions that do not comply with these guidelines may be returned.Paper code : CIS-3-2INTEGRATING INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) IN EDUCATION: THEBRUNEI PERSPECTIVEHj Abd Rahim Derus, Franky HC Looi and Afzaal H. SeyalThe belief that ICT can bring positive impact and escalate students‘ learning has made manygovernments allocate millions of dollars into improving the ICT infrastructure and upgrading facilitiesto make ICT integration in education possible. The Brunei Darussalam government is no exception.Through its National Development Plan budget, the government has undertaken significantinvestments to enhance the role of technology in education. Although valuable lessons may belearned from best practices around the world, there is no one formula for determining the optimallevel of ICT integration in the educational system. Significant adjustment and challenges need to beconsidered in each and every country.This study aims to develop a better understanding of the Brunei‘s effort in integrating ICT in e-education, its current implementation status and latest issues & challenges facing its stakeholders.This paper highlights some of the structural changes and processes that shaped the formation of thee-Education plan, taking into account the various theoretical frameworks and implementationmechanisms. The outcome of this study will provide a basis for the construction of a research modelfor subsequent quantitative analysis to assess the model‘s validity and provide further insights intothe relationships among the issues.- 36 - | P a g e
  • 45. BICET 2012 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT (IM)Paper code : IM-3-1INTERNET USAGE IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAMIda IdrisThe Internet is widely used in the modern business world and has revolutionised the way businesseshave been conducted. Today it seems that without the use of the internet it would be hard for anybusiness, be it small or big to be successful. Businesses that are of small and medium in size mostlysee it possible to have a sustainable business without being a brick and mortar which refers to acompany that possesses a building or store for its operations. In contrast many businesses todayconduct their operations through online stores, which have no physical presence. Many of theowners realize that using the Internet for business development can be sustainable and easier anddoes not incur much overhead. The study is to examine the internet practices used by Small MediumEnterprises in Brunei Darussalam; problems encountered for business growth; benefits gained frominternet use and the extent to which internet use are adopted by owner/manager of SMEs in BruneiDarussalam in supporting their business development.Based on both primary and secondary data this study finds that the use of internet by local SMEs isimportant to their on-going survival. Yet, given the opportunities and benefits that internet canprovide it has been shown that Brunei’s older established SMEs are relatively slow in adopting them.This paper develops a model from recent literature on the facilitators and inhibitors to the adoptionof internet by small and medium businesses. Findings also show that there are no legal restrictions orclear ramifications of doing business online.- 37 - | P a g e
  • 46. BICET 2012 PARALLEL SESSION 4 PETROLEUM AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (PCE)Paper code : PCE-4-1THERMOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BRUNEI RICE HUSK AND SUITABILITY FOR THERMALCONVESION VIA PYROLSIS PROCESSMuhammad S Abu Bakar and James O TitiloyeAlternative energy in the form of biofuel is an attractive option for reducing the dependence of fossilfuel usage in Brunei. Thermal conversion with pyrolysis is therefore a viable process for biofuelproduction. Selection of biomass feedstock and their characterisation is an important pre-requisitestep to find out whether the material is fit for thermal conversion into biofuels. Brunei rice husk(BRH) of the ‘Laila’ species has been characterised according to standard procedures and comparedto other types of agricultural waste in order to assess their suitability for use in biofuel production.Proximate, ultimate, compositional, heating value and Thermogravimetric (TG) analyses were carriedout on Brunei and African Rice Husks. Proximate analysis shows that BRH contains 8.43% moisture,68.25% volatiles and 14.83% ash, with the ash composition analysis showing a significant amount ofpotassium, calcium and phosphorus thus having an effect on pyrolysis products yields. Elementalanalysis shows that the nitrogen and sulphur content were low. The thermal degradation behaviourof BRH using TGA suggests a weight loss of around 70% at temperature below 600oC. Compositionalanalysis revealed that BRH consists of 41.52% cellulose, 14.04% hemi-cellulose and 33.67% lignin byweight. The characterisation methods have shown that BRH high volatile content, a heating value of17.34 MJ/kg and low nitrogen and sulphur content makes it a suitable feedstock for thermalconversion into biofuels.Paper code : PCE-4-2EFFICIENTLY DYE SENSITIZED AND METAL DOPED TIO2 CATALYSTS FOR PHOTOCATALYTIC WATERSPLITTING UNDER VISIBLE LIGHTThi Thu- Le, M. Shaheer Akhtar and O-Bong YangVarious dye molecules sensitized Cobalt doped TiO2 (Co/TiO2) materials were prepared for thephotocatalytic water splitting under visible light irradiation. Eosin Y and Rhodamine B dyes wereemployed for the sensitization on the surface of Co/TiO2 catalyst. By the morphological, Co particleswere apparently seen in the form of aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles. UV-DRS spectra was shown thesignificant blue shift, that confirmed Co doping into TiO2. The dye sensitized (Eosin Y and RhodamineB dyes) on Co-TiO2 catalyst displayed a longer shift with hump peak within the wide wavelengthrange of 450-580 nm with decreased in the band gap (2.48 eV) and (2.58 eV) respectively. Byphotocatalytic water splitting results, EoY-Co/TiO2 catalyst obtains very high rates of H2 evolution of - he increasedsurface oxygen vacancies by cobalt doping for the adsorption of Eosin Y on Co–doped TiO2 and highlight harvesting efficiency of Eosin Y dye molecules. ENERGY (E)Paper code : E-4-1A STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF FEED IN TARIFF (FIT) FOR BIPV SYSTEM IN MALAYSIAH. Abdul Rahman , W.Z. Wan Omar, M.Y. Hassan and M.S. MajidAs the world communities and consumers become more conscious of the negative aftermath of thetraditional ways of producing electricity, new cleaner sources of energy are needed. A promising- 38 - | P a g e
  • 47. BICET 2012system is the Solar Photovoltaic (PV) technology however this technology is very expensive. Toencourage the uptake of solar PV, many governments subsidise the capital costs of installing PVsystems, but this prove be too costly. In come the Feed in Tariff method, where instead of subsidizingthe capital costs, the subsidy is in the form of preferential purchase tariff of electricity produced byclean energy technologies, imposed by governments onto major electricity distributors. In this waythe independent, small producers sell their energy at higher prices compared to what they use, thuscompensating for the capital cost they had spent to implement the RE system. This paper presents acase study in implementing the FiT in Malaysia for the Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV)system. The measured energy output data from the BIPV project was used in this study to calculatethe annual revenue with and without the FiT. This was then used to calculate the payback period forthe project.Paper code : E-4-2IMPROVING THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN ELECTRICAL MOTORS USING VARIABLE FREQUENCYDRIVESVeronica Shabunko, C.M.Lim and S.MathewIn order to attain high-level of energy efficiency, energy saving technologies need to be implementedin electrical systems. In this paper, we focus on the use of high efficiency Variable Frequency Drives(VFD) for Energy Efficiency and Conservation (EEC). Motors typically take up 70% of the total energyconsumed in industries, and significant energy savings can be achieved if conventional motors arereplaced with VFD. Variable Frequency Drives can provide over 20% saving in energy. This paperprovides an overview on how VFD saves energy, and describes some of the control methods for VFD.Engineering-economics analyses on VFD are also presented. It is found that VFD pay-back period istypically 2 years under the local conditions. Considering the strong performance of VFD in EEC, it ishighly recommended that medium cost EEC initiatives should be looked into for implementing theVFD in the electrical systems in Brunei.Paper code : E-4-3POWER PERFORMANCE OF 1:40 SCALED TIDAL CURRENT TURBINE MODELHjh Roslynna Hj RosliThe worries of the depleting supply of energy resources from fossil fuels have accelerated thedevelopment and establishment of renewable energy resources that are also relatively cleaner.Interest in the search of finding alternative energy source has driven government and private sectorsin developing technologies in the renewable energy sectors including tidal current energy. Researchand development of different design concepts and prototype of tidal current energy has intensifiedin the global search of finding energy resources in the post peak oil era. A tidal current turbine deviceharnessed the kinetic energy available in tidal currents. It has a similar working principle as a windturbine, instead of air, water is the working fluid of this device. In theory, the maximum power thatcan be extracted from wind or in this case water is around 59% of the available energy, defined byBetz Theory. In this study, the performance of a 1:40th scaled model of a tidal current twin turbinewill be evaluated in a towing tank facility. The tidal current turbine has two turbines in a canardconfiguration to one another. The experimental result is then compared to the Blade Elementtheoretical calculation model using MSExcel, which includes the tip loss correction factor.Performance of the tidal current turbine such as power coefficient, torque coefficient and dragcoefficient will be compared between the experimental and theoretical values. Labview was used fordata acquisition from the experiments conducted. The yaw angle of the device and blade pitch anglewere fixed at 0o and 4o respectively throughout the whole experiments. From the results obtained,one of the turbines is found to produce higher power coefficient than the predicted results whilst theother is producing lower power than predicted. The performance of one turbine with and without- 39 - | P a g e
  • 48. BICET 2012the other attached was also obtained where the performance are found to be higher when bothturbines are attached to the device. The results obtained from this study will be useful in determiningthe feasibility and productivity of the actual scaled model.- 40 - | P a g e
  • 49. BICET 2012 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe executives and the organising committee of the BICET 2012 would like to appreciativelyacknowledge to all the BICET members for their generous contribution toward the success of theconference and their continued commitment and support. THANKS to everybody who made this conference possible and a great experience!- 41 - | P a g e
  • 50. BICET 2012 MAPS- 42 - | P a g e
  • 51. Conference Floor Plan Continue on next page
  • 52. Schedule of 2012 Brunei International Conference on Engineering and Technology (BICET 2012)DAY/DATE TIME EVENTS CONFERENCE VENUE SONGKET HALL I SONGKET HALL II MEETING ROOM 4 TUESDAY 16.00 – 21.00 Registration BICET Registration Desk, Level 4, Rizqun International Hotel 24 JAN 2012 WEDNESDAY 07.30 Opening Ceremony Songket Hall I, Level 4 25 JAN 2012 09.45 – 10.15 Coffee Break Sutra Function Hall, Level 4 10.30 – 11.30 Plenary Session: Keynote Speaker #1 Songket Hall I, Level 4 (Day 1) 12.00 – 13.15 Lunch Rizqun Coffee House, Ground Level 13.15 – 13.30 Registration BICET Registration Desk, Level 4 13.30 – 15.00 Parallel Session 1 CE-1 CIS-1 ME-1 (page19) (page20) (page 20 ) 15.00 – 15.30 Coffee Break Songket Hall III, Level 4 15.30 – 17.00 Parallel Session 2 CE-2 CIS-2 EEE-2 (page 21) (page21) (page 22) 19.00 BICET 2012 Welcoming Dinner Presidential Lounge, Level 8 THURSDAY 08.00 – 08.30 Registration BICET Registration Desk, Level 4 26 JAN 2012 08.30 – 09.30 Plenary Session: Keynote Speaker #2 Songket Hall I , Level 4 09.30 – 10.00 Coffee Break Songket Hall III, Level 4 (Day 2) 10.00 – 11.30 Parallel Session 3 CE-3 CIS-3 + IM-3 (page23) (page23) + (page24) 12.00 – 13.15 Lunch Rizqun Coffee House, Ground Level 13.15 – 13.30 Registration BICET Registration Desk, Level 4 13.30 – 15.00 Parallel Session 4 PCE-4 E-4 (page25) (page25 ) 15.30 Closing ceremony Songket Hall I, Level 4Note: Abbreviations for the subject areas CE : Civil Engineering EEE : Electrical and Electronic Engineering ME : Mechanical Engineering CIS : Computer and Information Systems E : Energy PCE : Petroleum and Chemical Engineering IM : Industrial Management
  • 53. Industrial Management Civil Engineering Computing &Information SystemElectrical & Electronic Engineering Energy Mechanical EngineeringPetroleum & Chemical Engineering
  • 54. Prediction of Unit Resistance for Bore Pile Using Global Strain Extensometer CE-1-1Shallow Subsurface Profile Investigation By Seismic Refraction Method In Kundasang, CE-1-2Sabah: Application To Subsurface Damage Zone EvaluationInfluence Of Particle Morphology On Shear Strength And Dilatancy of Sands CE-1-3.Overview of Current Field Geotechnical Testing for Peat Ground Investigation CE-1-4.Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Kenaf/ Recycled Jute fibers Composites. CE-2-1The Structural Behavior of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel CE-2-2Subjected to Eccentric Load.
  • 55. Load Analysis and Response of Offshore Jacket Structure CE-2-3Rheology Characteristics of Asphalt Binder Containing Warm Asphalt Additive CE-3-1The Impact of Foreign Labours Reduction in Construction Industry. CE-3-2The Employment of Foreign Labors in the Construction Industry. CE-3-3Study of the effect of limestone mineral addition on the behaviour of sustainable CE-3-4mortars based on sulfate resistant cement.Solid Waste Disposal by Semi-Aerobic Sanitary Landfill: CE-3-5Towards Achieving a Sustainable Development (Penang Experience).
  • 56. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Prediction of Unit Resistance for Bore Pile Using Global Strain Extensometer Ramli Nazir, PhD1. Mohd Zahrullail Badrun, M.Eng2. 1 Assoc. Professor, Ingeneur, Lecturer Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia, ramlinazir@utm.my 2 Senior Engineer, Mott Mc Donald (M) Sdn. Bhd. Kuala Lumpur, zahrull07@yahoo.com Abstract A study was carried out generally to obtain the reliable range for Ultimate Skin Factor, Ksu and Ultimate End Bearing Factor, Kbu with the change in Standard Penetration Test (SPT, N) value established for the soil in Malaysia. Pile instrumentation is to be done using state-of-the-art Global Strain Extensometer technology consists of a deformation monitoring system that uses advanced pneumatically anchored extensometers coupled with high-precision spring-loaded transducers, and a novel analytical technique to monitor loads and displacements down the shaft and at the toe of foundation piles. It was found that the Global Strain Extensometer method for the instrumentation for the bored pile easier to install and will give good results. It is also giving less risk on damaging the equipment during the installation. The results from Global Strain 2 Extensometer show that the skin resistance factor (Ksu) is in the range of 2.0 and 2.3kN/m as found by Pienwej et. al (1994) and Tan et. al (1998)). The results for base resistance factor (Kbu) for Global Strain Extensometer also in the range of 7.0 to 10kN/m2 of value found by Tan et. al (1998). (Keywords: Ultimate Skin Factor, Ultimate End Bearing Factor, Global Strain Extensometer, Standard Penetration Test) 1.0 INTRODUCTION Most of the foundation design is based from empirical evaluation through research works. The mechanism of load transfer in foundation is very complex, thus mathematical evaluation is rather too ideal to be used. Thus empirical approach will offer a better solution in determining the ultimate capacity of the foundation. However, the weakness of empiricism approach is that, every solution have their own unique way which inheritable draw a different conclusion. Thus each and every way of design need full scale evaluation to justify the design reliability. Load test namely was used as justification methods of design reliability. The design of bored piles in Malaysia is usually based on the results of SPT-N. The empirical approach of ultimate unit skin resistance (fs) is in relation with Ks x SPT-N while for ultimate base resistance (fb) is related to Kb x SPT-N. Both relationships are used in the design. To evaluate the Ks and Kb, the value with the local soil condition required vibrating wire strain gauges and mechanical tell-tales rod are installed and cast within the pile to allow for monitoring of axial loads and movement at various levels down to the piles shaft and the pile toe. The constraint with this method includes long lead time required for instrumentation, instruments have to be pre-assembled and installed onto the cage prior to concreting of the pile. Tremendous difficulties involved in coordinating the installation of the strain gauges into pile cage and handling the cable prior concreting. Conventional method often gives the unsatisfactory results due to the human factor prior lifting the cage and concreting works. To address the challenges and difficulties posed by the conventional methods, retrieval sensors named Global Strain Extensometer was introduced for the bored pile instrumentation. This technology consists of a deformation monitoring system that used advanced pneumatically 1
  • 57. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam anchored extensometers coupled with high-precision spring loaded transducers, a novel analytical technique to monitor loads and displacements down the shaft and at the toe of bored piles through sonic logging tubes. 2.0 GLOBAL STRAIN EXTENSOMETER The Global Strain Extensometer Method used for static load testing on bored piles is a deformation monitoring system using advanced pneumatically anchored extensometers and a novel analytical technique for determining axial loads and movements at various levels down the pile shaft including the pile base level. This method is particularly useful for monitoring pile performance and optimizing pile foundation design as reported by Hanifah et. al(2005, 2006). Normally, strain gauges (typically short gauge length) are used for strain measurement at a particular level or spot, while tell-tale extensometers (typically long sleeved rod length) are used purely for shortening measurement over an interval (over a length between two levels). From a ‘strain measurement’ point of view, the strain gauge gives strain measurement over a very short gauge length while the tell-tale extensometer gives strain measurement over a very long gauge length. Tell-tale extensometer that measure strain over a very long gauge length may be viewed as a very large strain gauge or simply called global strain extensometer. New technology in the manufacturing of retrievable extensometers such as state-of the art vibrating wire extensometers is now possible to measure strain deformation over the entire length of piles in segments with ease during static load testing. The Global Strain Extensometer Method for static load testing on bored piles is a deformation monitoring system which employs advanced pneumatically anchored extensometers and a novel analytical technique for determining axial loads and movements at various levels down the pile shaft including the pile base level. The main objectives of the instrumented load test are to establish the bearing capacity of foundation piles and its apportionment into shaft friction and end bearing, observing the behaviour of pile settlement and structural shortening of pile under the applied loads and evaluate the design parameters in relation to the ultimate skin friction and end bearing. It is then use in the design of working piles which are to be constructed in soil strata having similar geological structure and by adopting similar construction practices. With proper implementation of instrumentation scheme, the data collected from instrumented load testing are able to produce reliable information for meaningful interpretation. 2
  • 58. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Figure 1.0 : Retrievable Global Strain Extensometer Figure 2.0 : The arrangement of Global Strain Extensometer equipment on pile top 3.0 UNIT SKIN AND END BEARING RESISTANCE Generally the unit skin resistance (fs) can be calculated by using the empirical correlation with Standard Penetration Test (SPT’N’) value as follows fs = Ksu x SPT’N’ (kPa) (1) For shaft resistance, Tan et al. (1998), presents Ksu of 2.6 but limiting the fsu values to 200kPa for bored piles in residual soils. Toh et al. (1989) also reported that the average Ksu obtained varies 3
  • 59. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam from 5 at SPT-N 20 to as low as 1.5 at SPT-N = 220. Chang & Broms et al. (1991) suggests that Ksu of 2 for bored piles in residual soils of Singapore with SPT ’N’<150. For design of bored piles in residual soils of Malaysia, the followings relationship is suggested: fs = 2 x SPT’N’ (kPa) (2) Tan et al. (1998), was suggested that the fs = 2 x SPT’N’ and limited to 150 kPa. The base resistance (fb) of pile can be calculated by using empirical correlation with SPT’N’ value as follow; fb = Kbu x SPT’N’ (kPa) (3) For base resistance, Kbu values reported by many researchers varies significantly indicating difficulty in obtaining proper and consistent base cleaning during construction of bored piles. It is very dangerous if the base resistance is relied upon when the proper cleaning of the base cannot be assured. From back-analyses of test piles, Chang & Broms et al. (1991) shows that Kbu equals to 30 to 45 and Toh et al. (1989) reports that Kbu falls between 27 and 60 as obtained from the two piles that were tested to failure. Tan et al. (1998), obtained from 13 numbers of instrumentation bored pile, found that Kbu value falls between 7 and 10 (kPa). The relatively low Kbu is due to soft toe effect which depends on the workmanship and pile geometry. 4.0 FIELD STUDY The instrumentation bored pile by using Global Strain Extensometer will be tested using Maintained Load Method, through Reaction Pile System. Instruments were logged automatic using Micro-10 Data logger and multilevel software. The project was conducted at Cadangan Pembangunan 2 Blok Menara Ibu Pejabat 50 Dan 38 Tingkat Diatas Lot 267&270, Lorong Stonor, Kuala Lumpur (Platinum Park Phase 3. The test pile was a preliminary test pile has been load tested to two times the pile structural capacity and known as “PTP-1”. For test pile PTP-1, the structural capacity was 22,200kN. The PTP-1 bored pile has been instrumented with 7 levels Vibrating Wire Global Strain Gauge and 8 levels Vibrating Wire Extensometer. Figure 3.0 show the installation level of the Global Strain Extensometer to the bored pile. Table 1 shows the summary of instrumented bored pile load test. 4
  • 60. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam PROJECT : Platinum Park Phase 3, Jalan Stonor, Kuala Lumpur WL= 22,200kN Figure A: TL= 2 x 22,200kN = 44,400 kN Instrumentation levels for Test Bored Pile PTP-1(1800mm Ø) Pile length = 36.95 m from Platform Level of RL 36.25 m (including 3.7m rock socket) SPT value, N (blows/30cm) RL 36.74m (Pile top) Depth below platform lev. (m) -3 -2 0.0 m Anchored Lev. A-0 RL 36.25 m Platform Level 8 -1 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1.0 m Glostrext Sensor 1a, 1b Global Strain Gauge Lev. A (RL 35.25m) 0 8 2.0 m Anchored Lev. A-1 Extensometer Lev.1 (RL 34.25m) 1 6 2 1800mm Bored pile 3 3 4 9.375 COL. RL 26.875 13 Glostrext Sensor 2a, 2b Global Strain Gauge Lev. B (RL 30.50m) 5 Silty Sand/ 5.75 m 6 10 Sandy Silt 7 16 8 9 50 9.50 m Anchored Lev. A-2 Extensometer Lev.2 (RL 26.75m) 10 Soft Clay 94 11 12 71 12.875 m Glostrext Sensor 3a, 3b Global Strain Gauge Lev. C (RL 23.375m) 13 64 14 15 79 16 16.25m Anchored Lev. A-3 Extensometer Lev.3 (RL 20.0m) 111 17 18 65 19 19.625m Glostrext Sensor 4a, 4b Global Strain Gauge Lev. D (RL 16.625m) 65 20 21 79 22 Extensometer Lev.4 (RL 13.25m) 67 23.0 m Anchored Lev. A-4 23 24 150 class C sonic logging pipe with 51mm to 52mm 25 i.d. fully accessible for housing VW 65 26 Extensometer and sensors 27 rock 143 28 28.125m Glostrext Sensor 5a, 5b Global Strain Gauge Lev. E (RL 8.125m) 67 29 30 86 31 8 32 33 6 33.25m Anchored Lev. A-5 Extensometer Lev.5(RL 8.125m)Rock RL 3.0m 34 34.60m Glostrext Sensor 6a, 6b Global Strain Gauge Lev. F (RL 1.65m) 35 Anchored Lev. A-6 Extensometer Lev.6(RL 0.3m) 35.95m 36 36.45m Glostrext Sensor 6a, 6b Global Strain Gauge Lev. G (RL -0.2m) 37 36.95m Anchored Lev. A-7 Extensometer Lev.7(RL -0.7m) Pile toe at 36.95m depth (RL -0.7m) Legend: SI Borehole : CBH 5 denotes Glostrext anchored level (2 sets per level) denotes VW Glostrext Sensors (2 sets per level) CROSS-SECTION OF PTP-1 4 Glostrext Sensors 3 1 Glostrext Sensors 2 Figure 3.0: The arrangement of the instrument at different level for Global Strain Extensometer in the pile(PTP-1) Table 1: Summary of Instrumented Bored Pile Load Test Pile Test Instrument Diameter Working Type of Pile No Length Load Levels (mm) Load (kN) Instrument (m) (kN) (Nos) Global Strain PTP-1 1800 22,200 36.95 44,400 7 Extensometer 5.0 PILE TEST PROGRAMME AND RESULTS Below represent the pile test and results for PTP-1. As mentioned earlier the diameter of the test pile, PTP-1 was 1800mm. Working load for PTP-1 was 22,200kN and has been tested in two times working load, i.e. 44,400kN. 5.1 PTP-1 Results (Global Strain Extensometer) 5
  • 61. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Referring to Figure 3.0 , for PTP-1, the Global Strain Gauges were installed at 7 levels and designated as Level A aimed at 1.0m (at RL36.25m), Level B aimed at 5.75m, Level C aimed at 12.875m, Level D aimed at 19.625m, Level E aimed at 28.125m, Level F aimed at 34.60m, Level G aimed at 36.45m. While the anchors for VW Extensometers were installed at 8 levels. The Extensometers installed at those anchored interval were designated as Anchored Level A0 at 0m, Ext. Level 1a & lb at interval from 0.0m to 2.0m depth, Ext. Level 2a & 2b at interval from 2.0m to 9.5m depth, Ext. Level 3a & 3b at interval from 9.5m to 16.25m depth, Ext. Level 4a & 4b at interval from 16.25m to 23.0m depth, Ext. Level 5a & 5b at interval from 23.0m to 33.25m depth, Ext. Level 6a & 6b at interval from 33.25m to 35.95m depth, Ext. Level 7a & 7b at interval from 35.95m to 36.95m depth. The load distribution curves for the test cycles are plotted in Figure 4.0 and Figure 5.0 based on strain-load computations. The load distribution curves, capable of indicating the load distribution along the shaft and the base, were derived from computations based on the measured changes in strain gauge readings and estimated pile properties (steel content, cross-section areas and modulus of elasticity). Computations made for PTP-1 was based on as-built details (including concrete record) know from the construction record. The difference between the loads at any two levels represents the shaft load carried by the st portion of pile between the two levels. When the 22418kN test load in the 1 cycle applied, more than 100% test load was carried by Skin Friction as shown in Figure 4.0. For the 2ndcycle, the maximum applied load was 44036kN also almost 99.183% test load was carried by Skin Friction; the remaining 0.82% test load was carried by End Bearing as shown in Figure 5.0. Figure 4.0: Load Distribution Curve for 1st Cycle Computed From VW Global Strain Extensometer Gauges Results 6
  • 62. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Figure 5.0: Load Distribution Curve for 2nd Cycle Computed from VW Global Strain Extensometer Gauges results 6.0 RESULTS ANALYSES Design of Ultimate Skin Friction, Qsu and Ultimate Skin Friction Factor, Ksu for each case study are presented. The calculation of Ultimate Skin Friction and Ultimate Unit Skin Friction are based from the Simplified Soil Mechanics. Denoting P as the applied pile top load and fsu as the Unit Skin Friction, the following observation can be derived from a close study of load transfer characteristics presented. Maximum mobilized Unit Skin Friction from PTP-1 shows that the Ultimate Skin Friction was fully mobilized, as the load transfer along the Skin Friction already shows the peak strength as shown in Figure 6.0. For example, the maximum Unit Skin Friction at level F (34.6m) to level G (36.45m) was 748.50 kN/m2 during loading to 44030 kN and pile top settlement was 5.74mm still less the allowable settlement was 40mm. The load transfer curve for the mobilized Unit Skin Friction versus pile top settlement was shown in Figure 7.0 the Ultimate Skin Friction was not fully mobilized , as the load transfer along the skin still show the trend of linearly increasing during loading to 20,006kN (3 x working load). Higher Skin Friction was mobilized at the upper portion of the pile (at depth from Lev. D to Lev. E, 23.816m to 32.068m) 2 with the maximum value of 240.3kN/m under the applied top load of 12904kN. Higher Skin Friction was mobilized at the upper portion of the pile (at depth from Lev. D to Lev. E, (23.816m to 32.068m) with the maximum value of 240.3kN/m2 under the applied top load of 12904kN. It is supposed that Ultimate Skin Friction was increasing with higher SPT, N value. 7
  • 63. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Figure 6.0: Mobilization of unit skin resistance Figure 7.0: Applied Pile Top Load, Total Shaft Resistance and Base Resistance against Pile Top Settlement From VWSGs Results.(Case Study 1) Table 2.0 shows the back-analysis on the Ultimate Skin Resistance, Ksu base on Equation 1, which was develop using the field results. 8
  • 64. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Table 2: Summary on the Results of Back-Analysis on the Ultimate Skin Friction Factor, Ksu for Case Study 1 Ultimate Average Unit Depth Skin Level SPT, N Skin (m) Friction Friction, fsu Factor, Ks (kN/m2 ) (kN/m2 ) GL to level B 5.75 15.50 29.30 1.89 PTP-1 level B to level C 7.125 27.50 22.90 1.20 level C to level D 6.75 110 243.50 2.21 level D to level E 8.50 122 263.50 2.16 level E to level F 6.475 150 284.20 1.90 level F to level G 1.85 160 348.50 2.18 Finding of established research by Phienwej et. al (1994) and Tan et. al (1998) which has been carried out to failure are as shown in Figure 8.0. Figure 8.0: Standard Penetration Test vs. Critical Shaft Resistance The result from PTP-1 was fall in between the establish the design by Tan et. al (1998) and Pienwej et. al (1994). From the result Global Strain Extensometer method seems to be in agreement with other available methods provided by other researchers. 9
  • 65. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam The ultimate base resistances for instrumentation bored piles are from PTP-1 as shown in Figure 9. The Ultimate End Bearing Factor, Kbu contribute was prevailed from the test pile result which contribute Ultimate End Bearing Factor, Kbu is about 7.8kN/m2 in conjunction with allowable settlement of 40mm from equation 3. Kbu value obtain from the PTP-1 is about 7.8kN/m2 and within the range suggested by Tan et. al (1998) which is at a ranges between 7 and10kN/m2. 100 00 900 0 MOBILISED UNIT BASE  800 0 RESISTANCE (kN/m2)  700 0 600 0 500 0 400 0 300 0 200 0 100 0 0 0 500 0 100 00 150 00 200 00 250 00 300 00 350 00 400 00 450 00 APPLIED LOAD (kN)  Figure 9 : Applied Load vs Mobilized Unit Base Resistance According to Gue et al. (2003), the contribution of End Bearing in bored piles should be ignored due to difficulty of proper base cleaning. Kenny Hill Formations consist of high clay content. As such, any exposure to water, the clay should swell and expand. Besides that, it can be also due to workmanship before casting bored pile, such as improper clearing at base of the bored pile. Table 3 shows the summary on the results of back-analysis on the Ultimate Skin Friction Factor, Ksu for the test. Table 3: Summary on the Results of Back-Analysis on the Ultimate Skin Friction Factor, Ksu for PTP-1 Ultimate Depth SPT, N Unit Test Pile End Bearing Factor, (m) Values End Bearing, fbu Kbu (kN/m2 ) (kN/m2 ) PTP-1 36.95 150 1170 7.8 10
  • 66. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 7.0 CONCLUSIONS The skin resistance factor (Ksu) for Global Strain Extensometer instrumentation 2.23kN/m2 will fall in the range 2.0 to 2.3kN/m2 as found by Pienwej et. al (1994) and Tan et. al (1998) respectively. The trend of the results shows a promising value since it is in agreement with both researchers findings. The skin resistance factor (Ks) for Malaysian soil can be considered within a proximity value of 2kN/m2. The base resistance factor (Kbu) for Global Strain Extensometer instrumentation 7.8kN/m2 can be adopted in the design. The results from the Global Strain Extensometer instrumentation fall in the range of 7 to10kN/m2 as suggested by Tan et. al (1998). The relatively low Kbu, is due to soft toe effect which depending on the workmanship and pile geometry as mentioned by Gue et.al (2003). The low values of the base resistance it suggested the end bearing for the bored pile will be ignored in the design for wet method drillings. The Global Strain Extensometer method significantly simplifies the instrumentation effort by enabling the sensors to be post-installed after casting the piles. It also minimized the risk of the instrumentation being damaged during the concreting work compared with conventional method. The available data are limited, thus more instrumentation data need to be combined to get closed range values for the skin resistance factor and base resistance factor. The used of the suggested values in this project should be applied with caution and need to be established with maintained load test as a prove test. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Authors wishes to expressed deepest gratitude to Bauer(M) Sdn. Bhd. and Gue and Partners Sdn. Bhd. for allowing to access to the site, sharing ideas and providing information on the tests results. RERERENCES [1] A.A. Hanifah and L.S. Kai (2005) “Innovation in Instrumented Test Piles in Malaysia: Application of Global Strain Extensometer (GLOSTREXT) Method for Instrumented Bored Piles in Malaysia,” Bulletin of the Institution of Engineers, Malaysia, October 2005 issue. pp 10 – 19. [2] A.A. Hanifah and L.S. Kai (2006), “Application of Global Strain Extensometer (GLOSTREXT) th Method for Instrumented Bored Piles in Malaysia”, 10 International Conference on Piling and Deep Foundations, Amsterdam. [3] C.T, Toh, T.A. Ooi, H.K, Chiu, S.K. Chee and W.H. Ting (1989), “ Design Parameters for Bored Piles in a Weathered Sedimentary Formation”, Proceeding of the 12th. International Conference in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 2, pp 1073- 1078. [4] Chang, M.F., and Broms, B.B. (1991). “Design of bored piles in residual soils based on field- performance data”. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 28 (2): pp 200-209. 11
  • 67. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam [5] N. Phienwej,,E.G. Balakrisnan, and A.S. Balasubramaniam (1994), “Performance of Bored Piles in Weathered Meta-Sedimentary Rocks in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia”, Proceeding Symposia on Geotextiles, Geomembranes and other Geosynthetics in Ground Improvement on Deep Foundations and Ground Improvement Schemes, Bangkok, Thailand. [6] S.S. Gue, Y.C. Tan and S.S. Liew (2003), “ A Brief Guide to Design of Bored Piles Under Axial Compression – A Malaysian Approach.” Seminar and Exhibition on Bridge Engineering, Bridge Engineering for Practising Engineers: A Practical Approach, Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. [7] Y. C. Tan, C. S.Chen, and S. S. Liew, (1998), "Load Transfer Behaviour of Cast-In-Place Bored Piles in Tropical Residual Soils of Malaysia". Proc. of 13th Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference, 16-20 November 1998, Taipei, Taiwan. 12
  • 68. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam SHALLOW SUBSURFACE PROFILE INVESTIGATION BY SEISMIC REFRACTION METHOD IN KUNDASANG, SABAH: APPLICATION TO SUBSURFACE DAMAGE ZONE EVALUATION 1 2 3 4 Mohd Hazreek Bin Zainal Abidin , Rosli Bin Saad , Jamil Bin Matarul , Fauziah Binti Ahmad , 5 6 7 Devapriya Chitral Wijeyasekera , Ahmad Fahmy Bin Kamarudin and Azmi Bin Ibrahim 1 Postgraduate Student, Geophysics Section, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, hazreek@uthm.edu.my 1, 5 & 6 Lecturer, Civil Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Johore, Malaysia, hazreek@uthm.edu.my, devapriya@uthm.edu.my, fahmy@uthm.edu.my 2 Lecturer, Geophysics Section, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, rosli@usm.my 3 Lecturer, Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, Sarawak, Malaysia, jams_rul78@yahoo.com 4 Lecturer, Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, cefahmad@eng.usm.my 7 Lecturer, Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia, azmii716@yahoo.com Abstract Natural disaster such as mass movement can trigger and create new or existing ground damage zone in several areas particularly in Kundasang, Sabah. This study applied a seismic refraction method to investigate a subsurface profile damage zone mainly due to engineering geology and geotechnical engineering assessment. Ground damage caused by a natural disaster can reflect a difficulty in the engineering investigation task especially to determine the possible subsurface damage zone for rehabilitation and maintenance purposes. Hence this study introduced the seismic refraction method from geophysical techniques that used the concept of seismic waves generated by one of several types of energy sources and detected by arrays of sensitive devices called geophones. The data was processed by Optim software for generating the subsurface velocity structure (primary velocity, v p) and interpretation with supported by existing borehole information. The seismic refraction method identified three main velocity structures which consisted of top soil/residual soil (330 – 500 m/s) 0 – 6 m, weathered zone with a possible mixtures of soil, boulder and rock fractured (700 – 1800 m/s) 2 – 25 m and bedrock (> 2300 m/s) from 13 m depth. The thickness and width of damage zone varied within the survey line from 4 – 25 m and 57 m respectively with a velocity structure of 600 – 1800 m/s. The seismic refraction survey produced a good similarity of results compared to the borehole information in terms of geomaterial features. This study proved that the seismic refraction method was an appropriate technique to be applied in damage zone assessment in order to produce reliable information regarding the weak zone investigated. The utilization of seismic refraction method can increase the effectiveness of civil engineering rehabilitation works in term of cost and time since it can determine the subsurface information in two dimensional (2-D) profiles. Furthermore this alternative method used a non destructive approach that can benefit the environment and be suitable for our sustainable development. Keywords: damage zone, seismic refraction, subsurface profile, geophysical, primary velocity, geomaterial. 13
  • 69. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 1. INTRODUCTION Ground damage can occur as fault, fractured, landslides, slope failure or any similar mass movement. Ground damage normally occurred in hilly terrain area with the effect of many factors, such as soil and rock mass strength, lithology, geological structure, seismic activity, rainfall intensity, human factor and other physical properties. According to (Israil and Pachauri, 2003), large-scale ground damage by landslides may endanger engineering structures, property and even human lives. Major landslides that have occurred in Malaysia are located in hilly areas such as in Selangor (Ulu Klang, Hulu Langat and NKVE highway), Perak to Pahang (Pos Slim – Cameron Highland Highway) and Sabah (Kundasang). In Sabah state, Kundasang area was recognised as one of the most active landslide zone causing several ground problems such as ground settlement, slope failure, building structure and pavement cracking, etc. According to Tjia (2007), Kundasang area faced a main hazard with a widespread of ground movement. Borneo Post (2011) also reported that Kundasang registered an average of 0.5 meter translation soil movement per year and about 70 percent of the 50 square kilometres surrounding Kundasang Town has been identified as a high-risk area. The phenomenon of landslide often occurred in Kundasang, Sabah and the most critical damage occurred was at Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan (SMK) Kundasang and its surrounding area (Kamaruzaman and Ahmad, 2010). Several damage features recorded by Komoo and Lim (2000) was on a cracked: road, drainage, building (hostel, school and surau), and ground foundation. All these damages will cause a hazard for life and properties and a continuous detailed study is needed for rehabilitation, mitigation and reconstruction purposes. Several past researchers have conducted a ground instability investigation in SMK Kundasang as Komoo and Lim (2000) used a geodynamic mapping and drilling method while Kamarulzaman and Ahmad (2010) used a seismic refraction method. According to Komoo and Lim (2000), the ground instability occurred in a large scale and it is hard to identify its critical boundary zone in the field. Hence they mapped the geodynamic features (scarp, tension crack, seepage, ponding, bulging, systematic and displacement crack, structure damage and other physical properties) by a physical mapping and drilling method (borehole). The application of drilling method was a good technique but it required many drilling points for better information which increased the cost and time of the investigation. The limitation occurs since the drilling information will represents a single - point information in lateral dimension at the actual drilling location (Abidin et. al., 2009; Godio et. al., 2005 and Mauritsch et. al., 1999). Thus, the interpolation between borings to determine conditions perhaps involve some degree of uncertainty (Abidin et. al., 2009 and Godio et. al., 2005). Hence, this study proposed a seismic refraction survey from one of the geophysical method to investigate the ground damage occurred since this method can present subsurface information in a two dimensional (2-D) perspective for better information and interpretation. Geophysical methods have also been used to identify the location of ground damage caused by a landslide slip surfaces (Bogoslovsky and Ogilvy, 1977) and according to (Cornforth, 2005), seismic lines can be an attractive alternative to borings when access is difficult and/or the landslide covers an extensive area. Seismic refraction is mainly used to investigate geological structures near the surface. It has been employed not only to find out the depth of bedrock and the seismic velocity of layers but also to investigate gravitational slope deformation (Valvo et. at., 2000). Several advantages of the geophysical method with particular references to seismic refraction method were due to its efficiency in term of cost, time and environment. In most equipment testing, the geophysical methods apply a non destructive testing which can reduce cost and time of the project (Abidin et. al., 2011). According to Lee (2002), geophysical tests in soil/rock exploration are usually low in cost. Field time is usually short and ranges from one to three days for most projects (Cornforth, 2005). As stated by Liu and Evett (2008), geophysical 14
  • 70. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam methods can be implemented more quickly and less expensively and can cover greater areas more thoroughly. Geophysical methods are generally less expensive, less invasive and less time consuming. They provide a large-scale characterisation of the physical properties under undisturbed conditions (Godio et. al., 2005). The basis of seismic refraction investigation is measuring the time taken for a wave to travel from one location to another location. The time taken however is a function of elastic modulus of the material from which the wave travels. This method used the Snell’s law principle to analyse the seismic waves and was used to study the layers below the earth surface. Waves travelling in a medium (soils/rocks) will be subject to the elastics characteristics in all directions in direct, reflection and refraction. At a certain distance, the motion of a wave’s particle will be recorded as a time function. From these, the layers and structures in the subsurface will be determined. However, the success of geophysical methods largely depend upon the presence of a significant and detectable contrast in the physical properties of different lithological units as the seismic P-wave velocity are normally affected by the lithology, porosity and interstitial fluids of the materials (Israil & Pachauri, 2003). Furthermore, the standard performance of individual geophysical methods always depends on fundamental physical constraints, e.g. penetration, resolution, and signal to-noise ratio (Mauritsch et. al., 1999). In its application to ground damage such as landslides, seismic refraction method will detect the reduction of stiffness or rigidity of the sliding mass relative to the underlying undisturbed sediments or bedrock (Cummings and Clark, 1988). The velocity drop or decrease will give some indication regarding the presence of a weakness zone. According to Palmer and Weisgarber (1988), the drop of velocity may be a function of the factors such as the sediments undergo expansion upon shearing which can increased the water content and porosity, the presence of shear planes in the upper mobile zone caused by a groundwater barriers and alteration by leaching and groundwater through weathering. The seismic refraction method conducted previously by Kamarulzaman and Ahmad (2010), the survey location was conducted in a different at north-east (NE) zone. According to Komoo and Lim (2003), ground instability particularly in landslides had occurred probably since 1994 and kept on moving slowly (a few mm to cm per year) and periodical (large movement form a few mm to m in short duration). They also recorded a new movement on their last visit in January 2003 which saw a new movement caused by a widening and displacing of tension crack. Hence this area was identified as an active ground movement and a continuous data collection is needed for precaution and monitoring purposes as stated by Israil and Pachauri (2003), that the definition of landslide prone areas and the preparation of landslide hazard zonation maps are very important. Hence this study conduct the seismic refraction at two focused zone specifically at north-east (NE) and south-west (SW) area of SMK Kundasang based on the most critical ground damage occurred. 2. METHODOLOGY 2.1 Study Area Kundasang area is located along the bank of Kundasang Valley on the southeast side of Mount Kinabalu. Generally the site study had mixed topography of undulating hilly terrain and surrounded by a developing town and village near the foothill of Mount Kinabalu. This study was conducted at Kundasang, Sabah area is specifically at SMK Kundasang, Sabah. Generally the geology of Kundasang is a Tertiary Sedimentary rock known as Crocker and Trusmadi Formation and the boundary of both formations was separated by a fault (Jacobson, 1970; Hutchison et. al., 2000). Trusmadi rock formation obtained here is a thick sheared black argillaceous which consist of a lens of grey sandstone in different sizes. 15
  • 71. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam According to Komoo and Lim (2003), SMK Kundasang was located on two layer of geomaterial. The first layer consisted of thin to medium grained sandstone interbedded with light mudstone while the second layer consists of black argillaceous rock (mainly shale) with a little sandstone and mudstone. 2.2 Equipment The seismic refraction equipment consisted of three main components; namely source, detector and recorder. The seismic source was generated by a 12 pound of sledge hammer (hammering on a striker plate). A 24 channel of 28 Hertz vertical geophone was used as detector while ABEM Terraloc MK-6 Seismograph was used to record the seismic signal. The raw data measured on site was analyzed and interpreted by Optim software. 2.3 Data Acquisition and Processing Firstly the spread line (SL) was selected based on the research objective and interest (normally nearest possible to the existing borehole within a critical ground damage zone). Then a total of twenty-four (24) geophones are fixed on the ground surface with the spike poked into the ground. Two seismic land cables with total of twenty-four (24) take out are spread and connected with the geophones. These seismic cables are used for sending the velocity signal from each geophone to the seismograph. After setting up the instrument, the operator adjusts the digital seismograph and confirms the stand-by of the shooter. After that, the operator monitors the noise condition on seismograph (for example, noise caused by moving vehicles, vibrating machinery etc) and instruct the shooter for hammering (creating a source) during the lowest possible/acceptable noise. The seismic wave travels down and along the different refractor boundaries. Only critically refracted waves are concerned in this survey. The refracted energies are detected by the geophones. After that it is converted to digital signals before storing in the stacking memory. The seismograph amplifies the electrical signal from several thousand to several ten thousand times and recorded the results in the floppy disk as the waveform data. When the trace is analysed, a record is stored in floppy disk for further processing. This study applied a two offset shots, two end shots, and three center shots for efficient processing. The seismic spread lines used 5 m of geophone spacing interval for SL 1 while 4 m of geophone spacing interval was used for SL 2. Data processing can be done by transferring the raw data from ABEM Terraloc MK-6 to the computer. The data analysis was carried out by utility software that available for generating the subsurface profile. The software used in this study is OPTIM which consist of SeisOptPicker and SeisOpt@2D processing. SeisOptPicker was used to pick the first arrival (P-wave) while the SeisOpt@2D software used to calculate velocity and depth thus generating the velocity distribution representing the subsurface profile studied. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Two spread lines representing spread line 1 (West-East: WE) and spread line 2 (South-North: SN) with a total length of 207 m were conducted during the data acquisition stages and the results are given in Figure 1 and 2. Generally it was found that there are three major layer of velocity representing three types of geomaterial with different characteristics. According to Telford et. al., (1990), the primary velocity (vp) for sandstone and shale varies from 1830 – 3970 and 2750 – 4270 m/s respectively. 16
  • 72. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam G1 G24 4 1st layer: vp = 330 – 500 m/s 2nd layer: vp = 600 – 1800 m/s 4100 m/s 2700 m/s rd 3 layer: vp = > 2300 m/s 1900 m/s Borehole Weak zone: Fractures/fault/joint (700 – 1700 m/s) 1000 m/s Possible slip surface 310 m/s Figure 1: Spread Line 1 in West-East (WE) alignment Based on 2-D primary velocity (vp) analysis from Figure 1, the subsurface profile consist of 3 undulating layers with a maximum penetration depth of 19 meter. The first layer was identified as unconsolidated material of residual soil consists of soil with pore/voids within the layer. The thickness of this layer varied from ground surface to 3 m depth with a velocity of 330 – 500 m/s. The second layer consists of two zone which is completely and moderately weathered rock zone with a velocity of 600 – 1800 m/s. The material in second layer consists of a mixture of corestone and soil (600 – 900 m/s) for a completely weathered rock zone and rock fractures (900 – 1800 m/s) for a moderately weathered zone. The thickness of second layer varied at 4 to 19 m from the ground level. The third layer was found as slightly weathered to fresh bedrock with a velocity greater than 2300 m/s. The thickness of this layer varied from 13 to 19 m and perhaps deeper. A possible weak zone with a low velocity zone was identified in velocity of 700 to 1700 m/s. This zone is suspected to present a fractured/fault because its low velocity compared to the lower part of the structure with a high velocity higher than 3000 m/s. This zone can possibly relate to an existence of a slip surface zone that caused a ground movement apparent on the ground surface. The depth of this weak zone was found to be at 4 m to 19 m from the ground surface with a 57 m width. The weak zone width was detected at 35 m from G1. 17
  • 73. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam G1 G24 1st layer: vp = 350 – 600 m/s 2nd layer: vp = 700 – 1800 m/s 4400 m/s Weak zone: Fracture/fault/joint (700 – 1700 m/s) 3300 m/s 3rd layer: vp = > 2300 m/s 1800 m/s 1000 m/s 250 m/s Figure 2: Spread Line 2 in South-North (SN) alignment According to 2-D primary velocity (vp) analysis obtained from Figure 2, the subsurface profile consist of 3 undulating layers with a maximum penetration depth of 33 m. The first layer was unconsolidated residual soil material of varying thickness from ground surface to 6 m depth. The velocity of this residual soil zone was ranging from 100 – 600 m/s. The second layer consists of two zones with velocity of 700 – 1800 m/s. The first zone and second zone was categorized as completely weathered and highly weathered to moderately weathered rock of varying thickness of 2 – 25 m depth. First zone was considered as completely weathered rock consists of a poor rock mass quality with soil and corestone characteristic by velocity in the range of 700 – 900 while the second zone consists of moderate rock mass quality affected by fractured zone with a velocity in the range of 700 – 1800 m/s. The third layer was interpreted as slightly weathered to fresh bedrock with a velocity greater than 2300 m/s. The depth of this layer was from 25 m. A possible weak zone with a low velocity zone was identified by a velocity of 700 to 1700 m/s. This was predicted to present a fractured/fault because of its low velocity compared to the lower part of the structure which contain a higher velocity greater than 3000 m/s. This zone can possibly relate to an existence of a slip surface zone that caused a ground movement apparent on the ground surface. The depth of this weak zone was found to be at 5 m to 25 m from the ground surface. 18
  • 74. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Table 1: Summary of Seismic Refraction results in SMK Kundasang, Sabah Maximum Damage zone/ Damage zone/ Seismic depth of Velocity structure, Thickness Weak zone Weak zone No Zone Line Spread Line Geometry penetration, vp (m/s) layer, t (m) features, vp & t obtained, vp, t & Alignment d (m) (m/s) & (m) w (m/s) & (m) Geophone Spacing: 5 m st st st 1 : 350 – 600 1 :0–6 1 offset: 14 m nd nd vp: 700 – 1700 1 Line 1 (SN) nd 33 2 : 600 – 1700 2 : 2 – 25 2 offset: 10 m rd rd t: 5 - 25 3 : 2300 > 3 : 25 > South- 7 shot point location vp: 700 - 1700 West t: 4 – 25 (SW) Geophone Spacing: 4 m st st w: 57 st 1 : 330 – 500 1 :0–4 1 offset: 10 m nd nd vp: 700 - 1700 2 Line 2 (WE) nd 19 2 : 600 – 1800 2 : 4 – 19 2 offset: 10 m rd rd t: 4 - 19 3 : 2300 > 3 : 13 – 19 7 shot point location Figure 3: The relationship between primary velocity and subsurface layer 19
  • 75. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Figure 4: Subsurface cross section of damage zone with particularly slip surface at SMK Kundasang (Komoo and Lim, 2003) 20
  • 76. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam The seismic refraction results conducted were compared and correlated with a previous researcher (Komoo and Lim, 2003). Comparison was made based on borehole cross section B-B as given in Figure 4 and primary velocities from Telford et. al., (1990). According to Komoo and Lim (2003), slip surface zone (ground damage) was located at depth of 15 – 20 m from the ground surface based on standard penetration test (SPT), inclinometer and geology condition at the area. Previous researchers completed their study in this area on 2003 while this current study was conducted on 2010. From this study it was found that the possible subsurface ground damage zone (fracture, fault, joint or slip surface) observed in this study was located at 4 – 25 m depth with a 57 m width in the South-West zone. The variation of damage zone and depth obtained from this study then previous may occur because of the present subsurface materials has already being altered by an additional weathering process. This study was conducted seven years after the past researchers complete their studies. According to Dearman et. al., (1995), major new fractures may form or be extended, incipient fractures may lose tensile strength and the discontinuities rock wall may weaken, leading to reduce shear strength and stiffness. Water can easily infiltrate underground thru surface crack/failure of structure or ground tension crack exist hence will intensively attack and weaken the subsurface geomaterials especially by chemical weathering process. Chemical weathering below surface takes place via water movement through mass and materials that may passes thru joint, fractures and other discontinuities and the distribution of mass weathering may reflect both minor and major joint set spacing and orientation and the presence of faults (Currey, 1977). The weathered fractured materials can be disintegrate and decomposed into a fine grained materials such as mineral, sand, clay, silt, etc. that can filled an existing joint and fractured. Hence this condition are also may contribute to a different subsurface primary velocity obtained. For example a compacted infilling materials can increased the velocity structure value compared to the porous and loose materials. The main factors that cause ground damage in SMK Kundasang was identified based on this area that lies on a regional landslides system of Kundasang’s Landslides Complex as reported by Komoo and Lim (2003). Furthermore earthwork history involving cut and fill materials on the original ridge topography area may also contribute to weaken the ground foundation in a long term condition since water flow, soil and rock condition was already disturbed and altered. According to Cornforth (2005), cut slopes made through sedimentary rock may pass through hard rock, partly fully cemented sand, clay and shale etc. and differential weathering may erode the less resistance rock layers undermining the slope above over a period of years to allowed seepage process that can accelerate the weathering and erosion between two layers of different permeability in landslides are the result of differential weathering. The current topography of SMK Kundasang area was a low gradient undulating area starting from the high part at South-West zone to the lower part at North-East zone. Hence the water will flow and weaken the subsurface geomaterial according to this current topography direction. The situation can be worse during a heavy rainfall with the surface runoff permeating underground thus increasing the groundwater level in saturated condition and increase the soil mass. According to Lee (2002), the intense rainfall will raise groundwater level rapidly condition to the ground surface and this would result in a sudden increase in pore pressure which would reduce the shearing resistance of geomaterial and finally lead to a failure. The effect of geological structure is also regarded as one of the several factors that contribute the damageability condition in Kundasang area especially during an earthquake. According to Borneo Post (2011), the entire district of Kundasang has been exposed to minor earthquake tremor and continuous translatory soil movement that contributing to frequent landslides in the area. This seismic activity has affected structural geology in several areas in Sabah including 21
  • 77. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Kundasang. Kundasang was located at the intersection of regional fault zone of Quaternary age as reported by Tjia (2007). Locally Kundasang is located near to the Lobou-lobou fault line which is considered as a part of the Crocker fault zone in northern segment that intersect with another regional Mensaban fault zone. According to Tjia (2007), Lobou-lobou fault segment is a currently active fault with a sinistral displacement. Mass movements in SMK Kundasang can easily be observed through ground damage by an existing fault, tension crack and fractured or failure of manmade structure. The Trusmadi rock is one of the unstable geomaterial present identified as one of the root causes of widespread and continuous mass movement in Kundasang area (Tjia, 2006). Borneo Post (2011) also reported that a study conducted by the South East Asia Disaster Programme Research Institute (SEADPRI) and the Department of Mineral and Geoscience Malaysia already confirmed that Kundasang has a sensitive, fragile and complex geological system. 4. CONCLUSIONS The geometry and velocity distribution of SMK Kundasang has determined by analyzing seismic refraction data obtained along the SW zone. The determination of shape and depth of the subsurface landslide which caused ground damage are easier and cheaper than with conventional borehole method. The mechanics and physical characteristics of the landslide can be easily recognized. Zone (SW) investigated consist of three layers as known as residual soil (Grade VI), completely weathered (Grade V) to highly weathered (Grade IV) rock and moderately weathered rock (Grade III), and slightly weathered (II) to fresh bedrock (Grade I). The range of velocity of first layer was 330 – 500 m/s consist of unconsolidated material with varies thickness of 6 m from the ground level. The second layer velocity range was from 700 – 1800 m/s which contain a weathered rock and ground damage/weak zone. Average thickness for second layer was at 2 – 25 m. The third layer velocity was greater than 2300 m/s which considered as bedrock with various thickness depths of 13 m depth. The possible weak zone velocity was detected in the range of 700 – 1700 m/s with different thickness from 4 – 25 m and 57 m width. This weak zone showed some relationship to an existing of ground damage such as slip surface, fault, joint, fractured or other discontinuities. All the subsurface layer and weak zone is continuously weathered due to an exposure to weathering agent such as air and water. This method was a good tool for being applied in our sustainable ground investigation since it can reduce time, money and compliment the borehole method especially by its non destructive nature of investigation. The application of seismic refraction method was a good alternative technique for ground damage evaluation in the shallow subsurface. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thank are due to all supervisors and research members for their tremendous guidance, work and cooperation. Many thanks go to Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia and Research Management Institute, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia for the sponsor and financial support throughout this research activity. REFERENCES [1] A. Godio, C. Strobbia and G. D. Bacco, “Geophysical characterisation of a rockslide in an Alpine Region,” Engineering Geology 83 (2006), pp. 273– 286, Dec. 2005. [2] A. Kamaruzaman dan A. R. Ahmad, “Siasatan seismik di beberapa kawasan Kundasang, Ranau, Sabah,” in Proc. 2010 Seminar Geofizik Kejuruteraan dan Sekitaran, pp. 34 – 47. [3] C. Liu and J. B. Evett, “Soil Exploration,” in Soils and Foundations. 2nd. ed., Jurong: Pearson, 2008, pp. 73-76. [4] C. S. Hutchinson, S. C. Bergman and J. E. Graves, “A Miocene collisional belt in North Borneo: uplift mechanism and isostatic adjustment quantified by termochronology,” in Journal 2000 of Geological Society London, 157, pp. 783-793. 22
  • 78. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam [5] D. Cummings and B. R. Clark, “ Use of seismic refraction and electrical resistivity surveys in landslides investigations,” in Bulletin 1988 Association of Engineering Geologists, Vol. XXV, No. 4, pp. 459-464. [6] D. F. Palmer and S. L. Weisgarber, “Geophysical survey of the Stump Basin Landslide, Ohio,” in Bulletin 1988 Association of Engineering Geologist, Vol. XXV, No. 3, pp.363- 370. [7] D. H. Cornforth, “Landslides in Practice: Investigation, Analysis and Remedial/Preventative Option in Soils,” New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005, pp. 12, 66 - 67. [8] D. T. Currey, “Deeply weathered rock at Victorian dam sites,” 1977 Engineering Geology. [9] F. Ferrucci, M. Amelio, M. S. Valvo and C. Tansi, “Seismic prospecting of a slope affected by deep-seated gravitational slope deformation: The Lago Sackung, Calabria, Italy,” Engineering Geology 57 (2000), pp. 53–64, Oct. 1999. [10] G. Jacobson, “Gunung Kinabalu Area, Sabah, Malaysia,” Geological Survey Malaysia Report 8, pp. 118, 1970. [11] H. D. Tjia, “Root causes of extensive mass movements around Mount Kinabalu, th rd Southeast Asia’s Summit,” in Proc. 2006 8 Fieldwise Seminar and 3 International Symposium on Geological Engineering Education, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. [12] H. D. Tjia, “Kundasang (Sabah) at the intersection of regional of Quaternary Age,” in Bulletin 53 2007 Geological Society of Malaysia, pp. 59 – 66. [13] H. J. Mauritsch, W. Seiberl, R. Arndt, A. Romer, K. Schneiderbauer and G. P. Sendlhofer, “Geophysical investigations of large landslides in the Carnic Region of Southern Austria,” Engineering Geology 56 (2000), pp. 373-388, Aug. 1999. [14] I. Komoo dan C. S. Lim, “Kompleks Gelinciran Tanah Kundasang: Pemetaan Terperinci di Kawasan Sekolah Menengah Kundasang,” in Bulletin 2003 Geological Society of Malaysia, pp. 387 - 392. [15] M. Israil and A. K. Pachauri, “Geophysical characterization of a landslide site in the Himalayan Foothill Region,” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 22, pp. 253-263, Jan. 2003. [16] M. Morpi. Borneo Post - May 7, 2011, Saturday. [17] M. H. Z. Abidin, M. F. Ishak, M. F. T. Baharuddin, N. S. M. Zin and M. A. Omardin, “The application of seismic refraction survey for subsurface profile investigation,” in Proc. 2009 International Conference on Building, Science and Engineering, Johor Bahru Malaysia. [18] M. H. Z. Abidin, R. Saad, F. Ahmad, D. C. Wijeyasekera and M. F. T. Baharuddin, “Geophysical method in civil engineering application,” in Proc. 2011 Malaysian Technical Universities International Conference on Engineering & Technology. [19] T. S. Lee, 2002. “Shallow Failure,” in Slope Stability and Stabilization Methods, 2nd. ed., New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002, pp. 226-229 & 644. [20] V. A. Bogoslovsky and A. A. Ogilvy, 1977. “Geophysical methods for the investigation of landslides,” Geophysics 42 (3), pp. 562–571, 1977. [21] W. Dearman, D. Price, R. Martin, G. Pinches, and P. G. Fookes, “The description and classification of weathered rocks for engineering purposes,” The Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, pp. 212, 1995. nd [22] W. M. Telford, L. P. Geldart and R. E. Sheriff, “Applied geophysics”, 2 . ed., Cambridge: Press Syndicate, 1990. 23
  • 79. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam APPENDICES Figure 5: Location of spread line (SL) in SMK Kundasang, Sabah Figure 6: Location of spread line conducted (SW Zone) with some of the geodynamic mapping in SMK Kundasang (modified after Komoo and Lim, 2003) 24
  • 80. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Influence Of Particle Morphology On Shear Strength And Dilatancy of Sands Alvin John Lim Meng Siang1, Devapriya Chitral Wijeyesekera2, Adnan bin Zainorabidin3, Ismail bin Hj Bakar4 1 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, algalactus@hotmail.com, 2 University of East London, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, devapriya@uthm.edu.my 3 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering adnanz@uthm.edu.my 4 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, bismail@uthm.edu.my Abstract The macroscale behaviour of granular materials such as sand results from particle level interactions and the particle morphology (shapes and sizes). Clean sands are cohesionless (c = 0) but have a finite friction angle (Ø). The shear strength of sands is entirely dependent on the density, normal stress and interlocking particle structure. The latter is associated with the property of dilatancy (ψ) in particular with sands. Well graded sand (SW), poorly graded uniform sand (SPuKahang), gap graded sand (SPg) from Kahang Malaysia and also (SPuL.Buzzard) uniform Leighton Buzzard sand from UK were tested in a pneumatic direct shear box. The shapes of the sand particles were quantified using images obtained from a digital microscope. It was found that the Øpeak, Øcr and ψ was the highest for (SW) when compared with others. SPuL.Buzzard sands showed a significant decrease in the values with similar relative density (Dr). The increase in normal stress (σ) caused a significant effect on the behaviour of dilatancy. High normal stresses give very little variations in dilatancy (ψ) between the samples tested as compared to the lower normal stress that was used. This research contributes to furthering the understanding of the engineering behaviour of sand and also helps in predicting the occurrence of dilation based on sand morphology in dynamic soil structure interaction. Keywords: Sand, direct shear, angle of friction, dilation angle, size and shape. 1. INTRODUCTION Coarse grained soils have unique sedimentological features where the wide range of shape and sizes of sand particles solicit further research into the contribution to the geotechnical behaviour. Previous studies have shown that the undrained residual strength decreases with the increase in the uniformity coefficient (Cu) and the average diameter (D50) for a monotonic undrained triaxial test (Belkhatir et al. 2010). Cho et al. (2006) established that the study of sphericity and roundness of crushed and natural sands using a stereomicroscope (Leica MZ6) on 30 different particles has found that for large strain behaviour, the increase in irregularity causes an increase in the critical state friction angle (Øcr). The cohesionless characteristic makes collection of undisturbed samples of sand an impossible task. Its shear strength depends on its density, normal stress and also the interlocking particle structure. These conditions contribute to dilatancy. In this present study, the relationship between shear strength parameter (Øpeak, Øcr) and dilatancy (ψ) is investigated. In accordance with the explanation given by Budhu (2000), the relationship between the shear strength of a soil using Coulombs frictional law and the dilatancy can be 25
  • 81. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam represented by equation 1, which shows that the dilatancy angle (ψ) and normal stress (σ) is a function of the shear strength (τ) of the soil. τ = σn tan(Ø + ψ) (1) 2. MATERIALS USED The test materials are river sands obtained from Kahang, Johor and also Leighton Buzzard sand (UK). Kahang sands comprised of three different particle size distribution classifications; well graded sands (SW), uniformly graded sands (SPuKahang), and gap graded sands (SPg). The sands are generally classified as well graded sands. Careful size separation of the sand particles using sieves enabled gap graded sands to be obtained. Leighton Buzzard sand, it is documented as being uniformly graded sand and is referred to as (SPuL. Buzzard). Classifications of the samples are in accordance with BS 1377-1: 1990. The angular shape of Kahang sands is compared with the more rounded Leighton Buzzard sands on its strength and dilatancy characteristics. Figure 1 show the particle size distribution curves of all the samples illustrating the different grading curves. Table 1 is a factual summary of all the main properties of the samples in this study. The maximum void ratio (emax) was obtained by using a measuring cylinder containing the sample and it was quickly turned upside-down to acquire a loose state (as specified in BS 1377-1: 1990). The minimum void ratios (emin) were obtained by using a split mould and the sample was compacted by tamping and vibrating under water. Then a convenient stress was applied to the sample carefully avoiding particle crushing to obtain a dense state. Repeat tests done on the same sample gave variations not exceeding 0.005 for the minimum void ratio. Figure 1: Particle size distribution curve Table 1: Properties of the test samples Type of sand Gradation Void Ratio D60 D10 Cu emax emin SW 1.5 0.38 3.95 0.914 0.398 SPuL Buzzard 0.71 0.48 1.48 0.725 0.574 SPg 1.5 0.13 11.53 0.792 0.4 SPuKahang 0.65 0.35 1.86 0.948 0.574 3.0 DETERMINATION OF THE SHAPE AND QUANTIFICATION OF PARTICLES The quantification of the particle shapes is based on its sphericity and roundness as stated by Cho et al (2006). The definition of these two shape parameters are given and also illustrated in Figure 2: 26
  • 82. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam  Sphericity (S), determined by obtaining the diameter of the largest inscribed sphere relative to the diameter of the smallest circumscribed sphere.  Roundness (R), is quantified as the average radius of curvature of features relative to the radius of the maximum sphere that can be inscribed in the particle. Figure 2 presents the relationship between sphericity and roundness in the form of dimensionless parameters (Cho et al. 2006, as quoted by Krumbein and Sloss, 1963). The regularity parameter is defined as the average of the two parameters with an attempt to unify the effect of roundness and sphericity as defined in equation (2). Thus the diagonal broken lines in figure 2 correspond to constant particle regularity. ρ=R+S (2) 2 Figure 2: Particle shape determination (Cho et al, 2006; as presented in by Krumbein and Sloss, 1963) Shape comparisons are only made between the uniformly graded Kahang sands and the uniformly graded Leighton Buzzard sands, which have almost similar uniformity coefficients (Cu). A digital microscope was used to obtain low magnification (x50) micrographs. Fifty randomly picked sand particles of the two types of sand were analysed under the digital microscope. Figures 3 and 4 gives this analytical result and the extreme images of the particles respectively. The differences in the shape parameters are discussed. It is seen from the histograms in Figure 3 that two different peak modes exist for each shape parameter. Table 2 shows that the mean sphericity and roundness of Leigthon Buzzard sand are higher than that of Kahang sand. Therefore, with reference to Figure 2, it is clear that these two types of sands have contrary shape parameters. Figure 3: Percentage of sphericity, roundness and regularity of the particles 27
  • 83. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam a) b) c) d) 0.223 0.440 1.259 0.102 0.440 0.355 0.608 0.735 0.669 0.590 0.349 0.139 0.5mm 0.5mm 0.5mm 0.217 0.5mm Figure 4: Images of extreme particles, (a) & (b) SPuL.Buzzard sand particle with Sphericity = 0.827 and Roundness = 0.78 (c) & (d) SPuKahang sand particle with Sphericity = 0.469 and Roundness = 0.325 Table 2: The range and average of the particle shapes Leighton Buzzard sand Kahang sand Sphericity Roundness Regularity Sphericity Roundness Regularity Minimum 0.52 0.46 0.57 0.45 0.23 0.39 Maximum 0.96 0.97 0.90 0.83 0.89 0.74 Mean 0.732 0.680 0.701 0.643 0.410 0.526 Mode 0.731 0.733 0.675 0.677 0.390 0.525 Std. Dev. 0.099 0.499 0.50 0.088 0.380 0.45 4.0 DIRECT SHEAR TEST RESULTS Direct shear tests were done on natural dry samples, in a 60 x 60 x 20 mm shear box. Samples with different relative densities were prepared and each sample was subjected to a normal stress (σ) of 25, 50 and 100 kPa.. Particle crushing during shearing was avoided in this study by using low level normal stress. Bolton (1986) observed that particle crushing is not appreciable when the mean shear stress is lower than 150kPa, thus allowing dilation to be treated as a function of only relative density below this stress. Hence the normal stresses (<100kPa) used in this research is ideally appropriate to investigate the relationship between the shear strength and the dilatancy. Figure 5(a) shows typical results from direct shear testing with a normal stress of 100kPa on well graded sand (SW) with different relative densities. Increasing relative density with same normal stress shows a substantial increase in the peak shear stress (τpeak) on the sample. The peak shear stress decreases until it does not show any peak at all as the relative density decreases. This graphical pattern was the same with all the other samples too. Figure 5 (a) further shows that the critical shear stress (τcr) is almost the same for all the relative densities tested. This is a consequence of the soil mass continuously deforming at constant volume, constant normal stress, constant shear stress and constant rate of shear strain (Hamidi et al, 2009). It is therefore an important parameter in design and interpretation of shear results. Figure 5 (b) shows a negative vertical displacement, which means that the samples are in an expansion mode where it increases in volume as shear displacement occur. This is called dilation, noticing that the sample with the lowest relative density doesn’t show any dilation but it is however in compression. Bolton (1986), Simoni and Houlsby (2006). Hamidi et al, (2009) computed the angle of dilation (ψ) by relating the horizontal displacement (h) and vertical displacement (v) to calculate the rate of dilation (dv/dh) with the following equation: tan ψ = dv (3) dh 28
  • 84. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam a) τPeak b) τcr Legend: c) Dr = 0.96 Dr = 0.79 Dr = 0.62 X Dr = 0.33 Figure 5: Typical direct shear test result of 100kPa normal stress of the, (a) shear stress (τ), (b) vertical displacement (mm), (c) dilation rate (dv/dh) versus horizontal displacement of well graded sand (SW) of various relative densities. Figure 5 (c) shows the variation of the rate of dilatancy with increasing horizontal shear displacement. The dilatancy rate is calculated starting from zero horizontal displacement in the shear box. The increases in horizontal displacement will affect the vertical displacement depending on the relative density of the sand. Any variation on the horizontal and vertical displacement helps to calculate the rate of dilatancy of the sample. As expected the maximum angle of dilation using equation 3, if found coincides with the peak value of the shear stress versus horizontal displacement graph. This enables the determination of the maximum angle of dilation ψmax. 5.0 SHEAR STRENGTH OF THE SAMPLES Figure 6 shows the results of the peak friction angle (Øpeak) versus the relative density for all the samples with different normal stress (σ). It is seen that the peak friction angle is the lowest for SPu(L.Buuzard) sand. SPu(Kahang).also shows lower Øpeak than the SW and SPg sands but it is however higher than that of SPu(L.Buuzard). SW and SPg sand are almost similar but SPg sand tends to have lower Øpeak at lower relative densities (Dr). This indicates that the relative density, grading characteristics and the shape of the particles have a significant effect on the shear strength of the soil. Figure 6 also shows that there is a decrease in peak friction angle (Øpeak) for all the samples with the increase in normal stress (σ) for similar relative density (Dr). The same goes for the critical friction angle (Øcr). The determination Øcr in this study is in line with the work of Simoni and Houlsby (2006) and Hamidi et al. (2009) where they use the Øpeak values of different densities plotted against maximum dilatancy angle (ψmax) as shown in figure 7. The best fit line is then drawn, giving the Øcr values as the shearing resistance of a sample which would exhibit zero dilatancy. Figure 8 is the correlation between the uniformity coefficient (Cu) and the critical angle of friction (Øcr) only for Kahang sands with different normal streses. Only Kahang sand is compared to ensure that the grading characteristic to be treated as a function only on the shear strength of the sample. It can be seen that as Cu increases, Øcr would also increase until it reaches a peak, and a further increase in Cu has caused a reduction in the critical friction angle. 29
  • 85. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam a) a) Øc b) b) Øc c) c) Øc Legend: SW SPu(Kahang) SPu(L.Buzzard) x SPg Figure 6: Peak friction angle versus relative Figure 7: The determination of critical density of all the samples with a) 25kPa, friction angle for all the samples under b) 50kPa and 100kPa normal stress (σ). a) 25kPa b) 50kPa c) 100kPa normal stress. Figure 8: The correlation between uniformity coefficient (Cu) and critical friction angle (Øcr) of Kahang sand with different normal stresses (σ). The shapes of the sand particles also play a significant role in the shear strength of the soil and it is not entirely dependent on the mineral-to-mineral friction (Cho et al. 2006; Chan and Page, 1997). Figure 9 shows the relationship of the sphericity and roundness to the theoretical friction angle (Øcr). The shear strength values of SPu(L.Buuzard) and SPu(Kahang) of similar Cu to this study are compared so that particle size distribution does not influence the outcome of the results. The graph shows that the roundness and sphericity of the particles show a significant effect on the critical friction angle (Øcr). The critical friction angle decreases as both the roundness and sphericity increases. 30
  • 86. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Figure 9: The relationship of the sphericity and roundness to the critical friction angle (Øcr) 5.1 DILATANCY Dilatancy is a measure of the change in volume of a soil when it is distorted by shearing. When a normal stress (σ) is subjected on the grains, it will cause it to become compacted and the grains interlocks, restricting the freedom to move around one another. It induces a bulk expansion of the material when it is under shear. However, the increase in effective normal stress will suppress the interlocking grains to expand in volume. Therefore, the ability of the dense assembly of the soil grains to expand depends on the magnitude of the normal effective stress (σ) (Budhu, 2000). The increase in shear strength with density is primarily due to the increased tendency of the sample to dilate and the work done in overcoming frictional forces (Wijeyesekera et al , 1998). Figure 10 shows the variation of maximum dilation angle (ψ) with relative densities of Kahang sands with different normal stresses. At low normal stress, uniformity coefficient (Cu) plays an important factor in the variation of the dilation angle (ψ). SW sand has the highest dilation angles compared to the other sand samples with similar relative density (Dr) regardless of the different normal stresses (σ). SPuL.buzzard sand however, shows the lowest dilation angles. Surprisingly, SPuKahang sand tend to show higher dilation angles than SPg sand which has the highest uniformity coefficient (Cu). It can also be seen that as the normal stress increases, the maximum dilation angle decreases. Figure 10(c) shows that there is not much of a difference in the dilation angle values of each sample at high normal stress of 100kPa. As stated, higher normal stress suppresses dilatancy. An increase in sphericity and roundness decreases the dilatancy (ψ). Figure 11 shows the SPu(l.Buzzard) has a higher mean sphericity and roundness values compared to SPu(Kahang) and it shows lower dilatancy values. SPu(Kahang) tend to have higher dilation angles at low level normal stress (σ), but the values decrease as the normal stress increases up to a point where the values are the same as SPu(L.Buzzard). The increasing normal stresses have only little effect on the dilation angle of SPu(L.Buzzard). This can be explained as angular particles tend to be more interlocking and it obstructs the mobility of the particles, making it to expand in volume when shear displacement is induced. Smooth and rounder particles have the ease to move around each other, which explains its low dilation angles regardless of the normal stress. The net effect of the dilatancy is that the failure envelope deviates from the usual straight line and is slightly curved (see Figure 12) for all test samples. This confirms equation 1 where the shear stress is dependent on the normal stress (σ) and angle of dilatancy (ψ). An increase in normal stress decreases dilatancy resulting in the decrease of shear strength (τ). Figure 12 compares the failure envelope of the sample with the lowest relative density and no dilatancy represented by a straight line from the origin. However, Hamidi et al, (2009), found that the curved envelop also happens due to particle crushing with high normal stress. This is not the case here as the normal stress is small. It can be seen that the difference in the failure envelop of dense and loose SPuL.Buzzard is not much. 31
  • 87. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam a) b) c) Legend: SW, Cu = 3.95 SPu(Kahang), Cu = 1.86 X SPg, Cu = 11.53 Figure 10: Dilation angle versus the relative density with (a) 25kPa, (b) 50kPa and (c) 100kPa normal stresses of sand with different uniformity coefficient (Cu). a) b) Legend: c) SPu(Kahang) Sphericity = 0.64 Roundness = 0.41 X SPu(L.Buzzard) Sphericity = 0.73 Roundness = 0.68 Figure 11: The effect of sphericity and roundness on the dilation angle with a) 25kPa, b) 50kPa and c) 100kPa of normal stress (σ). 6.0 CONCLUSION The popular use of sand for natural or artificial fills has led to a necessary study on its shear strength characteristics. Direct shear box testing on the sand samples has shown that gradation has a significant effect on the peak friction angles (Øpeak) and the critical friction angles (Øcr). Both the uniformly graded sands SPu(Kahang) and SPu(L.Buzzard) shows lower peak friction angles. Comparing between these two types sands, SPu(L.Buzzard) has higher sphericity and roundness values which gives a decrease in peak friction angle of at least 8 degrees as compared to SPu(Kahang). The increases in Cu also tend to increase the (Øcr) values, but it reaches a peak and then further decreases as where sand would be classified as gap graded. 32
  • 88. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam This show that gap graded sand produced higher shear strength due to the better interlocking structure of the particles. Legend: Dense Loose Figure 12: Failure envelope of samples with different relative densities. The gradation and shape characteristics of the coarse sand also have an influence in the occurrence of dilatancy. Higher sphericity and roundness values tend to have lower dilation angles as compared to the other soils. Dilation is also however dependent on the relative density and the normal stress (σ) of the soil. Dilatancy however, also plays a significant effect on the shear strength of the soil. Base on Budhu (1999), the dilation angle increases as the normal stress decreases. This has caused the failure envelop to become curved for denser sand samples. As for loose sand samples where it exhibits zero dilatancy has shown a straight line failure envelope. The increasing normal stresses have only little effect on the dilation angle of SPu(L.Buzzard) as compare to SPu(Kahang). The angular particles tend to be more interlocking in its structure and it obstructs the mobility of the particles during shearing, resulting in the expansion of volume. Rounder particles however, have the ease to move and slide around each other, therefore it explains the low dilation angles regardless of the normal stress that is induced on it. As a result, the particle gradation and shapes of the coarse grained sands really needs to be look further into as it has a significant effect on the its shear strength and dilatancy. REFERENCES [1] Atkinson, J. (1993). An introduction to the mechanics of soils and foundations: McGraw- Hill International, UK. [2] Belkhatir, M., Arab, A., Della, N., Missoum, H. & Schanz, T. (2010) Effect of grading characteristics on the undrained shear strength of sand-silt mixture: International Symposium on Seismic Construction Zone Hassiba Benbouali University of Chlef (Algeria), 26 to 27 October 2010. [3] Chan, L. C. Y.., & Page, N. W. (1997). “Particle fractal and load effects on internal friction in powders” Powder Technol., 90, 256-266. [4] Bolton, M.D. (1986). "The strength and dilatancy of sands" Géotechnique., 36(1), 65-78. [5] Bolton, M.D. (1987). "The strength and dilatancy of sands" Discussion. Géotechnique., 37(1), 219-226. 33
  • 89. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam [6] British Standard Institution (BSI). BS 1377: British Standard Method of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes. [7] Budhu, M. (2000). Soil mechanics and foundations: John Wiley & Sons, New York. [8] Cho, G.C, Dodds, J. & Santamarina, J.C. (2006). Particle shape effects on packing density, stiffness and strength: Natural and crushed sands. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 132, No 5. [9] Goktepe, A.B, & Sezer, A. (2010) Effect of particle shape on density and pearmeability of sands: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Geotechnical Engineering 163, December 2010, Issue GE6, pg 307-320. [10] Hamidi, A. Alizadeh, M. & Soleimani, S.M. (2009). Effect of particle crushing on shear strength and dilation characteristics of sand-gravel mixtures: International Journal of Civil Engineering. Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2009. [11] Head, K.H. (1992). Manual of soil laboratory testing. Vol 1: Soil classification and compaction test. Pentech Press, London. [12] Santamarina, J. C., & Cho, G. C. (2004). “Soil behaviour. The role of particle shape.” Advances in geotechnical engineering: The Skempton Conference, R.J. Jardine, D.M Potts, and K. G. Higgins, eds., Vol 1, Thomas Telford, London, 604 – 617. [13] Simoni, A. & Houlsby, G.T. (2006). The direct shear strength and dilatancy on sand- gravel mixtures. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. Vol 24, 523-549. [14] Wijeyesekera, D.C., Hachouf, K. and Warnakulasuriya, S. (1998) “The significance of dilatancy of the backfill on the soil structure interaction pf polypropylene reinforcement”, Proceedings of the 2nd international Conference on ground improvement techniques, pg 537-544, Singapore.. 34
  • 90. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Overview of Current Field Geotechnical Testing for Peat Ground Investigation Rashidah Adon1 , Dato’ Hj Ismail bin Hj Bakar2, Devapriya Chitral Wijeyesekera3, Adnan bin Zainorabidin4 1,2,3,4 Faculty of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, UTHM, Batu Pahat, Johor, rash_md@yahoo.com,bismail@uthm.edu.my,adnanz@uthm.edu.my 3 School of Architecture, Computing,and Engineering, University of East London D.C.Wijeyesekera@uel.ac.uk Abstract Rapid pace of infrastructure development is seeing Malaysia and many other parts of the world facing decreasing areas of ‘suitable’ ground for infrastructure construction. Limited availability of sites is forcing peat land to become a viable construction site for economic reasons. Although peat causes problems to engineering, it has its own advantages in term of forestry and agriculture. This paper presents a critical review and discussion of recent and current geotechnical testing in peat ground investigation with a variety of types of peat from several locations in Malaysia and other countries. This paper represents data on fibric, hemic and sapric type of peat for loss of ignition (Organic Content), natural water content, liquid limit, plastic limit, density and specific gravity. Some of these tests were modified to suit peat testing. Sampling techniques to obtain undisturbed samples for strength testing is outlined. Shear strength is another signifiicant parameter and plays a vital role in engineering design decisions. Various researchers and practitioners have used piezocone (CPTU) tests and vane test with correlation to in-situ vane tests or laboratory triaxial tests. This paper also reviews the innovative of CPTU testing on peat soil. Keywords : peat, organic content, shear strength, cone penetration 1. INTRODUCTION Peat has long been favourably utilised in horticulture and agriculture but is considered a challenging soil in construction. There is a tendency in construction industry to avoid this type of problematic and challenging soil since improvement of peat soil is very expensive and time consuming. Peat is a soil that is often found saturated, with low mineral content and its thickness can vary from 1 meter to 20 meters. Peat finds itself classed within the soft soil group because of its high compressibility, low shear strength and it is very sensitive to any stress changes. It is not avoidable and uncontrollable but its behaviour may be predictable if there is proper site investigation documentation. If at all possible, engineers seek to avoid building on them because of initial stability of construction. Its occurrence is usually in river valleys and estuaries. 75% of peat is organic, consisting of a large number of partially decomposed and destroyed plants. Usually it is brown, black and the pH is acidic. Based on the global records, Malaysia is the 9th country with the highest total area of peat According to Huat (2004), 3.0 million hectares or 8% of land in Malaysia is covered with peat. Sarawak constitute the largest peat area with 1, 657 600 sq. km make up 13% of the state, of which about 90% is more than 1m in depth (Singh et al, 1997). Figure 1 shows the distribution of peat soil in South East Asia. Specifically the peat occurs along the west-coast and it is due to the reduction of sea level or upllift of the land. 35
  • 91. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Land area – 328, 750 km2 Malaysia – 2.4 million ha Peninsular – 0.7 million ha Sarawak – 1.6 million ha Sabah – 0.1 million ha Figure 1: Distribution of peatlands in South East Asia. (Source: Rieley et al., 1996) 2. REVIEW AND CASE STUDY Geotechnical properties of peat soils as obtained by other researchers is reviewed and discussed. This paper also overviews the sampling methods adopted by others, moisture content, loss of moisture in peat, liquid limit, organic content, specific gravity, bulk density, and pH test. 2.1 Classification and Sampling Methods. The wide interests in peat have generated different classification systems for peat. Table 1 presents historical development of different approaches and classification of peat. It is also difficult to extract soil samples especially undisturbed samples because of the high organic content. For peat, undisturbed soil sampling is yet not reliably possible. However, better qualities samples can be obtained by techniques in which the disturbance is kept to the absolute minimum (Al-Raziq, 2003). According to Landva(1983), disturbed samples of peat may be obtained with the Hiller sampler, the Davis sampler or the Macaulay sampler while undisturbed sampling is done with a peat piston sampler or a steel foil sampler. However, sample disturbance in peat can be overcome using 250 mm square block samples (Hobbs; 1986; Lefebvre et al, 1984; Edil, 2003; O’louglin, 2003) . The square block sampler can be used to obtain large samples of peat at depths up to about 10m.Meanwhile 100mm diameter piston sampler was designed specifically for the testing of 100-mm diameter specimens. Nevertheless, Site investigation works for peat in Sarawak has used the peat auger or probe to obtain disturbed samples. Zainorabidin (2010) adopted techniques similar to that of Landva et al (1983) and Korpijaako and Woolnough (1981) with modified U100 PVC tubes based on the guidelines in Table 2 to obtain undisturbed samples of peat from Malaysia and UK. 36
  • 92. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Figure 2: Diagrammatic representation of the 100-mm piston sampler (Source: Korpijaako and Woolnough,1981) Table 1: Comparison of different classification systems for peat (Zainorabidin ,2010) Classification Approach United State  This was developed for agricultural and other land management uses and it is based on Department of both chemical and physical properties of the soil. Agricuture (USDA  The highest level of the present USDA system, the category referred to as soil order, is Soil Taxonomy) based on soil forming processes as indicated by the presence or absence of major diagnostic horizons. Unified Soil  Soil classification system used in engineering and geology disciplines to describe the Classification texture and grain size of a soil System (USCS) Von Post Method  Classification attempts to describe peat and the structure in quantitative terms. The (1922) degree humification is the main part to classify the peat on site based on the different scale from H1 to H10  The extended system suggested by Hobbs (1986) is designed to provide a means of collating the types of peat with their physical, chemical and structural properties. Radforth (1952)  System for Canadian peat (muskeg) based on structure of peat rather than its botanical origin. (Muskeg Engineering Handbook, MacFarlane,1969)  There are three main categories, amorphous-granular, fine fibrous and coarse fibrous.  That vegetal cover and topsoil should be classified based on structure than genesis. It covers nine categories. In this classification system, there was no mention about color, wetness, degree of humification or organic content. Malaysian Standard  System presently improved from British Soil Classification System (BS5930:1981). This Soil Classiication improved focuses on the system, which amplifies the coverage of peats and organic soils System (Ikram and and does not change it all for inorganic soils. Jarret, 1997)  This classification more precisely defines organic soil and peat and gives limits to when inorganic soil classes should be described as slightly organic.  In this system, the organic content must be measured to classify the type of peats. Soil TAXONOMY  In soil taxonomy, there are three different kinds of organic soil materials and are based on the degree of decomposition of the plant materials from which the organic soil materials are derived. The three kinds are (1) fibrous (2) hemic (3) sapric  It is also based on the degree of decomposition of organics materials indicated by the content of fabrics. If the organic materials are highly decomposed, fabrics are nearly absent. If the organic materials are only slightly decomposed, more of the volume, exclusive of the coarse fragments normally consists of fibres.  It is possible to make a coarse division is made into three type; Fibrous : H1-H4, Pseudo- fibrous: H5-H7, Amorphous peat : H8-H10 37
  • 93. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Figure 3: Diagrammatic representation of 250-mm square block sampler Table 2: Guideline for tube U100mm Standard BS5930, Hvorslev Measurement U100 (1949) Area ratio (%) 2 2 Ca = D2 -D1 x 100 2 D1 8 < 25 D1 = the inside diameter of the cutting edge D2 = the greatest outside diameter of the sampling tube. Inside clearance ratio (%) 0 0-0.5 0 Edge taper angle ( ) 8 5- 10 2.2 Moisture Content There is general fear that the standart drying of soil 1050C during 24 hours will lead to changing of the organic components in peat, and lead to big values water content (Huat,2004) but Skempton and Petley concluded that the loss of organic matter is unimportant, while drying at lower temperature retains small amount of free water. Huat stated that the natural water content of peat in West Malaysia ranges from 200 % to 700% and with organic content in the range of 50% to 95%. According to Yusuf (1984), moisture content of peat soil is in range from 100% to 1300%. Higher moisture content will affect the porosity, thus reducing the bulk density of the soil. Hanzawa et. Al (1994), states that the natural water content of some peat could exceed 1000%.Tan (1983), discovered that dry density of peat soil is in range between 10 to 20 kN/m3 with moisture content ranging from 20% to 700%. Harwant and Bahia (1997), stated that moisture content of peat soil in Sarawak is in range between 200% to 1500%. This high water content is the cause of buoyancy and a high pore volume that results in low bulk density and low bearing capacity (H. Singh et al.,2003) For organic soil, the water is held in the organic matters and cells of the plant remain.Organic soils had very high water content which could be in excess of 700%, compared with mineral soil (sand, silt and clay), whose values in the field may range between 3-70%, but with values of greater 38
  • 94. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam than 100% sometimes found in soft soil below ground water table. Table 3 presented data that have been collected from sites around the world where peat properties results have been published and/or were available. Table 3: Typical index properties for different peats Water Organic Liquid Unit Specific Sample area Description content content Limit weight Refs gravity (%) (%) (%) (kN/m3) Amorphous West Malaysia 200-700 65-97 190-360 1.38-1.70 8.3-11.5 Al-Raziqi et al., 2003 Peat East malaysia Fibrous Peat 200-2200 50-95 210-550 1.07-1.63 8.0 -12.0 Bujang, 2004 Zainorabidin and Johore Malaysia Hemic Peat 230-500 80-96 220-250 1.48-1.8 7.5-10.2 ismail, 2003 Holme Fen, British Fen Peat 500-600 > 98 800-1500 1.40-1.60 9.50-10.50 Hutchinson, 1980 Cumbria British Bog Peat 200-1000 > 98 200-600 1.80 8.50-11.0 Hobbs, 1986 Amorphous Karunawardena et al., Sri Lanka 200-800 20-50 200 1.50-2.20 7.50-10.0 Peat 2007 Fibrous Peat 1400 98.1 ¯ 1.41 ¯ Conleth D. Oloughlin Ireland Amorphous and Barry M.Lehane, 865 79.5 690 1.55 ¯ 2003 Peat Canada Spaghnum 1500 Landva 2007 Amarphous Hokkaido, Japan 115-1150 20-98 1.3-2.1 9.5-11.2 Hirochika et al., 2003 Peat Wales, British Bog 560 – 965 60-80 1.51-1.73 9.2-10.6 Douglass,1998 2.3 Loss of Moisture in Peat Zainorabiddin (2010) studied the relationship between the water content and 14 different dying temperatures from 150C up to 1050C. Figure 4 shows the comparison of moisture content for peat, sand and clay tested under similar drying conditions. It is noteworthy that the peat sample showed a unique curve for moisture retention. The water retention character for clays and sand are uniform and different from that of peat. Sand samples release water totally at a lower temperature of 300C whilst in clay, the moisture is released at 400C. Figure 4: Comparison of moisture content loss for different samples. 39
  • 95. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam The moisture content retained for all HFP1 samples (Holme Fen peat from Cambbridge) were different (in the range between 620 to 670%, see Figure 5). In the temperature range of 200 C to 350C there is, notably, still a variation of moisture retention in peat. At 350 C, it becomes consistent and constant at 40% moisture for similar rate of drying. After 600 C. there is no appreciable change in moisture. The figure shows very similar pattern and repeatability between the four samples. This confirms that changes in the moisture retained for peat are related to and influenced by the temperature of dying. Figure 5: Observation of moisture loss for HFP1 sample 2.4 Liquid Limit Haan (1997) reported that the high fibre content in peat soil will cause difficulty to prepare samples for Atterberg Limit determination. This test cannot be conducted on very high fibre content peat, and any attempts to do so will give inaccurate results. Skempton and Petley (1970) observed that peat could have liquid limit greater than 500%. According to Hobbs (1987), liquid limit is in the range of 200% to 600% for ‘Fen’ peat, and 800% to 1500% for ‘Bog’ peat. While according to Zulkarnaine (1990) reports on peat soil in Kampung Sungai Naga, Pontian, to have a liquid limit of 174% and plastic limit of 127%. Thus the plasticity index obtained is 47%. Ismail (1984) and Salmah (1989), did not provide liquid limit and plastic limit data in their study as they believed that liquid limit and plastic limit test in laboratory was difficult. This was based on the fact that peat soil had a high fibre content and reliable sample preparation was difficult. O’Loughlin et al (2003) reported that liquid limit of the four sites in the Irish midlands is between 317-690 %. 2.5 Organic Content The engineering properties show a great variation depending on the type and amount of organic matter. In peat soils, the organic content is high. It could be in excess of 90% very much higher than that of other soils. Organic content is measured either by a Loss on Ignition Test, ASTM D2974 and BS 1377 Part 3 (4) or a Chemical Oxidation Test, BS 1377 Part (3). Based on Unified Soil Classification System (USCS), definition of peat requires the addition of an extra class of soil and a descriptive modifier to cover soils with significant organic content but less than 75%. Organic content is an indicator of peat purification from any othermineral component. Peat classification is affected by the organic content. (Hanzawa et. Al ,1994). 40
  • 96. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Organic content for peat soil at Irish midland are between 32.2 to 98.6% (O’loughlin, 2003). Adel et al (2003) suggested a correlation between organic content and water content. The correlation was based on various Malaysian soils. The best fit to the samples from Kota samarahan is closer to the Irish organic soils (Zainorabidin, 2010). 2.6 Specific Gravity Specific gravity (Gs) of organic soils and peat depend on the amount and type of organic constituents (Den Haan ,1997 and Hobbs,1986),. For an organic content (N) more than 75 %, the specific gravity of peat ranges between 1.3 and 1.8 with an average of 1.5 (Davis, 1997). The lower specific gravity indicates a lower degree of decomposition and low mineral content. The average specific gravity of soil solids can be calculated using equation 1, given below: Gs  2.7(1  N )  1.5 N (1) However, Doyle (1963) claimed that equation 1 can give an error as much as 18%. Skempton & Petley (1970) correlation for specific gravity and the ignition loss (N) defined by equation 2 : 1 1  1.04(1  N ) 1.04(1  N )   (2) Gs 1.4 2.7 The specific gravity obtained in this study (see Table 4) using kerosene in a pycnometer test was 1.446 which is within the range for peat, but is 0.439 less than that obtained from equation1, recommended by Davis (1997). Table 4: Calculation of Organic Content and Specific Gravity Organic Specific Reference Equation Content (%) Gravity Davis (1997) 2.7 (1-N) + 1.5N 67.95 1.885 Skempton & Petley (1970) 1-1.04(1-N) + 1.04 (1-N) 67.95 0.885 1.4 2.7 Author Data 1.446 2.7 Bulk density The bulk density of peat is in the range of 0.8 – 1.2 Mg/m3. Bulk density of peat is affected by the structure, degree of humification and mineral content in soil. On the top 30cm of the peat, the bulk density of the peat in Peninsular Malaysia is low and varies from 0.1 to 0.2g cm-3. According to Ismail (1984), bulk density of peat soil varies with depth. where in 10cm deep, bulk density was recorded from 1000 to 3500 kg/m3. Bulk density will eventually decrease to a value ranging from 60 to 200 kg/m3 at 20 to 30cm depth. 2.8 pH Test Ajlouni (2000) stated that peat soils are acidic with pH ranging from 3.2 to 4.9. There are 68% of peat soils with the pH value less than 4.1. The acidity of peat deposit results from the material constituting these soils, the humic acids formed in the peat and the acidity of the pore water. The acidity of peat deposit decreases with depth.Parbery and Venkatachalam (1964) stated that Malaysian peat soil is extremely acidic. The peat soil is saturated with hydrogen ions. Salmah (1989), stated that pH value of peat soil in Johor is ranging from 3.0 to 5.0. This explains that acidity of peat soil is very high. In other study conducted by Bujang (1997), if peat soil contains sulfate, pH value will reduced below than 3.0. 41
  • 97. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 3. SHEAR STRENGTH CHARACTERISTIC OF PEAT SOIL Shear strength always play a vital role when engineering decision come across with any soils (Huat, 2006). Typically, in-situ shear strength is determined using Cone penetration test and Vane test. However, these methods have some inherent limitation since the shear strength can only be determined indirectly through correlations with laboratory results and back calculation from the results of actual failures ( Kazemian et al ,2011). Laboratory tests, on the other hand, yield the shear strength directly but these require good quality samples. Table 5 presents data from peat deposits of similar type. These results were obtained from samples consolidated under aspecific normal stress ( within range 5 to 50 kPa) prior to application of the compressive (trixial) or shearing ( direct shear) stress. 3.1 Cone Penetration Test (CPTU) The main advantage of the CPTU is that it provides reliable and continuous profiles of data at a lower cost. Many engineering developments using spherical ball have been suggested for some years (Vallejo,1982). It appears to have been taken up again only recently (Watson et al, 1998; Newson et al; 1999, Stewart and Randolph ,1994, 1998,2000 and Lunne ,2001). Table 5: Published values for the shear strength of peat. (Dykes, 2008) Cohesion, c Internal friction Peat Type/ Characteristic Reference (kPa) angle, Ф Peat with low moisture content/ 0 48 Adams (1965) Moose river Remoulded H4 Sphagnum peat 5.5-6.1 36.6-43.5 Hanrahan et al. (1967) Hollinshead and No information 4 34 Raymond (1972) Landva and La Rochelle Sphagnum peat ( H3, mainly fibrous) 2.4-4.7 27.1-35.4 (1983) Raised bog, 98% organic; undr. Triax. 55 Farrel and Hebib (1998) Compression: Direct and ring shear 38 Ombrotrophic blanket peat, 0.35- 2.7-8.2 26.1-30.4 Kirk (2001) 1.25m deep Indonesian, Brazilian and Japanese 32-58 peat Unspesified peat, 1- 2.5 m deep, H4-5 Long and Jennings 3-5 35 to H7-8 (2006) Ombrotrophic blanket peat, 1.4 - 1.7 Dykes and Warburton 8 - 11 21-25 m deep,H10 (2008) As above, calculated from back- Dykes and Warburton 2.0 - 6.2 21 analyses of failures (2008) Ombrotrophic blanket peat, 2m deep, 5.2 33.4 Dykes (2008) H5-6 The t-bar penetrometer was first introduced as a laboratory tool to estimate the shear strength profile within clay samples tested in centrifuge (Steward and Randolph, 1991). The device comprised of a 5-mm diameter cylinder, 20-mm long, attached at right angles to a shaft and induces plane strain soil flow. It consisting of a horizontal bar made from steel. Dimension of the t-bar is 250mm long and 36mm in diameter. Field versions of the T-bar have been used extensively off-shore since the late 1990s (Randolph et al, 1998; hefer and Neubecker, 1999) typically using a T-bar that is 40 mm in diameter and 250 mm long (Randolph and Andersen, 2006). 42
  • 98. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam The concept from t-bar was extended to a spherical penetrometer (ball) to reduce load cell bending and allow for deployment in smaller diameter drill casing (DeJong et al 2004; Randolph, 2004). A ball penetrometer induces axisymmetric soil flow. The ball was constructed by Randolph are using hardened steel with a diameter of 113mm and projected area of 100cm2. Another design is similar to that employed by DeJong et al (2008) comprises several modular components that can be interchanged to facilitate pore pressure filter location at the tip, mid face and equator. The piezoball filters were custom fabricated from polyethylene with an average pore size of 30-60 microns by C.Colreavy, while the piezoball design by Akinori M.et al (2009) was made by duralumin with 112.8 mm in diameter with the same project area. A summary of the reported work on full flow penetrometers is given in Table 5. 3.2 Vane Test Field vane shear is commonly used for in-situ testing to measure the undrained shear strength of peat. The vane shear test is standardized in BS 1377 (9) and ASTM D2573. The vane shear apparatus consists of thin-bladed rectangular vanes that can be pushed into the soil with a minimum of disturbance. A torque applied to rotate the vanes is related to the shear strength of the soil. Researches showed that the shear strength determined by the test is greater than the actual shear strength of peat (Noto, 1991). Table 6: Summary on Full Flow Penetrometer References Country Devices Soil General results used DeJong et al US T-bar,ball Valley varved clay In field CPTU qt exceeds penetration and plate resistance of T-bar, which in turn is about 38% greater than ball and plate. Chung and Australia Tbar, ball Field: clay In field CPTU qt exceeds that of all devices Randolph and plate Model : with plate being marginally greater T-bar reconstituted and ball. CPTU qt more rapidly with depth. Burswood clay In contrast centrifuge model CPTU exhibits lowest qt (probably reflecting higher rigidity index of natural clay). Model plate resistance lower than model T-bar or ball. Effect of surface roughness and aspect ratio marginal. Oung et al Netherland T-bar only Field: silty clay In model tests CPTU qt, greater than T-bar s and peat in island resistance. of Marken In field CPTU and T-bar resistance similar. Model: kaolinite CPTU more”peaky”, T-bar better at reflecting layer limits. Long and Ireland T-bar only Soft glacial lake For clay soils T-bar resistance only 50% of Gudjonsson clays CPTU qt. For organic and silty soils penetration resistance simiar for both. CPTU qt shows stronger increase with depth. The structural strength of soil is basically a problem of shear strength. Vane shear test is a useful method of measuring the shear strength of clay. It is cheaper and quicker. The laboratory vane shear test for the measurement of shear strength of cohesive soils is useful for soils of low shear strength (less than 0.3 kg/cm2) for which triaxial or unconfined tests cannot be performed. The undisturbed and remolded strength obtained are useful for evaluating the sensitivity of soil. According to Edil (2003), large vanes of diameter 55 to 110 mm and height to diameter ratio of 2 are recommended for peat. Hanzawa et al. (1994) states that field vane test do not provide the appropriate shear strength of peaty soil for design use, su and it is widely known that the vane shear strength is unsafe. In addition, it is difficult to 43
  • 99. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam obtain the strength increment ratio in the normally consolidated state, from field vane shear test. The shear increment ratio is an important design parameter for peaty soil compared with normal clayey soil. 4. CONCLUDING REMARK Peat is often a surface material considered to be the worst material for foundation in terms of its engineering properties. It is important to know the basic geotechnical properties of peat for the design of geotechnical structures. Peat possesses large non-homogeinity and therefore it is important to develop a bank of reliable information and correlation among the properties for engineering and design purposes. 5. REFERENCES [1] BS5930 (1999) Code of Practice for Site Investigation, British Standard Institution, London [2] Dykes, A.P. and Yang, J., (2006). The liquid limit of peat and its applications to the understanding of Irish blanket bog failures, Landslides, 3: 205-216. [3] Edil, T. B. (2003). “Recent advances in geotechnical characterization and construction over peats and organic soils.” In 2nd International Conference on Advances in Soft Soil Engineering and Technology, Putrajaya 2-4 July. [4] Haan, E.J. (1997). An overview of the mechanical behaviour of peats and organic soils and some appropriate construction technique. Conference on Recent Advances in Soft Soil Engineering. Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. [5] Hobbs, N.B (1986). Mire morphology and the properties and behaviour of some British and foreign peats, Quaterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 19: 7-80. [6] Huat, B. B. K. (2004). “ Organic and peat soils engineering.” 1st print, Universiti Putra Malaysia Press. ISBN 983-2871-08-5. [7] Ikram and Jarret, P.M (1995) Geoguide 6: Site Investigation for organic soil and peat, JKR Documents 20709-0341-95, Ikram. [8] Kazemian, S., Huat, B.B.K, Prasad, A., and Barghchi, M. A state of art review of peat: Geotechnical engineering perspective. International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol. 6(8), pp. 1974-1981, 18 April, 2011 [9] Landva, A.O. and Pheeney, P.E. and Mersereau,D.E (1983).Undisturbed sampling of peat, Testing of Peat and Organic Soils, ASTM STP, 820:141-156. [10] Lefebvre,G., Langlois, P. Lupien, C. and Lavalle, J.G. (1984) Laboratory testing and in situ behaviour of peat as embankment foundation. Can. Geotech J. 21(2), 322-337. [11] Macfarlane I.C, and Radforth, N.W. (1968). Structure as a basis of peat classification. Third International Peat Congress. Quebecc, Canada, Nasional Research Council of Canada. 91-97 [12] O’Loughlin C.D. and Lehane, B.M. (2003). A study of the link between composition and compressibility of peat and organic soils, Proceeding 2nd International Conference on Advances in Soft Soil Engineering and Technology, Putrajaya, Malaysia. 2-4 July. [13] Radforth, N.W. (1952). Suggested classification of muskeg for the engineer, Engineering Journal, 35(11):1199-1210. [14] Rieley , J. O., Ahmand, S. A. A. and Brady, M. A. (1996). “ The extent and nature of tropical peat swamps.” In Tropical Lowland peatlands of southeast asia, IUCN, Cardigan , pp. 370. [15] Singh, H., Bahia.H.M. and Huat, B.B.K (2003). “Varying perspectiveon peat,it’s occurance in Sarawak and some geotechnical properties,” Proceeding 2nd International Conference on Advances in Soft Soil Engineering and Technology, Putrajaya, Malaysia. 2-4 July. [16] Skempton, A.W. and Petley, D.J. (1970). Ignition loss and other properties of peats and clays from Avonmouth, King’s Lynnand Cranberry Moss. Geotechnique, 20(4): pp.343-356. [17] Zainorabidin , A. (2010). Static and dynamic characteristics of peat with macro and micro structure perspective.PhD Thesis. 44
  • 100. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Kenaf/ Recycled Jute fibers Composites Ekhlas. A. Osman1a, Anatoli. Vakhguelt1b, Igor. Sbarski2c; Saad. A. Mutasher1d*, 1 School of Engineering Computing and Sciences Swinburne University of Technology (Sarawak Campus) Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia 2 Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218 HAWTHORN VIC 3122, Australia a : eosman@swinburne.edu.my, b: avakhguelt@swinburne.edu.my c : ISbarski@groupwise.swin.edu.au, d*: smutasher@swinburne.edu.my Abstract The use of recycled natural, eco-friendly, renewable resources in composites, as a reinforcing material, requires chemical or physical treatment to improve compatibility with the polymer matrix. The present study investigates the tensile, flexural and impact behaviours of kenaf/recycled jute various lengths hybrid composites. The composite materials were made from treated kenaf bast fiber size of 1-6 mm by adding 20 wt% weight percentages of fiber in unsaturated polyester resin for flexural and impact test while 30 wt% for tensile properties. These specifications of weight fractions are due to maximum flexural, impact and tensile properties resulted from further relative study to this research. The hybrid composites were made via adding different fraction of recycle jute fiber with lengths of (10, 20 and 30) mm to kenaf fiber. Flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of composites for all formulations were investigated in this research. Results indicated that generally the flexural and impact properties of these various jute lengths composites systems were found to decrease significantly as the percentage of recycled jute various jute lengths was increased. Tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and elongation of kenaf composites were improved for a certain value of weight fraction and length of recycled jute. SEM test showed that incorporated different fiber dimensions in the composites, morphological changes take place depending upon interfacial interaction between the varying dimensions of fiber and the resin matrix. Keywords: kenaf fiber, natural fiber composites, flexural strength, unsaturated polyester, impact strength, modulus of elasticity. 1. INTRODUCTION In the structural materials area, there is a growing interest in the use of natural/bio-fibers as reinforcing components with thermoplastics and thermosets polymer. Advantages of natural fibers are: low cost, low density, acceptable specific properties, ease of separation, enhanced energy recovery, CO2 sequesterization and biodegradability. The use of reinforced thermoset composites is being led by who have nearly doubled their use in the last decade. Reinforced polyester exhibits good weathering properties and heat and corrosion resistance, with good strength to weight ratios Drzal et al. (2004). The natural fibers such as kenaf and jute have the potential to be used as a replacement for synthetic fibers such as glass and carbon in composites these fibers are cheap and renewable. The incorporation of two or more types of fiber within a single matrix is known as hybridisation and the resulting material is referred to 45
  • 101. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam as hybrid or hybrid composites. Several investigation are already reported in the field of natural fiber hybrid composites, Huda et al. (2006) evaluated the effect of the addition of silane-talc as the fillers on the mechanical and physico-mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/recycled newspaper cellulose fibers (RNCF)/talc hybrid composites, the hybrid composites showed improved properties such as flexural strength and modulus. Mechanical properties of banana/kenaf hybrid composites subjected various chemical treatment such as Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were compared by Thiruchitrambalam et al. (2009), the conclusion of the investigation was the SLS chemical treatment had provided better mechanical properties, for both the random mix and woven hybrid composites. Satish et al. (2010) their investigation was conducted to study the effect of hybrid composites specimen subjected to in-plane tensile and compressive loading, they concluded that the increase in shear stress is not only dependent on fiber strength but also on the interface between fiber and matrix material. The mechanical properties of hybrid composites have been investigated by Kuan et al (2009) and Mingchao et al. (2009). Results shown that increasing, the volume fraction of matrix can enhance the energy-absorbing characteristics of the hybrid composites, where increasing the amount of fiber increased the flexural modulus. The aim of the work presented here is to investigate the mechanical properties of kenaf/recycled jute various length unsaturated polyester composites, such that flexural, impact and tensile properties for specific weight fraction of kenaf size 1-6mm via adding different fraction of recycle jute fiber with lengths of (10, 20 and 30) mm to kenaf fiber. SEM test was carried out to investigate the possibility of combining a kenaf fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester with a recycled jute composites. 2. METHODS AND MATERIALS Unsaturated polyester (up) and Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) were obtained from BORNEO INDAH SDN BHD Company. Kenaf natural fiber was received from the Kenaf Natural Fiber Industries Sdn. Bhd. Kenaf physical treatment was done by undergoing cleaning steps; the fiber was chopped using the decorticating machine. The round vibratory sieves (Unit Test) machine was used to separate the clod of chopped kenaf bast fiber for sieves with sizes 600 m. The resultant fiber lengths were (1-6) mm. Recycled jute sacks were purchased from a grocery store. Jute sacks had previously been used to store peanuts. Physical treatment was done and the fiber was chopped manually to three various lengths (10, 20, and 30mm). Fibers of different sizes were soaked separately in 6wt% concentration of NaOH solution in water where the temperature was maintained throughout at room temperature for 48 hours, fiber: liquor ratio was 1:7 (by weight). Fibres were rinsed several times to remove any NaOH solution sticking to the fiber surface and dried in an oven for 24 hours at 100 °C. This treatment consists on dissolving lignin and hemicelluloses in order to recover cellulose fibers. The process is less harmful and does not attack the fibers mechanically. 3. COMPOSITES FABRICATION Four composites formulations were produced as indicated in Table 1. A compression moulding process was used for fabrication process. Specimens with 20wt% weight percentage of fibres were fabricated for flexural and impact test, while 30wt% weight percentage of fibres were fabricated for tensile test. The prepared resins were blended to fiber size (1-6) mm and the hybrid kenaf and recycled jute for specific weight fraction of hybrid 46
  • 102. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam fiber at three different sizes of recycled jute fiber. Certain composites specimens were then post cured in an oven for 5 hrs at 60 º C. 4. TESTS SETUP The tensile test specimens prepared in accordance with ASTM D608. A load cell of 50kN was selected for this test. The specimen was loaded in tension at a constant stroke rate of 5 mm/min. An extensometer of 50 mm gage length was mounted on the specimen for measurement of the strain, dumbbell shape (Type I) specimens with dimensions 165 mm of overall length, 13 mm width overall, 3 mm for thickness. Flexural strength was measured under a three-point bending approach using a universal testing T-machine according to ASTM D790. The dimensions of the samples were 127mm x 12.7mm x 3.2mm. The distance between the spans was 100mm, and the strain rate was 5 mm/min. Charpy impact test was used to measure the impact strength, the testing apparatus used is a pendulum type tester supplied by Lotus Scientific Sdn. Called LS-22 006-50J charpy impact tester with an initial energy of 50J at the initial height. The impact specimens’ dimensions were 10 x10 x 60 mm, with a v-notch 2 mm deep with 45 º angles on one side at the center. Impact test was done accordance to the ASTM E-23. Four specimens were tested for each case; the averages were reported as results. Table 1 Composition of the studied formulations for flexural and impact tests Unsaturated Treated kenaf Treated MEKP Composite code polyester (%) content (%) Recycled Jute (%) content (%) 20WK and 30WK 100 0 20,30W(75K-25J10mm) 75 25 20,30W(50K-50J10mm) 50 50 20,30W(25K-75J10mm) 25 75 20,30WJ10mm 0 100 20,30W(75K-25J20mm) 75 25 60%UP + 40%ST 1 20,30W(50K-50J20mm) 50 50 20,30W(25K-75J20mm) 25 75 20,30WJ20mm 0 100 20,30W(75K-25J30mm) 75 25 20,30W(50K-50J30mm) 50 50 20,30W(25K-75J30mm) 25 75 20,30WJ30mm 0 100 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Experimentations have been carried out to characterize the candidate kenaf composites material under different loading recycled jute various length with three different mechanical tests, the analysis of the results and the influence of various recycled jute length on the mechanical properties of kenaf/recycled jute unsaturated polyester composites are summarized in the following sections. 47
  • 103. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 5.1 Tensile Properties The tensile properties of the composites are strongly influenced by the fiber length. The effect of the fiber ends plays an important role in the fracture of the short fiber composites. To accomplish the maximum level of stress in the fiber, the fiber length (Lf) must be at least equal to critical fiber length (Lc), the minimum length of fiber required for the stress to reach the fracture stress of fiber Sreenivasan et al. (2010). Matthews et al. (2005) explicated about a schematic representation of the situation, when the composites possessing fibers with a length below Lc above Lc and at Lc, under tensile loading. Therefore, it is very important to optimise the fiber length for a particular matrix-fiber system so the optimum value of properties can be obtained. The influence of recycled jute fiber length on the tensile properties of short kenaf/recycled jute unsaturated composites are shown in Figures 1 and 2. The tensile strength and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing the fiber length to 30mm. From Figure 1 we can easily found that the 75% of recycled jute length 30mm provide better improvement in the modules, the maximum improvement is about 17.8% when compared with modulus for kenaf unsaturated composites. While the maximum improvement for strength is about 29%. The elongation value was not found to have any considerable variation with recycled jute fiber length as shown in Figure 3. 5.2 Flexural Behaviour Results in Figures 4 and 5 exhibits the effects of recycled jute fiber various size loading, adding to specimens fabricated at different percentages to a 20% fiber weight percent of kenaf/recycled jute composites. Both flexural strength and modulus were found to decrease significantly as the percentage of recycled jute fiber various jute lengths was increased. This is due to poor matrix adhesion occurring, which means the jute fiber length increase is not well bonded by the matrix. The longer fibers with poor adhesion to the unsaturated polyester matrix created stress concentration zones, and this is suggested as a reason for the decrease of the flexural properties of the hybrid composites made with kenaf /recycled jute of various lengths. At a specific jute length and weight percent, for example 75% jute length 30mm length was the maximum value; it is observed that the flexural strength increased with increasing fiber length as Figure 5 explain. Figure 6 shows the variations of flexural strength and modulus with recycled jute fiber length of recycled jute unsaturated polyester composites. The flexural properties showed an increasing trend with the increase of fiber length. Critical length of the fiber in the composites could be calculated by Kelly and Tyson, s (1965) equation. D f Lc  (1) 2m where Lc is the critical length, D is the fiber diameter, σf is the fiber fracture stress, and τm is the interface shear strength. The critical length of the jute fiber was 3.733 mm Shamsun Nahar et al (2011). The fiber, s critical length is the minimum length necessary for shear stress transfer through the fiber-matrix interface to generate a tensile stress high enough to fracture the fiber. Thus, for effective reinforcement, the jute fiber length should be larger than the critical length. This is the reason why the flexural properties showed high value at 30mm Cao et al (2006). The fiber below the value of critical length is possibly pulled out, not broken out in the flexural test Shibata et al. (2006). 48
  • 104. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 8 Jute size 10mm Jute size 20mm 7 Jute size 30mm Kenaf size 1-6mm 6 Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 25 50 75 100 Jute Content (wt%) Figure 1 Modulus of elasticity of kenaf composites and kenaf/recycled jute composites consistent various lengths of recycled jute fiber 35 Jute size 10mm Jute size 20mm Jute size 30mm Kenaf size 1-6mm 30 25 Tensile Strength (MPa) 20 15 10 5 0 0 25 50 75 100 Jute Content (wt%) Figure 2 Tensile strengths of kenaf composites and kenaf/recycled jute composites consistent various lengths of recycled jute fiber (constant fiber weight percent (30%)) 49
  • 105. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 2.5 Jute size 10mm Jute size 20mm Jute size 30mm Kenaf size 1-6mm 2 Elongation (%) 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 25 50 75 100 Jute Content (wt%) Figure 3 Tensile elongations of kenaf composites and kenaf/recycled jute composites consistent various lengths of recycled jute fiber (constant fiber weight percent (30%)) 4.5 4.3 4.1 Flexture Modulus (GPa) 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.1 Jute size 30mm 2.9 Jute size 10mm 2.7 Jute size 20mm 2.5 0 25 50 75 100 Jute Content (wt%) Figure 4 Flexural modulus curves of kenaf composites and kenaf/recycled jute composites at various lengths of recycled jute fiber (constant fiber weight percent (20%)) 50
  • 106. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 75 70 65 Flexural Strength (MPa) 60 55 50 45 40 Jute size 30mm Jute size 10mm 35 Jute size 20mm 30 0 25 50 75 100 Jute Content (wt%) Figure 5 Flexural strength curves of kenaf composites and kenaf/recycled jute composites at various lengths of recycled jute fiber (constant fiber weight percent (20%)) 3.7 65 55 3.5 45 Flexural Modulus (GPa) 3.3 35 3.1 25 2.9 15 2.7 Flexural Modulus 5 Flexural Strength 2.5 -5 10 15 20 25 30 Juter Size (mm) Figure 6 Flexural modulus curves of jute composites at various lengths of recycled jute fiber (constant fiber weight percent (20%)) 5.3 Impact Properties Figure 7 shows the variation of impact strength with recycled jute fiber weight percent for kenaf/recycled jute unsaturated polyester composites with varying jute lengths. In these composites the total weight fraction of fiber is 20wt%. 0 wt% in x-axis of Figure 7 means the is 51
  • 107. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam no added jute fiber and it is 20wt% kenaf fiber, while 100wt% is 20wt% of Jute fiber. The impact strength of the composites was found to increase with increasing fiber length. Long fibers have a large absorption capacity, and distribution of impact energy occurs at high speed Sreenivasan et al. (2010). The increased impact resistance can be explained by the formation of a tortuous fracture path which retards crack propagation. Furthermore, increased polymer-fiber interaction will decrease interfacial tension and reduce chances of crack initiation at the interface. With increasing interfacial interaction there could also be more efficient energy transfer to fiber particles which would help dissipate this energy through breakage fiber Shenoy et al (2007). Therefore, impact strength of hybrid composites increases with increasing fiber length. However, after an optimum length of fiber which is 10mm, a large proportion of fiber will be pulled out of the matrix due to fiber entanglements compared to shorter lengths where fiber pull-out is the active fracture mechanism, thus leading to small decrease in impact strength as observed by Arib et al (2006). From Figure 7, it is observed that the maximum impact strength was 10.897 KJ/m2 at 50% weight fraction of recycled jute with fiber length 10mm. In addition; there was insignificant improvement in the impact strength at 30 mm recycled jute fiber length for all formulations. 6. MORPHOLOGY Figure 8 shows the SEM micrograph of the bending fractured surface of hybrid composite containing 20wt% fiber, 25wt% kenaf plus 75wt% jute fibers. In this case fiber fracture and pull out are noticed and the sudden failure of the bending specimen is causing the fiber to split; resulting in fine fibrils being exposed. It could be observed that in all cases the fibers are still embedded in the resin together with some cavities left by pulled-out fibers. Fiber cracking was observed in Figure 8 b. Morphological results evidently demonstrate that when polymer resin matrix is reinforced with the different fiber dimensions, morphological changes take place depending upon the interfacial interaction between the varying dimensions of fiber and the resin matrix. 12 11 10 Impact Streangth (KJ/m ) 2 9 8 7 6 5 4 Jute Size 10mm Jute Size 20mm 3 Jute Size 30mm 2 0 25 50 75 100 Jute Content (wt%) Figure 7 Impact strength curves of jute composites at various lengths of recycled jute fiber (constant fiber weight percent (20%)) 52
  • 108. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam a b Figure 8 SEM Micrograph of bending fractured surface of dry composites containing 20wt% fiber, 25wt% kenaf plus 75wt% jute fibers 7. CONCLUSIONS 53
  • 109. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam The results of the present study showed that the tensile, flexural and impact properties of kenaf/recycled jute unsaturated polyester composites, various length loading, adding to specimens fabricated at different percentage of recycled jute fiber were found to be dependent on the fiber length. Indicating a critical fiber length and maximum recycled jute fiber percent of 30mm and 75%, respectively provide better improvement in the modules of elasticity and tensile strength, however the elongation value was not found to have any considerable variation with recycled jute fiber length. The flexural properties of the hybrid composites decreased with increase of recycled jute fiber. The lower values of flexural properties may be attributed to fiber-to-fiber interaction, voids and dispersion problems. The flexural strength for recycled jute unsaturated polyester composites increased with increase of recycled jute fiber, in fact there was insignificant change in flexural properties for different length (10 and 20mm). The maximum value of impact energy which is 10.897 KJ/m2 at 50% weight fraction of recycled jute with fiber length 10mm, the maximum improvement is about 47% compared to kenaf unsaturated composites. SEM analysis showed that the interaction between the hybrid fibers and unsaturated polyester matrix is poor such that, fiber debonding, fiber pull-out, matrix fracture and fibers fracture occurring in short kenaf/recycled jute unsaturated polyester composites under bending loading. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to express their gratitude to Swinburne University of Technology (SUT) for providing the financial support to this endeavour. REFERENCES [1.] L. T. Drzal, A. K. Mohanty, R. Burgueno and M. Misra, “Biobased structural composite materials for housing and infrastructure applications: opportunities and challenges”, NSF- PATH Housing research Agenda Workshop, Proceedings and Recommendation, pp. 129-140, 2004. [2.] M. S. Huda, L. T. Drzal, A. K. Mohanty and M. Misra, “The effect of silane treated- and untreated-talc on the mechanical and physico- mechanical properties of poly (lactic acid)/newspaper fibers/talc hybrid composites”, Composites: Part B 38, pp. 367-379, 2007. [3.] M. Thiruchitrambalam, A. Alavudeen, A. Athijayamani, N. Venkateshwaran and A. Elaya Perumal, “Improving mechanical properties of banana/kenaf polyester hybrid composites using sodium laulryl sulfate treatment”, Materials Physics and Mechanics, vol. 8,pp. 165- 173, 2009. [4.] K. G. Satish, B. Siddeswarappa and K. Mohamed Kaleemulla,”Characterization of in- plane mechanical properties of laminated hybrid composites”, Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, vol.9, .no.2, pp.105-114, 2010. [5.] H. T. Kuan, W. Cantwell and H. Dd Akil,” The mechanical properties of hybrid composites based on self-reinforced polypropylene, Malaysian Polymer, vol.4, no.2, pp.71-80, 2009. 54
  • 110. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam [6.] W. Mingchao, Z. Zuoguang and S. Zhijie, The hybrid model and mechanical properties of hybrid composites reinforced with different diameter fibers. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol.28, no.257, 2009. [7.] V. S. Sreenivasan, D. Ravindran, V. Manikandan and R. Narayanasamy,” Mechanical properties of randomly oriented short sansevieria cylindrica fiber/polyester composites”, Materials and Design, vol.11, no.042, 2010. [8.] F. L. Matthews and R. D. Rawlings, “Composites Materials”, Engineering and Science. 1 st ed. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd. 169-73,310-11, 2005. [9.] A. Kelly and W. R. J. Tyson, Mech. Phys. Solids 13, 329, 1965. [10.] Shamsun Nahar, R. A. Khan, K. Dey, B. Sarker, A. K. Das and S. Ghosha, “Comparative studies of mechanical and interfacial properties between jute and bamboo fiber-reinforced polypropylene-based composites”, THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS, Vol. 00—Month. DOI: 10.1177/0892705711404725, 2011. [11.] Y. Cao, S. Shibata and I. Fukumoto, “Fabrication and flexural properties of bagasse fiber reinforced biodegradable composites”, Macromolecular Science, Part B, vol.45, no.4, pp.463-474, 2006. [12.] S. Shibata, I. Fukumoto and Y. Cao, “Effects of fiber compression and length distribution on the flexural properties of short kenaf fiber- reinforced biodegradable composites”, POLYMER COMPOSITES, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 170 -176, 2006. [13.] M. A. Shenoy and D. J. D. Melo, “Evaluation of mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester-guar gum/hydroxypropyl guar gum composites”, eXPRESS Polymer Letters, vol.1, no.9, pp. 622-628, 2007. [14.] R. M. N. Arib, S. M. Sapuan,m. M. H. M. Ahmad, M.T. Paridah and H. M. D. Khairul Zaman, “Mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fiber reinforced polypropylene composites”, Mater Des, vol. 27, no. 5, pp.391-6, 2006. 55
  • 111. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam The Structural Behavior of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel Subjected to Eccentric Load N. Mohamad1,a and S.L. Douvinda2,b 1,2 Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. a noridah@uthm.edu.my, bdovinlenong@yahoo.com Abstract The continuous awareness against the limited earth resources and global warming effect has urged the demand upon the technology that consumes less energy and dependencies to the natural resources. The progressive research upon this issue has initiated the idea of using Precast Lightweight Foam Concrete Sandwich Panel (PLFP) as an alternative to Industrialize Building System (IBS). The PLFP consist of two wythes that enclosed a layer of polystyrene which functioned as insulation layer. Steel bar of 9 mm will be used for the horizontal and vertical reinforcements and 6 mm steel bent at 45° will be used as shear truss connector. The purpose of this paper is to study the structural behavior of the PLFP panel under the eccentric load. The study will involved the relationship between the density, slenderness ratio, compressive strength, crack pattern and the comparison of the structural behavior of PLFP under axial and eccentric load. The testing on the two samples of PLFP under axial and eccentric load shows that the PLFP will have lower strength capacity when tested under eccentric load. Consideration on this particular aspect will increase the reliability on the PLFP application in the construction field. Keywords: Lightweight Precast Concrete, Sandwich Panel, Load Bearing Wall, Axial Load, Eccentric Load, Compositeness 1. Introduction Precast concrete wall panel is part of new construction method that is being used to substitute the traditional method of using bricks and plaster. Instead of brick laying and plastering activities, the precast method is more convenient, cheaper, and only require half skills worker to handle it. Most importantly, the quality of production of factory built (precast) wall panel is secured with more manageable size, can be customized and can be produced in a larger scale in a short time. The Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel, PLFP, studied in this report consists of foamed concrete as the outer layers and polystyrene as the core layer. The polystyrene functions as the core layers. The study is carried out to determine whether this panel has the required strength to act as a load bearing wall. Figure 1 shows a cross section of PLFP panel which is strengthened by the diagonal shear truss connectors tied to the main reinforcement. The horizontal and vertical reinforcemet were embedded in the foamed concrete wythes. N. Mohamad et al. (2011) investigated the structural behaviour of sandwich precast lightweight foamed concrete panel under axial load. It was observed that the experimental ultimate strength achieved are affected by the compressive strength of the foamed concrete forming the wythes, the presence of concrete capping at panel’s ends and the slenderness ratio, H/t. Specimens with capping at both ends recorded higher ultimate loads with no premature 56
  • 112. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam crushing. The results also indicated that a certain degree of compositeness is achieved in the panel. [2] The question arises on how this panel system behaves when it is subjected to eccentric load. Therefore, an investigation to study the structural behavior of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel or PLFP under eccentric load is undertaken. The comparison between the obtained results of the PLFP tested under axial and eccentric load will give the better understanding of the panel’s behavior. With this understanding, better approach can be taken to increase the strength capacity or the structural characteristic of the panel. The suitable alternative material can also be added or substitute to enhance the ability and strength capacity of the PLFP. Fig. 1: PLFP panel with Shear Connectors [3] 2. Precast Sandwich Concrete Panel According to PCI Journal,1997, sandwich panel can be divided into three types; namely the non-composite panel, composite panel and semi-composite panel. These panels are categorized by its composite behavior under applied load. The non-composite panel act as two separated layer. Composite panel act as a single unit when it resists the applied load.. Semi-composite panel is the one with degree of compositeness in between the non-composite and the fully composite panels. [4] 2.1 Foamed Concrete Foamed concrete is a type of cellular concrete. It is light in weight and therefore can be used in lightweight application. Foamed concrete can be produced in various density from 600 3 3 kg/m to approximately 1600 kg/m . Compare to the normal concrete with the identical density, foamed concrete will have less amount of elasticity. It is due to the fact that foamed concrete has less compressive strength. The drying shrinkage or foamed concrete varies from 0.1% to 0.6% depend on the composition of the mixture or any aggregates used. Compared to the normal concrete, the resistance of foamed concrete toward fire is much better. The resistance to the fire will increase with the decreased density. Table 1 present the properties of foamed concrete. [5] 2.2 Shear Truss Connector The compositeness of the wall panel depend on how efficient the truss connector transfer the shear load. The sandwich panel with efficient connector to transfer shear force caused by bending between the outer and inner concrete is considered as fully composite panel. For the non-composite sandwich wall panel, the connector used in it will have low shear resistance and transfer minimal shear force between the two concrete layers. [6] According to PCI Journal,(1997), The connector use in the sandwich panel can come with many different sizes and shape such as Z-tie, C-tie, M-tie and cylindrical metal sleeve anchor, welded wire truss, and fiber composite pins. The selection of the type and shape of the 57
  • 113. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam connector depend on its particular function. For example, if the panel is cast and stripped in the flat position, the connector must have sufficient strength to resist tensional strength between the wythes during the stripping. [7] Fig. 2 shows the shear truss connector which is bent at 45˚ used in the PLFP panels in this experiment. Table 1: Properties of Foamed Concrete Fig. 2: Shear truss connectors used in PLFP panel 2.3 Insulation Layer The selection of the material for the insulation layer depend on the location of the site and operating condition. The PCI Journal stated that cellular insulation comes in two forms; namely, thermoplastic and thermosetting. The insulation layer used in this study is extended polystyrene which are cut into small pieces and inserted in between the foamed concrete wythe. 3. Experimental Programme 58
  • 114. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam The aim of the experiment is to compare the structural behavior of PLFP strengthened by d shear truss connector tested under axial and eccentric load. The structural behavior to be compared is in term of panel’s strength capacity , load-deflection profiles and the strain distribution across the mid-depth of panel.The specimens include two identical panels with 100 mm normal concrete capping at both of panel, 9 mm of horizontal and vertical reinforcements with the 20 mm polystyrene as the core layer. Table 2 presents the dimension and properties of the PLFP panels. Table 2: Dimension and Properties of Panel Specmens 3 Specimen Dimension Density(kg/m ) Compressive Strength (N/mm2) PLFP-1 2000 x 750 x 100 mm 1625 12 PLFP-2 2000 x 750 x 100 mm 1610 12.56 3.1 Material and Specification The wall panel is cast from foamed concrete layers as the outer layers (40 mm thickness each) which encloses a polystyrene layer (20 mm thick). It is reinforced by the steel reinforcement both in longitudinal and transverse position. The shear connectors between the steel reinforcement are continuous truss-shaped connector made of 9 mm diameter steel and it is bent at angle of 45°. The steel reinforcement then tied up with the shear connector. The polystyrene functions as an insulation layer. Fig. 3 shows the description on the side view of the PLFP panel. Fig. 3: Description on the side view of the panel The formwork used to cast the panel is a steel formwork with dimension 2000 mmx750 mmx130 mm. The steel reinforcement and shear connectors are placed first in the formwork. The concreting work started with preparing the quantity of materials that will be used. Cement and fine aggregates are mixed together in a concrete mixer. During this process, the foam which is generated using foaming generator will be added into the wet slurry. 59
  • 115. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 3.2 Testing of PLFP Panel The panel are tested under increasing axial and eccentric load using Magnus Frame. It is pinned at the top and fixed at the bottom. Twelve strain gauges are located at the upper part, lower part and within the middle zone of the PLFP panel as shown in Fig. 4. These strain gauges are used to measure the strain distribution on the surface of the wall panel. Two Linear Voltage Displacement Transducer (LVDT) are placed in the middle of the each side of the wall panel. The function of these two LVDT is to measure the horizontal displacement of the wall panel. Every cracking are noted and marks with permanent marker to determine the failure profile of the wall panel. To clarify the cracking in the panel, the whole panel is paint with white colour. Fig. 4: The arrangement of strain gauge and LVDT The eccentric load is applied on the PLFP panel by applying constant horizontal preload of 2 kN at the mid-height of the panel as shown in Fig. 5. By doing this, the panel tends to experience bending toward one direction. The horizontal loading then stopped before the axial load is applied. The axial load applied is increased slowly until failure occurs. Fig. 5: Preload applied on PLFP panel 60
  • 116. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 4.0 Result and analysis 4.1 Crack and Ultimate Load Table 3 presents the first crack load, ultimate load and maximum horizontal deflection achieved in each PLFP panel. Panel PLFP-1 which was tested under the axial load recorded an ultimate load of 280 kN and the first crack load of 200 kN. Meanwhile, panel PLFP-2 when tested under the eccentric load showed slightly lower strength which is 188 kN and the first crack load of 176 kN. This shows that panel tested under eccentric load have lower capacity to resist eccentric load and the rate of crack development is faster compared to the panel that undergo axial load. The usage of normal concrete capping in this experiment has worked very well when the PLFP failed as expected and not having any premature fail. Table 3: Panel Testing Results Specimen First Crack Load (kN) Ultimate Load (kN) Maximum Deflection (mm) PLFP-1 176 188 4.235 PLFP-2 200 280 6.2 4.2 Load-horizontal deflection profiles Fig. 6 shows that both front and rear wythe of panel PLFP- 1 are seen to move in the same direction since the early stage of loading.. The result shows that this panel manage to reach a certain degree of compositeness before the first crack occured. When the applied load reached 150 kN, both front and rear curves started to move toward the opposite direction. For panel PLFP-2, the load deflection curve shows a linear relationship at the early stage of loading. However, the trend changes when the load continue to increase where the curve for both panels become nonlinear. Both the front and rear wythe of the panel seem to move in the same direction at the beginning. At later stage of loading, the two wythes deflect in the opposite direction. Fig. 6: Load-deflection profile for PLFP-1 and PLFP-2 Fig. 6 also shows that the front LVDT recorded a higher deflection compared to the rear LVDT for both panels PLFP-1 and PLFP-2. Panel PLFP-2 experienced greater maximum deflection. This is because panel PLFP-2 under axial load is able to resist greater load compared to PLFP-2 under eccentric load. 61
  • 117. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 4.3 Load – Strain Relationship The results of the strain recorded show that panel PLFP-1 under axial load is dominated by compression. Fig. 7 shows that for panel PLFP-2, at the early stage of loading, the top of the panel tend to move toward the different direction which indicates that the panel experience tensile strain. On the other hand, the top part of PLFP-1 experienced compressive strain from the beginning until failure. At mid-height, both panels PLFP-1 and PLFP-2 experienced compressive strain with slight tensile within the middle right zone as shown in Fig.8. Fig. 9 shows that panel PLFP-2 experienced tensile strain within its right bottom part. Panel PLFP-1 experienced compression strain within its right and left bottom part. In general, panel PLFP-2 recorded higher strain values compared to panel PLFP-1. Fig.7: Load-strain relationship within the upper part of panel (left and right) Fig..8: Load-strain relationship within the midle part of panel (left and right) Fig. 9: Load-strain relationship within the bottom part of panel (left and right) 4.4 Crack Pattern and crack mode Table 4 gives the crack pattern and failure mode of panel PLFP-1 and PLFP-2. In panel PLFP-1, crack occurred at lower part of top capping and also near the bottom part. Meanwhile, panel PLFP-2 experienced severe crack at mid-height both in vertical and horizontal direction. These cracks are caused by buckling due to eccentric load applied. Table 4: Crack pattern and failure mode of panel 62
  • 118. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 5. Conclusion a. From the experimental results, PLFP panel tested under the eccentric load recorded lower strength capacity to resist the eccentric load. b. It is also noticed that the deflection due to the eccentric load has caused the panel to buckle in the direction opposite to the load. c. The deflection of the right and left wythe of the panel have shown that the panel has reached a certain degree of compositeness which concluded that the shear connector in the panel is efficient in transferring the applied load from one wythe to the other. d. The surface strain of the PLFP-2 under the eccentric load gave a very higher value of strain, which range from -0.005245 to 0.00092. In the eccentric test, the whole panel is dominated by the compression. Tensile strain is found within the right side of the bottom and top part of panel. e. PLFP-1 under axial load gives the greater maximum deflection compared to PLFP-2 under eccentric load. Both panels has shown that under axial and eccentric load, the panel have achieved certain degree of compositeness . Acknowledgement The author would like to thank Uniersity Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia for its financial support. REFERENCE [1] Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) (2007). Construction Industry Master Plan Malaysia 2006-2015. Malaysian Construction Industry Development Board. [2] N. Mohamad, W. Omar and R. Abdullah, Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel (PLFP) Tested Under Axial Load: Preliminary Results, Journal of Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 250-253, pp. 1153-1162 (2011). [3] A.D.M. Lindsay, Partially Composite Sandwich Panels. University of Alberta. Master Thesis (2003). [4] PCI Committee. (1977). State of the Art of Precast/Prestresses Sandwich Wall Panels. PCI Journal, 42(2), 92-133. [5] British Cement Association (1994). Foamed Concrete Composition and Properties. 165-168. British Cement Association. [6] Farah Nor Aznieta Abdul Aziz (2009). “Structural Behavior of Precast Concrete Sandwich Panels with Openings under Axial Load”. Journal of IEM, 65(1). [7] PCI Committee. (1977). State of the Art of Precast/Prestresses Sandwich Wall Panels. PCI Journal, 42(2), 92-133. 63
  • 119. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Load Analysis and Response of Offshore Jacket Structure Zulkipli Henry(1), Iberahin Jusoh(2), Amran Ayob(2) (1) Postgraduate Student, FME, UTM, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia, zhenry09@gmail.com  (2) Associate Professor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia, iberahin@fkm.utm.my, amran@fkm.utm.my   Abstract   Any structures installed in the ocean are subjected to external loadings. These loadings can be gravity loads, environmental loads, seismic loads, hydrodynamic loads, and accidental loads. Physically the structural natural responses toward these loadings are in term of displacements and vibrations. In this paper, the structural response toward external loading is estimated in term of stress utilization at structural component level. Stress utilization is a ratio of stress due to applied loading to the allowable stress of the member. The allowable stress is calculated based on the International Standards or Guidelines such as American Institute of Steel Construction, AISC, International Standard Organization, ISO, and American Petroleum Institute, API. Any installed structures are designed or reassessed to meet the requirement as stipulated in the international standards. In this paper the type of loading on the structures normally considered in the structural design as well as structural reassessment, structural response toward the applied loadings and structural utilization checks that use to measure the level of stress on structural member were addressed. The structures are defined as code compliance if all the all structural components meet the code requirement such as stress utilization factor of less than 1.0. As for foundation, in addition to stress utilization check, the foundation is also check against the soil bearing capacity which is normally term as foundation utilization check. The foundation utilization is defined as ratio of summation applied loading against soil bearing capacity and must be less than 1.0. Particular case study on fixed offshore structure will be presented in the paper to demonstrate the load and response on the structures.   KeyWords:  Offshore  Jacket  Structures,  External  Loading,  Load  Analysis,  Structural  Response, Stress Utilization, Foundation Utilization.   1. INTRODUCTION The fixed offshore structures are most commonly used to support the oil and gas exploration and production facilities. The world tallest fixed offshore structures ever built was the Bullwinkle platform in the Gulf of Mexico at the water depth of 412m and installed in year 1988. All offshore jacket structures are subjected to external loadings such as gravity loads, environmental loads, hydrodynamic loads, accidental loads as well as seismic loads, snow or ice loads at certain sea locations. It is very important that all offshore jacket structures are sufficiently designed to resist these external loadings. Structural integrity analysis is performed during the design phase to evaluate the response of the offshore jacket structures toward the imposed external loadings. In this paper, the structural integrity analysis was performed by using Structural Analysis Computer System, SACS, software which is known for its ability to perform structural analysis for of fixed offshore structures. The SACS software presents the structural response toward external loadings in term of member stress utilization ratio and the structure is defined as code compliance if all members have stress utilization ratio of less than 1.0. 64
  • 120. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam In this paper, the external loadings normally consider in the design of fixed offshore jacket structures, structural response of the jacket structures and stress utilization check will further discuss through a selected case study. 2. STRUCTURAL MODELING For the purpose to demonstrate how the structural integrity analysis of fixed offshore jacket structures is performed and also to investigate the response of the fixed offshore jacket structure toward external loadings, a 4 legged fixed offshore jacket structure is selected. Detailed description of the selected offshore jacket structure is described on Table 2.0. For easy reference let name the platform as Compression Platform A. Table 2.0: General Description of Compression Platform A Description Water Depth 91.5m Number of Bays 5 Horizontal framing Elev. (+) 8.10m 14.430m x 20.358m Horizontal framing Elev. (-) 9.00m 17.850m x 23.208m Horizontal framing Elev. (-) 31.50m 22.350m x 26.958m Horizontal framing Elev. (-) 58.00m 27.650m x 31.375m Horizontal framing Elev. (-) 88.90m 33.830m x 36.525m Jacket Leg Batter 7.26:1 Number of Legs 4 Numbers Pile Size 1.3716m Outer Diameter Tubular Pile Penetration Depth 110m from seabed Type of pile Insert through the jacket legs Location South China Sea The jacket structural members can be group as horizontal members, diagonal members and jacket legs. The horizontal members consisted of tubular 406mm Outer Diameter, O.D, x 13mm Wall Thickness, W.T., 508mm O.D x 13mm W.T and 610mm O.D x 13mm W.T. The diagonal members are made up of tubular member 610mm O.D x 22mm W.T and 762mm O.D x 13mm W.T. The jacket legs have tubular size of 1486mm O.D. x 19mm W.T and 1497mm O.D x 25mm W.T. The jacket structure is designed with batter legs to provide stability to the structure and to resist overturning moment induced by environmental loading, i.e. wave, current and wind loads. The Compression Platform A is modeled in Structural Analysis Computer System, SACS, as 3D-space frame. All primary members are modeled. There are four categories of structural members in the model: 1) Jacket primary structures. 2) Topside Structures 3) Appurtenances such as caisson 4) Foundation – pile / soil interaction modelled by means of P-Y, T-Z and Q-Z soil curves. The schematic view of the Compression Platform A is shown on Figure 2.0. 65
  • 121. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Topside Structure Elev. (+) 8.1m MSL Elev. (-) 9.0m Appurtenances Elev. (-) 31.5m Jacket Structure Diagonal Member Elev. (-) 58.0m Jacket Leg Horizontal Member Elev. (-) 88.9m Seabed Figure 2.0: 3-D Space Frame Model of Compression Platform A The appurtenances such as caisson is considered as non-structural member and models as “dummy” member. The Dummy members are those members that are not contribute to the overall stiffness of the platform but instead been model for the purpose to attract wave loading. The total weight of the topside and jacket structures is 3980.4Tonnes and 2079.8Tonnes respectively. Each element made up of 2 nodes. Each node has six degree of freedom, x, y, z directions and rotation about x, y, z axis. Detailed illustration of an element is as per Figure 2.1 Figure 2.1: General Model of Structural Element The materials used for jacket structures are high strength materials with minimum yield strength, , of 345 N/mm2.Furthermore, material properties use in the jacket modeling is tabulated on Table 2.2. In the offshore jacket structures design practice, the jacket members at the splash zone area are provided with extra steel thickness to compensate the effect of metal lost due to corrosion that may occur on this area throughout the service life to the platform 66
  • 122. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Table 2.1: Materials Properties Description Properties Values Density 7,850 kg/m3 Modulus of Elasticity 210,000 MPa Steel Shear Modulus 77,000 MPa Poisson’s Ratio 0.3 Sea water Density 1025 kg/m3 Marine Growth Density in air (dry) 1400 kg/m3 For the Compression Platform A jacket structure, 3.0mm additional steel thickness was added to all members at the splash zone area. In this exercise, the splash zone area is covering elevation from Elevation 3.0m below mean sea level, MSL, to Elevation 5.0m above MSL. Realistically all offshore jacket structures have marine growth developed on all the structural members below the MSL throughout the platform life. The marine growth on the jacket structures attracts additional environmental loading and its contribution to the overall loading on the jacket structure is significant and must be included in the design of the offshore jacket structure. In this paper, the Shell Malaysia Exploration and Production, SMEP, guidelines on the marine growth profile for design of fixed offshore structures is adopted [3]: Table 2.3: Marine Growth Profile Depth, m (ft) Marine growth layer thickness, mm From To (inches) MSL - 12.0 (- 40) 100 (4) - 12.0 (- 40) - 21.0 (- 70) 50 (2) - 21.0 (- 70) Mudline 0 (0) 3. LOADING FORMULATION The fixed offshore platforms are normally design for service life of 25 to 30 years. Throughout its service life, the platforms are exposed to several types of loadings such as gravity loads (i.e. Dead loads and Live loads), hydrostatic loads, environmental loads (i.e. winds, currents and waves loads), accidental loads (i.e. boat impact, dropped object, fire and explosion) and earth quake loads (for those platforms located at the earthquake region). Overview of external loads acting on the fixed offshore platforms is illustrated on Figure 3.1. In this paper, the structural analysis only considers the Gravity loads, the hydrostatic loads and the environmental loads which permanently acting on the platforms. The fixed offshore platforms assessment due to accidental loads or seismic loads are carried out in separate assessment which requires more advance analysis method such as non-linear push over analysis. 3.1. Gravity Loading Gravity loads is consisted of Dead Loads and Live Loads. The Dead Loads is defined as imposed load on the platforms for long period of time such as structural steels jacket and topside structures, production equipment, hydrostatic loads and etc. Live Loads are those loads that exist temporarily on the platforms for example weight of consumable during maintenance works, helicopter weight, mooring loads and future loads for activities on the platforms. The gravity load normally contributes in the range of 60% to 70% of the total imposed on the platforms. 67
  • 123. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Figure 3.1: Overview of external loads acting on the fixed offshore platforms 3.2. Environmental Loads Environmental loads are due to wind, current and wave acting on the platforms. Combination of current and wave loads contribute about 90% of the total environmental load and 10% is due to the winds. The environmental loading contributes in the range of 30% to 40% of the total loading on the offshore platforms and their contribution normally translated into the Overturning Moment, OTM, and Base Shear, BS, of the jacket structures. The guideline used to estimate the wave, current and wind is based on the American Petroleum Institute, API, Recommended Practice, RP, 2A-LRFD and DNV Recommended Practice, DNV-RP-C205. The following sections discuss more detailed on the environmental loadings. 3.2.1. Wind Loads The wind force exerted on the structure at elevation Z, can be calculated as below relationship [1]. Fwind(Z) = (p/2).(U)2.Cs.A  (1)  Where, Fwind (Z) = Wind Force at Elevation, Z, N or lb  p = mass density of the air (at standard temperature and pressure = 1.226kg/m3 )  U = Wind Speed, m/s or ft / s  Cs = Shape coefficient associate with the geometry/shape.  A = Area of object, m2 or ft2    68
  • 124. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 3.2.2. Wave and Current Loads The wave and current forces impose on offshore jacket structures is calculated based on the Morison’s Equation which was developed by Morison, O’Brien, Johnson and Shaaf in 1950 [4]. The Morison’s Equation is consisted of two components namely Inertia and Drag components and can be expressed mathematically as below: . (2) Where; = Mass density of seawater, kg/m3 = Projected area normal to the cylinder axis per unit length (= Diameter, D, for circular cylinder), m = Drag coefficient =water particle velocity acting normal to the axis of the member, m/sec = Diameter of circular cylinder unit length (including marine growth), m = Inertia coefficient =water particle acceleration acting normal to the axis of the member, m/sec2 The water particle velocity and acceleration can be calculated based on several wave theories and the most well known wave theories are Airy wave theory, Stoke wave theory and Stream Function wave theory. The API-RP-2A-LRFD [1] shows graphically the applicability of various wave theories as a function of wave steepness and water depth. For typical fixed offshore platforms design and reassessment, the global wave forces are calculated base on the API [1] recommended values of CD and Cm; Smooth Surface: = 0.65, = 1.6 Rough Surface: = 1.05, = 1.2 The Morison’s Equation has its own limitation that engineer should know: a) The Morison’s Equation is only applicable for tubular members. b) The Morison’s Equation is only valid for structural member with diameter much smaller compared to the wave length, (i.e. . If the size of the structural member is sufficiently large as compare to wave length, the waves are scattered or diffracted. The most common current profile to be adopted for the design of fixed offshore structures at the South China Sea environment is the ‘1/7’ Power-Law Current Profile. This current profile is more applicable for tidal generated current at shallow water and more conservative for deeper water. The ‘1/7/ Power-Law Current Profile can be expressed mathematically by the following relationship [2]: 69
  • 125. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam for (3) Where: ... Total current velocity at elevation z ... Current velocity at the still water level ... Water depth to still water level ... Distance from still water level (taken as Negative below Still Water Level). The metocean data used for the structural analysis is shown on Appendix A, Table A.1. 3.3. Analysis Procedure To structural response of the fixed offshore jacket structures toward the external loading is assessed by performing in-place static analysis by using SACS software. The analysis is performed based on API [1] and SMEP guideline [3]. The fixed offshore platforms are analyzed for operating and extreme storm conditions. The operating condition is to cater for day-to-day in-service condition whereas the extreme storm condition is to assess the platform for it robustness to withstand the extreme weather condition. The main different between operating and extreme storm condition is on wave height, current velocities, wind speed and wave period. The operating and extreme storm environmental criteria used for the analysis per as below; (i) Operating Case : 1-month return period (Independent Metocean criteria) (ii) Storm/Survival Case : 100-year return period (Joint Metocean criteria) Detailed metocean criteria used for the analysis is tabulated on Table A.1 of Appendix A. Each member, joint and foundation component of the jacket structures are strength checked against the following loading condition: (i) 100-year storm with maximum topside load, (ii) 100-year with minimum topside load, (iii) Operating condition with maximum topside loading (iv) Calm sea condition (i.e. gravity loading only). These load combinations is considered to ensure the full spectrum of loading conditions to be expected to act on the jacket structure throughout its service life such as maximum loading under compression for both extreme storm and operating conditions, maximum loading under tension and the impact of gravity loading are assessed. In order to maximize the loading on the jackets structural members and foundation, the wave, current and wind are applied in eight directions namely 0, 45, 90, 135, 180, 225, 270 and 315 degree directions. These are to ensure all member utilizations, joint utilizations and foundation utilizations were performed against worst case scenario. Detailed direction of the environmental loading is shown on Figure 3.2. 70
  • 126. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Figure 3.2: Directional Wave and Current Loading on the Compression Platform A 3.4. Structural Response and Discussion The degree of structural response toward external loadings is represented by the level of stress on each jacket structural member. The degree of stress utilization for each of jacket structural members is checked using interaction ratio as recommended in the Section D of API-2A-RP-LRFD [1]. Combined Tension and Bending: (4) Combined Compression and Bending: (5) And (6) And     Shear: (7) Where; = bending stress about member z-axis (out-of-plane) and y-axis(in-plane) due to factored load , = Nominal bending strength, nominal axial compressive strength and nominal shear strength. = nominal inelastic local buckling strength 71
  • 127. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam = nominal yield strength , = axial tensile stress, axial compressive stress and maximum shear stess Cmy, Cmz = Reduction factors corresponding to member y and z axes, respectively. Fey, Fez = Euler buckling strengths corresponding to the member y and z axes respectively, in stress units. =  resistance factors for shear strength, axial compression and axial tensile and nominal bending strength Based on the structural analysis output, the total topside gravity loads is about 66258.0kN (6756 Tonnes).The in-place structural analysis of the jacket structure is to determine the structural response of the jacket toward the environmental and gravity loads. The summation of the environmental loadings on the jacket structures is translated into the overturning moment, OTM, and base shear, BS at the mudline. The corresponding BS and OTM for different wave directions are presented in Figure 3.3 and Figure 3.4. Based on these figures, the maximum BS and OTM are occurred at the wave attack from 180 degree except for base shear under storm condition occurs at 0 degree. The maximum BS and OTM occur at these wave directions are because at this wave attack direction, the jacket exposed surface area is larger than any other directions. Thus, more wave and current loading are been attracted. In general, there is significant increased in the BS and OTM as result of wave height increment from 6.70m to 11.60m (refer to Table A.1). The percentage increment of base shear is ranging from 65.38% to 69.65% with an average of 67.59% and the percentage increment of OTM is ranging from 70.55% to 81.40% with an average increment of 76.26%. This indicates that the jacket is wave dominated structures. 3071.1kN 1815.1kN Figure 3.3: Base Shear vs. Wave Directions 72
  • 128. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 241580.4kN 133628.6kN Figure 3.4: Overturning Moment vs. Wave Directions The degree of structural response toward the operating and extreme conditions is represented by the level of stress on the structure and it is quantified by using interaction ratio as per the API-2A-RP-LRFD [1]. All members are complied (i.e. Unity check less than 1.0) with code requirement with maximum unity check of 0.75 under operating condition and occurs at jacket leg (Refer to Figure 3.5). The joints check which is assessed based on the Section E in API-RP-2A-LRFD [1], indicate all joints are complied with code requirement with maximum UC of 0.5 occurs at joint 5508 (Refer to Figure 3.5). It is shown that high UCs members and joints are located within wave zone area where the most loaded area of the jacket structure is located. Another area of potential high stress area is at the bottom of the jacket structures where the fixity of the jacket is located. Member 6105-7590: UC = 0.75 PN Member 6195-7610: UC = 0.75 Joint 5508: UC = 0.75 1 A 2 B Figure 3.5: Summary of Unity Check of Compression Platform A In addition to member and joint checks, piles are also need to be check because all topside loads and environmental loads are transferred to the piles. The piles should be designed with sufficient capacity to resist all the external or applied loads. Table 3.1 below summarised the pile check due to all the external loads acting on the jacket structure. Based on the analysis 73
  • 129. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam results all the piles are in compliance with code requirement and have sufficient capacity to resist the applied external loadings. The highest stress and pile capacity utilization ratio are 0.515 and 0.887 respectively which shows the piles design is quite robust to cater for further additional loading or any future modifications on the platform. Table 3.1: Pile Stress and Capacity Checks Pile Row Load Condition Max Stress Check Pile Utilization Check Smax 0.487 (135 deg) 0.713 (180 deg) *A1 Smin 0.359 (90 deg) - OPER 0.481 (135 deg) 0.846 (135 deg) CALM 0.205 0.602 Smax 0.515 (225 deg) 0.739 (180 deg) Smin 0.347 (270 deg) - *A2 OPER 0.518 (225 deg) 0.887 (225 deg) CALM 0.268 0.686 Smax 0.476 (45 deg) 0.697 (0 deg) Smin 0.344 (45 deg) -0.011 (225 deg) *B1 OPER 0.468 (45 deg) 0.833 (45 deg) CALM 0.177 0.571 Smax 0.489 (315 deg) 0.722 (315 deg) *B2 Smin 0.318 (270 deg) - OPER 0.49 (315 deg) 0.872 (315 deg) CALM 0.238 0.645 NOTE: * Refer to Figure 3.5 for clarification Smax =Extreme Storm condition with Maximum Topside Load Smin = Extreme Storm condition with Minimum Topside load OPER = Operating condition with Maximum Topside Load CALM = Calm sea condition with Maximum Topside Load 4. Conclusions In conclusion based on the structural analysis results, the jacket of the Compression Platform A design is complied with code requirement with sufficient robustness to withstand either in- service condition or extreme condition. The most critical members based on the analysis results is at jacket leg A2 and B2 (refer to Figure 3.5 and Figure 2.0) at elevation 8.1m above MSL with stress utilization ratio of 0.75. The most loaded pile is Pile A2 with pile stress and capacity utilization ratio of 0.518 and 0.887. The most critical joint is Joint No. 5508 located at elevation 8.1m above MSL. It can be seen here that the highly stress elements are located within the wave zone area where is the highest wave loading area of the jacket structure. The maximum BS and OTM experience by the jacket structure are 3071kN and 241580.4kN respectively. There is a significant increased in BS and OTM due to increase in wave height from 6.7m (operating condition) to 11.6m (extreme storm condition). The increment in BS and OTM is about 67% and 76% respectively which shows the jacket structure is wave dominated structure. REFERENCES [1] API-RP-2A-LRFD: Planning, Design, Construction Fixed Offshore Platforms – Load Resistance Factor Design, 1st Edition, July, 1993. 74
  • 130. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam [2] DNV-RP-C205: “Environmental Condition and Environmental Load”, October 2010. [3] SES 10.1 Rev. 4, Fixed Offshore Steel Structures”, April 2005 [4] S.K. Chakrabarti, “Hydrodynamic of Offshore Structures”, Computational Mechnics Publication, Southampton Boston, 1987 [5] S.K. Chakrabarti, “Hydrodynamic of Offshore Structures”, 1987. [6] SACS: Precede Release 6 User’s Manual, Engineering Dynamic, Inc., 2005. APPENDIX A Table A.1: Metocean Data Parameter 100-yr return period 1-month Operating JOINT Criteria Independent Criteria Sig. Wave height, Hs 6.10 3.50 ( ) zero crossing period, Tz Mean 8.60 6.50 ( ) period, T (central), (s) Peak 12.20 9.20 p Hmax 11.60 6.70 ( ) Period, T Ass. (lower, central, ass 10.1, 11.30, 12.4 7.6, 8.50, 9.4 upper) (s) Current speed profile* (m/s) 1.00*d (Surface) 0.90 1.01 0.75*d 0.72 0.97 0.50*d 0.54 0.91 0.30*d 0.54 0.85 0.10*d 0.39 0.73 0.05*d 0.30 0.66 0.01*d (Seabed) 0.06 0.52 Mean hourly wind speed, (m/s) 15.0 16.6 1-minute wind, (m/s) 20.7 23.0 Wave kinematics factor 0.893 1.0 Load safety factor, γE 1.56 (Manned)* 1.20** Note: * This value is derived from Metocean data for South China Sea ** This value is derived is based on the API RP 2A-LRFD, July 1, 1993. 75
  • 131. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Rheology Characteristics of Asphalt Binder Containing Warm Asphalt Additive Mohd Ezree Abdullah1, Mohd Rosli Hainin2, Kemas Ahmad Zamhari3, Madi Hermadi4, Nafarizal Nayan5 and Zhanping You6 1, 3-4 Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Malaysia, 1ezree@uthm.edu.my, 3kemas@uthm.edu.my, 4madi.hermadi@gmail.com 2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia, mrosli@utm.my 5 Faculty of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Malaysia, nafa@uthm.edu.my 6 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University, United States, zyou@mtu.edu Abstract Recently, the asphalt industry is making a tremendous effort in reducing fuel consumption and emissions in plants by addition of warm asphalt additive (WAA). Several studies have been conducted evaluating the properties of the warm mix asphalt; however, little documented research on the rheology of the binders containing WAA is available especially when dealing the sources of binders. In this paper, rheology characteristics of the Malaysian asphalt binder containing WAA were conducted using rotational viscosity test and dynamic mechanical analysis using a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR). The results of the investigation indicate that the WAA had a significant reduction of required heat for mixing and compaction effort and also shows lower permanent deformation when compared to the base binders. Keywords: warm asphalt additive (WAA), warm mix asphalt (WMA), viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), rheology, asphalt binder 1. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, due to the rising of energy prices and global warming, many agencies are also looking forward to implement some innovations in pavement construction that towards to Green Culture. One of the latest innovations is warm mix asphalt (WMA) introduced in the last few years, which can lower the production and placement temperature without sacrificing the quality of the resulting pavement. Warm WMA is an asphalt mixture which is mixed at temperatures lower than conventional hot mix asphalt. Typically, the mixing temperatures of warm mix asphalt range from 100 to 140 0C (212 – 280 0F) compared to the mixing temperatures of 150 – 180 0C. The technology of WMA began in Europe aimed to reduce the greenhouse gases in response to Kyoto agreement. Since then, it gradually gained popularity worldwide due to the increased environmental awareness and rising energy costs. This WMA technology can decrease the energy consumption and emissions by reducing the mixing and compaction temperatures of the asphalt mixture [1-7]. The concept driving warm mix technologies is the reduction in asphalt binder viscosity, which allows the asphalt to attain suitable viscosity for coating of the aggregate and compaction of the mix at lower temperatures. The advantages of WMA are briefly summarized as (1) Lower plant emission and fumes; (2) Reduce energy consumption and saving costs; (3) Improve workability and compaction efficiency; (4) Quick turnover to traffic due to reduced cooling time [7-10]. As mentioned earlier, the lower production and compaction temperature make WMA take less curing time before opening to traffic than HMA. This favors WMA as a better choice for airport pavement rehabilitation to realize quick turnover to traffic since runways cannot be 76
  • 132. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam closed for a prolonged time from the economic standpoint, and usually only a few hours after the operation can be arranged for rehabilitation works [7]. Currently, there are four major types of WMA technologies are available: (1) Foaming bitumen technology where foaming is caused by water. The foaming of bitumen is evoked by spraying water into hot bitumen or by mixing the wet sand into asphalt mixture, (2) Foaming bitumen technology where foaming is caused by natural or synthetic zeolite injection into asphalt mixture during mixing process, (3) Organic additives for the reduction of bitumen viscosity. Additives are injected into asphalt mixer together with mineral materials and, (4) Chemical additives for the reduction of bitumen viscosity. Additives are injected into binder before binder is placed in asphalt mixer [11] Cecabase RT and Rediset are examples of organic and chemical additives in WMA productions. Cecabase is a product of Arkema Group, France is an organic additive which is liquid at 25°C used as an additive in the production of the WMA. The Cecabase RT® additive acts at the interface between mineral aggregate and asphalt, in a similar way that a surfactant acts at an interface between water and asphalt that does not significantly change the rheological properties of asphalt. Cecabase RT 945 enables to reduce the asphalt mix production and lay down temperature by 20 to 40°C and keeps the same mechanical properties as a standard HMA [12-13]. Meanwhile, Rediset WMX was introduced in 2007 to mitigate the perceived deficiencies of then current warm mix technologies. In particular the system was designed to solve potential problems with the effects of water on warm mixes; the reduced stiffness in warm mixes compared to hot mix; and with the uncertain low temperature properties. Rediset falls in the chemical group of asphalt modifiers which do not involve the addition of water to the system. Rediset comprises a dry chemical additive in solid pastillated form which is added to the bitumen before or during the mixing process [14]. 1.1 Research objectives and scope The main objective of this study was to examine the rheological properties of asphalt binders containing Rediset as warm asphalt additive (WAA) through Superpave asphalt binder tests. The control and modified asphalt binders were then artificially aged using rolling thin film oven (RTFO) and pressure aging vessel (PAV) procedures. The viscosity properties for the binders in the original state, the rutting properties in the original state and after RTFO aging and the fatigue cracking properties at intermediate temperature after RTFO + PAV aging methods were evaluated. 2. MATERIAL AND METHODS 2.1 Sample modification In this study, base asphalt binder used was PG 64 from Kemaman Bitumen Company, one of major sources in Malaysian mixing plant operations. 400 g of asphalt binder was heated to become a fluid in an iron container, and then upon reaching 150 0C, Rediset® as warm asphalt additive was added at 1, 2, 3 and 4 percent by weight of base asphalt binder. All the modified asphalt binders were prepared using a Silverson-L4RT high shear mixer at speed of 2000 rpm for 10 minutes at 150 - 160 0C. 77
  • 133. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 2.2 Rotational viscosity test [15] This method is used to determine the viscosity of asphalt at application temperatures. The measured viscosity at elevated temperatures can be used to determine whether the binder can be handled and pumped at the refinery, terminal, or hot mix asphalt plant facility. Measurements of viscosity can be used to estimate mixing and compaction temperatures for use in hot mix asphalt mix design. The rotational viscometer (RV) test was used to evaluate the difference in viscous behavior between the control and modified asphalt binder. The temperatures over which the RV test was conducted were 120, 135, 150, and 165 and 180 0C using a Brookfield viscometer (Model DV-II+, Brookfield Engineering Inc., USA). When the temperature was set at desired temperature, the no.27 spindle was lowering into the sample chamber which containing 10.5 g of asphalt binder. Normally, the selected temperature wil equilibrate after 15–30 min (lab practice showed that the usual equilibrium time is 18 min). At least three readings were subsequently recorded between the 18th and 21st min of the test for each evaluated temperature. The dynamic viscosity at each temperature is the arithmetic mean of these three readings [16]. 2.3 Dynamic Shear Rheometer Test (AASHTO TP5) A stress-controlled HAAKE dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) was used with 25 mm parallel plates to characterize the mechanical properties of the control and modified asphalt binders prepared under temperatures ranging from 46 0C to 70 0C and loading frequency at 10 rad/s (1.59 Hz) (ASTM D7175). During testing, samples were conducted in a control and homogeny environment. The Superpave performance grading (PG) testing protocol (ASTM-D6373) was used to evaluate the control and modified asphalt binder samples [17]. High service temperature (HT) for a binder is determined as the temperature at which the G*/Sin  is greater than 1 kPa for unaged binder and greater than 2.2 kPa for the rolling thin film oven aged condition (RTFO) (ASTM-D2872) [18]. In addition to the performance requirements at high and low service temperature; there is a limiting maximum stiffness at the intermediate service temperature (IT) to alleviate fatigue cracking, at which the binder’s G*Sin  after pressurized aging vessel (PAV) (ASTM-D6521) aged binder condition does not exceed 5000 kPa [19-21]. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Rotational viscosity The rotational viscometer (RV) test was used to evaluate the difference in viscous behavior which is considered to be one of important properties since it represents the ability of the binder’s to be pumped through an asphalt plant, thoroughly coat the aggregate in asphalt concrete mixture, and be placed and compacted to form a new pavement surface [3, 20]. Figure 1 shows the experimental values of the viscosities of asphalt binder containing WAA (Rediset) at different setting temperatures. The results clearly showed that the addition of Rediset into virgin binder decreased the binder’s viscosity, compared to the control recycled binder (Rediset 0%). This finding was consistent when the percentages of Rediset were increased except for 1% and 2% where the trends were almost similar when the temperatures increased from 1350C to 1650C due to the filling effect of the additive. 78
  • 134. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 10 Rediset 0% Rediset 1% Rediset 2% Rediset 3% Viscosity, Pa•s Rediset 4% 1 Compaction Temperature Range Mixing Temperature Range 0.1 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 Temperature, C Figure 1: Rotational viscosity plots for asphalt binder containing different WAA content 3.2 High Failure Temperature The higher failure temperature values from the DSR test demonstrate that the binders are less susceptible to permanent deformation at high pavement temperature [3, 20]. Figures 2 and 3 show the high failure temperature of asphalt binder modified with WAA in original state (i.e., unaged) and after RTFO aging. In general, the asphalt binders containing WAA resulted lower failure temperature than the control recycled binders for both unaging and RTFO aging conditions. The failure temperature also decreased when the percentage of Rediset were increased. 70.0 68.0 Failure Temperature (0C) 66.0 64.0 62.0 60.0 Rediset 0% Rediset 1% Rediset 2% Rediset 3% Rediset 4% Figure 2: High failure temperature of unaged asphalt binder containing different WAA content 79
  • 135. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 74.0 Failure Temperature (0C) 72.0 70.0 68.0 66.0 Rediset 0% Rediset 1% Rediset 2% Rediset 3% Rediset 4% Figure 3: High failure temperature of short term aged asphalt binder containing different WAA content 3.3 Rutting Resistance The physical characteristics of a typical asphalt binder are more susceptible to rutting at a high-service temperature when it has a lower viscosity and are more likely to creep under heavy traffic loads. In Superpave specifications, G*/sin  from the DSR test is used as a key factor to define the permanent deformation of an asphalt binder at a high-performance temperature [20, 22-23]. In Figures 4 and 5, all G*/sin  values are higher than 1.0 kPa (unaged condition) and 2.2 kPa (RTFO aging condition) at 640C. The G*/sin  for unaged and RTFO aging value decreases as the percentage of WAA increases. 1800 1600 1400 1200 G*/sin  (kPa) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Rediset 0% Rediset 1% Rediset 2% Rediset 3% Rediset 4% Figure 4: G*/sin  of unaged asphalt binder containing WAA at 64 0C 80
  • 136. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 7000 6000 5000 G*/sin  (kPa) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Rediset 0% Rediset 1% Rediset 2% Rediset 3% Rediset 4% Figure 5: G*/sin  of RTFO aging asphalt binder containing WAA at 64 0C 3.4 Fatigue Resistance The lower G*.sin  values are generally considered to be desirable characteristic from the standpoint of fatigue cracking resistance [3, 20]. The G*.sin  values of asphalt binders containing WAA after conditioned (RTFO + PAV residual) were determined using the DSR at 25 0C and the results are illustrated in Figure 6. The G*.sin  values were found to be 2897, 2455, 2190, 2088, and 1837 kPa for the binders of PG 64 (Control: Rediset 0%), Rediset 1%, Rediset 2%, Rediset 3% and Rediset 4%, respectively. 3500 3000 2500 G*.sin  (kPa) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Rediset 0% Rediset 1% Rediset 2% Rediset 3% Rediset 4% Figure 6: G*.sin  of RTFO+PAV aging asphalt binder containing WAA at 25 0C From the results, it is predicted that the asphalt binders containing WAA have possible higher resistance on fatigue cracking at intermediate temperature compared to the control virgin binder without the additives. It seems that WAA were very effective on increasing resistance to fatigue cracking of the binder. It is believed that the effect of chemical reaction between 81
  • 137. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Rediset and virgin binder makes the binder less stiff and more elastic which can be able to dissipate energy by rebounding; not cracking. 4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION In this limited study, a series of Superpave binder tests were carried out using the rotational viscometer and DSR for modified asphalt binder to determine the properties of the binders. From these test results, the following can be concluded. (1) Rediset was observed to be effective on maintaining the rutting and fatigue resistance at the same temperature with base asphalt binder (measured from the DSR test at a high temperature). (2) The addition of Rediset significantly decreased the viscosity of asphalt binders. In other words, the addition of warm asphalt additive can reduce the mixing and compaction temperature but maintains the performance properties of the base binder. (3) It is suggested that the optimum percentage of Rediset as WAA is between 1 – 2 percent by weight of base asphalt binder. (4) It is recommended to extend a study in assessing the performance of WMA mixtures containing Rediset as WAA. REFERENCES 1. T. Gandhi and S. Amirkhanian. Laboratory Simulation of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Binder Aging Characteristics. 2008. Bellevue, Washington, USA: ASCE. 2. H. Kim, S.-J. Lee, and S.N. Amirkhanian, Rheology of warm mix asphalt binders with aged binders. Construction and Building Materials, 2011. 25(1): p. 183-189. 3. S.-J. Lee, S.N. Amirkhanian, N.-W. Park, and K.W. Kim, Characterization of warm mix asphalt binders containing artificially long-term aged binders. Construction and Building Materials, 2009. 23(6): p. 2371-2379. 4. L. Shang, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, Pyrolyzed wax from recycled cross- linked polyethylene as warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive for SBS modified asphalt. Construction and Building Materials, 2011. 25(2): p. 886-891. 5. C. Akisetty, F. Xiao, T. Gandhi, and S. Amirkhanian, Estimating correlations between rheological and engineering properties of rubberized asphalt concrete mixtures containing warm mix asphalt additive. Construction and Building Materials, 2011. 25(2): p. 950-956. 6. C.K. Akisetty, S.-J. Lee, and S.N. Amirkhanian, High temperature properties of rubberized binders containing warm asphalt additives. Construction and Building Materials, 2009. 23(1): p. 565-573. 7. K. Su, R. Maekawa, and Y. Hachiya, Laboratory evaluation of WMA mixture for use in airport pavement rehabilitation. Construction and Building Materials, 2009. 23(7): p. 2709-2714. 8. F. Xiao, W. Zhao, T. Gandhi, and S.N. Amirkhanian, Influence of Antistripping Additives on Moisture Susceptibility of Warm Mix Asphalt Mixtures. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2010. 22(10): p. 1047-1055. 82
  • 138. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 9. F. Xiao, P.E. Wenbin Zhao, and S.N. Amirkhanian, Fatigue behavior of rubberized asphalt concrete mixtures containing warm asphalt additives. Construction and Building Materials, 2009. 23(10): p. 3144-3151. 10. F. Xiao and S.N. Amirkhanian, Effects of liquid antistrip additives on rheology and moisture susceptibility of water bearing warm mixtures. Construction and Building Materials, 2010. 24(9): p. 1649-1655. 11. A. Vaitkus, V. Vorobjovas, and L. Žiliut, The Research On The Use of Warm Mix Asphalt For Asphalt Pavement Structures. 2009. 12. Arkema. Cecachemicals. 2010 [cited 2010 August 15]; Available from: http://www.cecachemicals.com/sites/ceca/en/business/bitumen_additives/warm_coat ed_material/warm_coated_material.page. 13. N.M. Sheth, Evaluation of Selected Warm Mix Asphalt Additives. 2010, University of Iowa. 14. Akzonobel. REDISET® WMX 2010; Available from: http://www.akzonobel.com/surface/markets/asphalt/new_developments/rediset.aspx. 15. ASTM-D4402, Standard test method for viscosity determination of asphalt at elevated temperatures using a rotational viscometer. 2002, American Society for Testing and Materials. 16. H.M.R.D. Silva, J.R.M. Oliveira, J. Peralta, and S.E. Zoorob, Optimization of warm mix asphalts using different blends of binders and synthetic paraffin wax contents. Construction and Building Materials, 2010. 24(9): p. 1621-1631. 17. ASTM-D6373, Standard specification for performance graded asphalt binder. 1999, American Society for Testing and Materials. 18. ASTM-D2872, Standard test method for effect of heat and air on a moving film of asphalt (rolling thin-film oven test). 1997, American Society for Testing and Materials. 19. S. Aflaki and M. Memarzadeh, Using two-way ANOVA and hypothesis test in evaluating crumb rubber modification (CRM) agitation effects on rheological properties of bitumen. Construction and Building Materials, 2011. 25(4): p. 2094- 2106. 20. Asphalt-Institute, Superpave performance graded asphalt binder specification and testing, in Superpave Series No. 1(SP-1). 2003: Asphalt Institute, Lexington, KY, USA. p. 61. 21. ASTM-D6521., Standard practice for accelerated aging of asphalt binder using a pressurized aging vessel (PAV). . 2003, American Society for Testing and Materials. 22. G.D. Airey, M.H. Mohammed, and C. Fichter, Rheological characteristics of synthetic road binders. Fuel, 2008. 87(10-11): p. 1763-1775. 23. F. Xiao, A.N. Amirkhanian, and S.N. Amirkhanian, Influence of Carbon Nanoparticles on the Rheological Characteristics of Short-Term Aged Asphalt Binders. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2011. 23(4): p. 423-431. 83
  • 139. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam The Impact of Foreign Labours Reduction in Construction Industry Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid1, Bachan Singh, Aminah Md Yusof and Ong Siong Wei 1 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, rahimfka@yahoo.com Abstract Malaysia Government has taken the stiffer action for the recruitment of the foreign labours and the repatriation of those who were here illegally since April 2002. However, only a few days before the enforcement of Immigration Act 1959/63 (Amended 2002), government had decided to continue allowing the recruitment of foreign labour including Indonesian Labour. This flip flop policy is even persisted until now. The main issue is that until when Malaysia is able not to depend on foreign labour especially Indonesia labours in construction industry? How about the impact of reducing foreign labour in construction industry? Hence, the aim of this research project was to was to examine the impact of foreign labours reduction in the construction industry. A total of 20 sets of questionnaire forms had been distributed to the contractors at construction sites around Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The data was analyzed using average index method to show the frequency of the answers. Form the findings, the result show that reducing of foreign labour would create some negative impacts to the development of construction industry due to shortage of manpower. This proved that our countries still need to depend on foreign labour. To overcome the problems in the long run, government has to establish more efficient and comprehensive policies to reduce the number of foreign labour. Keywords: construction, foreign labour, roles, problems, impact 1. INTRODUCTION The construction sector continues to be an essential sector in the Malaysia economy, where it lends strength and capacity to host of economic sectors, whilst supporting the social development of the country through the provision of basic infrastructure. According to the Economic Report 2011/2012 released on Friday, Oct 7, the Malaysian economic growth would be largely domestic driven due to rising uncertainties in the global economy. The government projects the economic growth to pick up in 2012, with GDP expanding between 5% and 6% with construction as one of the key drivers. A snapshot of the GDP growth for 2012 shows construction taking the lead, with growth anticipated to double to 7% from 3.4% in 2011 as large infrastructure projects including the Mass Rapid Transit project in KL take off. Among other projects are the development of integrated transport terminal in Gombak, the development of the Sabah Gas and Oil Terminal, including the 300 MW gas-fired power plant in Sabah the construction of the KLIA2, expansion of clean water supply and electrification projects to rural areas, especially in Sabah and Sarawak, as well as the construction of 430.7 km of rural roads. The ongoing development projects in the various corridors to support the growth, including the Lido Boulevard and Legoland Malaysia in Iskandar Malaysia and the upgrading of coastal roads in the East Coast Economic Region will be continued. Vibrant housing construction activities fuelled by rising demand, accommodative financing and the government’s continuous support for home ownership, in particular the Program Perumahan Rakyat 1Malaysia will furher boost construction industry [1,2,3,4,5] According to Department of Statistic as of June 2011, Malaysian Construction industry employs 1,214,000 or about 10% of our country total employment 12,116,600 [6]. However, around 70% - 80% of construction labors are occupied by foreigners. Due to the influx of 84
  • 140. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam foreign workers, the employers are reluctant to employ locals since the wages paid to foreign workers are much less as compared to the locals [7]. Although the issue of foreign workers in Malaysia’s construction industry has been raised by the public, the views of the contractors about the issue remain to be fully explored. Their views and suggestions are very important to enable the Malaysia government to enact a policy of foreign workers. Lack of data and information will be a barrier to improve the problem of foreign workers [8,9,10,11]. The issue of foreign workers has been a heated discussion when Malaysia experience economic slowdown in year 1998 and 2008. In addition, cases of riots and crimes that were committed by foreign workers have attracted the attention of the entire Malaysia community. Given the increasingly critical issue, particularly when the construction industry is being monopolized by foreign workers The Malaysia government has taken immediate reforms to overcome the problem related to foreign workers. Therefore, this study aims to examine the impact of foreign labors reduction in the construction industry. The objectives of this study are to identify the role and problems caused by foreign workers involved in the construction industry and the effect of the reduction of foreign workers in construction industry. The study was carried on construction sites in the area of Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia. 2. METHODOLOGY The objective of the study was achieved through questionnaire survey to gather the opinions of the management staff of contractors in Johor Bahru. The data collected from questionnaires were analyzed using the average Index method. From the ratings obtained, the average index for each questions responded are calculated. , the next it will give five category rating scale in the mean Index. Al-Hammad et al. [15] explains that the average Index is based on the formula: Average Index (AI) = Σ ai xi Σ xi Where, ai = constant represent weights for i; xi = Variable that represent the frequency of response the the i; i = 1,2,3,4,5 as explained below. X1= the frequency of the feedback that is “highly disagree” for a1 = 1, X2 = the frequency of the feedback that is “not agree” to a2 = 2, X3 = the frequency of the feedback that is “moderate” for a3 = 3, X4 = the frequency of responses of “agree” to a4 = 4, X5 = frequency of responses “strongly agree’ to a5 = 5 The mean of average index results based on the questions category were then classified into rating scales to show the intensity of the results. The classifications for the rating scale were specified by McCaffer and Majid [16] as follows: a. Strongly disagree 1.00 ≤ Average Index < 1.50; b. Disagree 1.50 ≤ Average Index < 2.50; c. Medium 2.50 ≤ Average Index < 3.50; d. Agree 3.50 ≤ Average Index < 4.50; e. Strongly agree 4.50 ≤ Average Index ≤ 5.00. 85
  • 141. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Out of the 40 questionnaire sets that were distributed to the respondents, only 20 sets were duly answered and returned. Figure 1 shows the breakdown of the respondents involved in this study. The respondents consisted of site engineer, project engineer, technical executive, factory manager, quantity surveyor, marketing manager and resident engineer. Site Engineer Quantity Surveyor Project Engineer 5% 5% 30% Technical Executive 15% Factory Manager 5% Marketing Manager 5% 5% 5% 25% Resident Engineer Company Director Quality Control Engineer Figure 1: Percentage of Respondents Position 3.1 Productivity Based on Table 1 respondents agreed that communication problems with foreign labors will lower productivity. Foreign workers who were unable to communicate in Malay and English languages had caused misunderstanding between workers and employer. The performance of works was affected due to frequent reworks of nonconformance to the work specifications. Subsequently, the project cost could be escalated due unmanageable waste of efforts and materials. Reducing foreign labors seems to be beneficial to the construction industry but fall short of solving the overall productivity issues since large portion of foreign labors still remain in the productivity equation. Table 1: Effects of Foreign Workers on Productivity Frequency Analysis Productivity Issues AI SD D M A SA i. Communication problems with foreign 1 2 1 12 4 3.8 labor will lower productivity. ii. Many foreign workers are not trained. This 3 4 6 6 1 2.9 will lower productivity. iii. Many foreign workers are not able to work 1 - 7 10 2 3.6 alone and make good decisions. iv. Transfer due to lack of experience of construction work has been monopolized - 6 4 8 2 3.3 by foreign labor. v. Willingness to allocate more to the local labor training programs compared to - 1 5 12 2 3.75 foreign labor. vi. Working hours and working days for local 2 8 5 3 2 2.75 labor is the same as foreign workers. vii. Reduction of foreign labor in the construction industry will not cause 12 4 2 1 1 1.75 disruption of the project. *SD=Strongly Disagree, D=Disagree, M=Moderate, A=Agree, A=Strongly Agree, AI= Average Index 86
  • 142. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 3.2 Safety, Health and Welfare Table 2 shows that foreign workers were not provided facility of annual leave, emergency leave and even medical leave. They seem to be able to work long hours and under harsh conditions. Their lack of knowledge and understanding about labor law had made them just accept whatever safety, health and welfare facilities given to them. The contractors have long been capitalized on foreign labors low demand on their basic rights in order to make more profit for themselves. If the contractors were used to such high profit margin while employing foreign labors, then reducing those labors would not be a favourable policy to them. Table 2: Effects of Foreign Workers on Safety, Health and Welfare Frequency Analysis Safety, Health and Welfare Issues AI SD D M A SA i. There is no need to provide a medical 6 11 2 - 1 1.95 examination on foreign labor. ii. Water facilities provided in the quarters is 1 6 6 5 2 3.05 not satisfactory. iii. Bathroom and toilet facilities provided in the quarters the net was less than 1 - 6 9 4 3.75 satisfactory. iv. Foreign labor would bring diseases like - 2 9 9 - 3.35 TB, Malaria and HIV. v. Facilities such as paid sick leave not 1 1 3 8 7 3.95 provided to foreign workers. vi. Lack of facilities such as schools and - 3 2 11 4 3.8 living quarters provided for foreign labor. vii. Awareness of foreign labor in the issue of - - 4 12 4 4.0 safety is low. viii. Knowledge of foreign workers in the labor - 1 5 10 4 3.85 laws in Malaysia is weak. 3.3 Social Problem The results shown on Table 3 indicated that in general the decrease in the total of foreign workers would promote positive changes toward social aspect of our society. Even though there are common perceptions that foreign labors have contributed to the high crime rates as well as created nuisances in some neighborhood but the situations are under controlled. Actually, crime cases among foreign national are mostly associated to illegal immigrants without a stable job or income. Table 3: Effects of Foreign Workers on Social Problems Frequency Analysis Social Problems issues AI SD D M A SA i. Recruitment of foreign labor would affect Malaysia’s development planning such as - 3 7 10 - 3.35 planning in the development of human resources. ii. The entry of foreign workers will be contributing on an increase in criminal - 1 3 15 1 3.8 cases. iii. Negative attitude of foreign labor as a bad discipline and dirty will affect the local - 5 7 7 1 3.2 culture especially the young people. 87
  • 143. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam iv. Recruitment of foreign labor in the construction site will cause public - 1 2 15 2 3.9 discomfort. v. Intake of foreign labor in the construction 1 6 4 6 3 3.2 site will cause a decrease in local salary. vi. Social problems posed by foreign workers - 1 10 6 3 3.55 are serious. 3.4 Human Resources Table 4 show results of human resource utilization factors; it appears that reduction of foreign labors would bring negative impact on the development of Malaysia’s construction industry. According to the study, contractors preferred to hire foreign workers because they have greater physical strength and also willing to work beyond the regular time with a cheaper rate. In contract, local workers are not interested to involve in the construction industry where the work environment is far more uncomfortable than the manufacturing industries that offer reasonable remunerations. Table 4: Effects of Foreign Workers on Human Resource Frequency Analysis Human Resource Issues AI SD D M A SA i. Skill of local workers is better than - 6 7 5 2 3.15 foreigners. ii. Physical ability of local workers is better 5 8 5 2 - 2.2 than foreign workers. iii. Salaries paid to local workers are - 6 8 6 - 3.0 inadequate. iv. Local people like to participate in the 9 7 3 1 - 1.8 construction industry. v. The supply of foreign workers in the construction industry is more than 3 7 7 3 - 2.5 demand. vi. Malaysia contractors have been willing to accept the policy of reducing dependence 7 9 3 1 - 1.9 on foreign labor, which was launched by the Malaysia Government. 3.5 Quality Table 5 indicates that foreign labors turnover rate is high in our construction industry. New and unskilled labors need to be trained and retrained in order to maintain high quality standard of works. Contractors are not willing to put their money on training programs especially involving foreign labors unless if necessary. Thus, sudden reduction of foreign labors would just amplify the high labor turnover that already existed in our construction industry. This subsequently, will impair our country efforts to increase the quality in construction industry. 88
  • 144. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Table 5: Effects of Foreign Workers on Quality Frequency Analysis AI Quality Issues SD D M A SA i. Many foreign workers are unskillful 1 7 6 5 1 2.9 ii. Many foreign workers lack of knowledge - 4 4 9 3 3.55 to practice the right thing. iii. Willingness to provide training programs - 2 5 13 - 3.55 for local workers than foreign workers. iv. Reduction in foreign labor will not affect the quality of work, even if lack of 2 13 4 1 - 2.2 resources to carry out a lot of works v. Recruitment of foreign workers would - 4 4 12 - 3.4 worsen the skill drain of local workers. vi. Recruitment of foreign labor will lead to the high turnover of workforce. New - - 5 13 2 3.85 untrained labor could affect the quality of work. 3.6 Cost Table 6 indicates that the overall project cost could increase if contractors could not employ foreign labors. In any construction project, payment to labors alone could be up to 30% of project cost. Due to lack of local workers participation in our construction industry, foreign labors remain to be the natural and popular choice. It is true that foreign workers do repatriate huge amount of money back to their own countries. Thus, reducing their numbers could stop money from flowing out of our country. But studies have shown that foreign labors or immigrants do contribute to the economic growth of a nation for example in attracting foreign direct investment. Table 6: Effects of Foreign Workers on Cost Frequency Analysis Cost Issues AI SD D M A SA i. Recruitment of foreign workers will delay the process of economic - 2 2 12 4 3.9 development due to the money outflow of our country. ii. Project costs will not increase even if Malaysia’ labor laws required employment of local labor including 4 8 7 1 - 2.25 insurance payments, medical payments, allowances, etc. iii. Competitive ability of small contractor will not change and it is increasingly difficult to compete with high-cap 5 7 7 1 - 2.2 multinational companies as the salary for local workers is higher. iv. Do you think foreign workers are illegally sought after contractors even 3 7 6 2 2 2.65 though it is forbidden? v. Labor costs will not increase greatly when employing local labor due to 6 5 7 2 - 2.25 payment of EPF and SOSCO. 89
  • 145. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 4. CONCLUSIONS The conclusions that can be drawn from this study are that the reduction of foreign workers can bring range of positive impacts directly on our construction industry and generally on our economy. The reduction of foreign workers should be done gradually as a long term solutions. However, in the short term, the construction industry still needs foreign labors to undertake multi billion ringgit projects that already set to take off. The sudden move to reduce or block foreign labours recruitment could backfire our efforts toward becoming a develop nation by year 2020. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank our sponsor, Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for the financial support of Research University Grant (Vote No. Q.J130000.7122.03J11) which enable us to carry out this research project. Thank you also to UTM Research Management Centre (RMC) and those who had contributed towards the completion of this research. REFERENCES [1] Ministry of Finance Malaysia. (2011, Nov 15). “Annual Budget 2012” http://www.treasury.gov.my/pdf/budget/bs12.pdf [2] Ministry of Finance Malaysia. (2011, Nov 15) , “Quarterly Malaysian Economy, 2nd Quarter 2011” http://www.treasury.gov.my/pdf/ekonomi/sukutahun2_2011.pdf [3] Ministry of Finance Malaysia. (2011, Nov 15) “Economic Report 2011/2012” http://www.treasury.gov.my/pdf/economy/er/1112/chap1.pdf [4] Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Bachan Singh, Aminah Md Yusof and Nur Ashikin M. Abdullah, “The Employment of Foreign Workers at Construction Sites”, in Proc. 2011 2nd International Conference on Construction and Project Management IPEDR vol.15 (2011) © (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore, pp. 126-130. [5] Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Bachan Singh, Wan Zulkifli Wan Yusof1, Aminah Md Yusof and Norzamzila Mustafa, “Problems Faced By Contractors in Managing Foreign Workers On Construction Sites”, in Proc. 2011 2nd International Conference on Construction and Project Management IPEDR vol.15 (2011) © (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore, pp. 131- 135. [6] Department of Statistics Malaysia. “Labour Force Survey Report”, First Quarter 2011, series no 26, vol 2 June 2011. [7] Ofori, George. Foreign Construction Workers in Singapore, Geneva. “Working Papers International Labour Office”, SAP 2.57/WP.106, 1996. [8] Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Bachan Singh, Aminah Md Yusof, Ahmad Mahayuddin Ismail and Ong Siong Wei, “Isu-isu Berkaitan Buruh Asing Dalam Industri Pembinaan: Kajian Literatur”, presented at Seminar Penyelidikan Kejuruteraan Awam (SEPKA 2011), UTM Skudai, Malaysia, 2011. [9] Bachan Singh, Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Aminah Mohd Yusof and Nurul Huda Zainuddin. “Pengamalan Undang-undang Buruh Dalam Industri Pembinaan”, presented at Seminar Penyelidikan Kejuruteraan Awam (SEPKA 2011), UTM Skudai, Malaysia, 2011. 90
  • 146. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam [10] Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Muhd Zaimi Abd Majid, Bachan Singh, Aminah Md Yusof and Subhadra Nadarajah, “Kesan Penghantaran Pulang Buruh Asing Terhadap Sektor Binaan”, presented at Seminar Penyelidikan Kejuruteraan Awam (SEPKA 2011), UTM Skudai, Malaysia, 2011. [11] Abdul Rashid Abul Aziz . “Bangladeshi Migrant Workers In Malaysia’s Construction Sector.” Asia-Pacific Population Journal, March 2001. [12] CIDB. (2011, Nov 10) “Manpower Development”. Available [Online] http://www.cidb.gov.my.html. [13] International Labor Organization. (2011, Nov 11) “Defining Construction.” Available [Online]http://www.ilo.org/public/English/dialogue/sector/sectors/constr.html. [14] International Labor Organization. (2011, Nov 12) “Construction- Sectoral Activities.” Available[Online]http://www.ilo.org/public/English/dialogue/sector/sectors/constr.htm. [15] Abdul-mohsen Al-Hammad and Sadi Assaf. “Assessment of Work Performance of Maintenance Contractors in Saudi Arabia”. Journal of Management in Engineering, 12, 44 (1996); doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(1996)12:2(44). 1996. [16] M.Z. Abd. Majid and R. McCaffer. “Assessment of Work Performance of Maintenance Contractors in Saudi Arabia”. Journal of Management in Engineering, 13, 91 (1997); doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(1997)13:5(91). 1997. 91
  • 147. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam The Employment of Foreign Labors in the Construction Industry Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid1, Bachan Singh, Aminah Md Yusof and Ahmad Mahayuddin Ismail 1 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor Darul Ta’zim, Malaysia, rahimfka@yahoo.com Abstract Rapid economic growth due to current Economic Transformation Plan had offered a lot of job opportunities across many sectors in Malaysia, including construction industry. However, demand against supply of manpower has forced the construction industry to import and use foreign labours as the primary source. However, their lack of skills and academic background has given various problems to the construction industry. Therefore, a study has been carried out in order to identify the reasons why they are been used widely in the construction industry, their impact towards the quality of works and the need of their welfare. Fifteen (15) respondents from the management level of construction firms around Johore, Malaysia have been chosen to respond to the questionnaires, which were distributed in two kinds of methods, by postal and by hand. The results indicated that utilising foreign labours in the construction industry has produced a lot of benefits to the contractors and players in the construction industry. This can be proven by the reasons they are here, their quality of works and need of their welfare. Keywords: construction, foreign labor, benefits, problems, welfare 1. INTRODUCTION Since the establishment of the Malaya, the foreign labors were brought into the country to propel the development progress and also to meet the labor needs of the country. For example, during the early years of Malaya, the people from Indonesia had been brought into as laborer in the rubber industry. Similarly, labors from other countries like India, China, Bugis from Sulawesi and some other countries were brought by the British [1,2]. Since 5th February 2002, the government has completely change the policy considerations. Former Prime Minister, Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi had announced the government new policy to breakdown the structure of the division of foreign labor in various filed. According to the new policy, foreign labors were allowed to work in the country up to three years and can renew the contract for a period of two years if absolutely necessary [3,4]. Currently, Malaysia allows recruitment of foreign workers from several countries including Indonesia, Bangladesh, Filipina, Thailand, Myanmar and India [5]. Employment of foreign workers is allowed in the construction, plantation, services and manufacturing sectors. The Task Force on Employment of foreign labors, under the Ministry of Home Affairs, is the approving authority for the employment of foreign workers that catered to the skilled, semi- skilled and unskilled categories of workforces [6]. Those categories normally are based on worker level of academic, skill and experience [7]. In Malaysia, the percentage of skilled and semi-skilled foreign workers is much lower than that of unskilled. The term ‘foreign workers’ means a group of foreign nationals who have the legal right to work in a country where they are been officially recruited [8]. Whereas, Meissener used the 92
  • 148. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam term ‘foreign labor’ as those person come who from several nationality groups, living and working with diverse legal status in a particular country [9]. Presently, there are over two million foreign workers being employed in Malaysia. Some of the foreign workers entered the country either legally or illegally [10]. In addition to that as of September 2011, a total of 2,320,034 legal and illegal workers have registered under the 6P amnesty programme which ended on Aug 31st 2011. Home Minister Datuk Seri Hishammuddin Hussein said of those registered, 1,303,126 were illegal while the remaining 1,016,908 were legal workers. Indonesian immigrants, both legal and illegal, led the number of foreign workers registered under the first phase of the 6P legalisation programme. Immigration Department records showed 1.05 million Indonesians had registered by the Aug 31 deadline, of which 405,321 were here legally. Bangladeshi immigrants comprised the second largest number at 400,700; Myanmar nationals at 257,583; Nepalese at 255,054; and Indians at 107,427. Men outnumbered women, representing 75 per cent, or 977,140, of those registered. Thus, if we take into account the recorded and unrecorded foreign workers in Malaysia the total numbers could be over 4 million. This is a huge portion considering the total of 12.5 million employments in Malaysia as of September 2011 [11]. At the end of 2nd quarter of 2011, construction sector employ about 1.19 million people which is 10% of total employment in Malaysia. The construction industry is synonymous with the word “foreign workers”. According to statistic, it is estimated that up to 80% foreign workers involved in the construction industry, while the rest are local people. Big portion of foreign workers are normally concentrated on construction sites in west coast states of Peninsular Malaysia [12]. The objectives of this study are to investigate the causes of foreign labors influx in the construction industry, to identify the welfare needs of foreign workers at construction sites and to identify the impact of foreign labor on the quality of the construction works. The study was carried on construction sites in the area of Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia. 2. METHODOLOGY The objective of the study was achieved through questionnaire surveys. The questionnaires were structured into four parts. 1. Part A: To collect information or demographic detail of respondents 2. Part B: To collect information on respondent’s level of skill knowledge foreign workers at construction sites. 3. Part C: To collect information on the welfare of foreign workers at construction site. 4. Part D: To collect information on the impact of foreign labor influence on the quality of work in the construction industry. The data then was analyzed using frequency analysis method which shown results in percentages. The percentage was calculated using the formula below: Percentage =Σ (xi) Σ ni Where, X = number of respondent who agreed with that choice given ni = number of respondents overall 93
  • 149. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This section explains the results and discussion from the questionnaire survey findings in relation to the objectives of the study. 3.1 Background of Respondents Figure 1 shows the breakdown of the respondents involved in this study. The respondents consisted of resident engineer, assistant executive cost and control, administrator, contract director, senior quantity surveyor, site supervisor and site engineer. Figure 1: Percentage of Respondents Position 3.2 Factors That Attracted Foreign Labors Based on Table 1, salary is the most attractive factor (86.7%), follow by geographic (46.7%), facilities (40.0%), communication (40.0%) and work environments (26.7%). Political and economic stability of our country has attracted many foreigners especially from low per capita income nations. Statistics shown that Indonesian workers in Malaysia is the largest among Asia pacific nations and world’s second largest in term of border migration after the USA- Mexican border. Figure 2 shows graphically the outcome of the results for this section which amplify the basic instinct of human being when choosing a host nation as their workplace. Worldwide studies on the benefits of using foreign workers have shown that the host nations do benefit a lot form the importation of such workers. Figure 3 shows the advantages of using the foreign labor to the contractors. The most famous reason is to reduce the cost (93.3%), reduce the time (86.6%), and the foreign labors are cheaper (83.3%) Table 1: Factors That Attracted foreign Labors Frequency Respondent agreed Percentage of Respondent Respondent Strongly Agreed Disagreed Strongly Agreed Disagreed Agreed Agreed Element 1. Salary 13 2 0 86.7 13.3 0 2. Work 4 5 6 26.7 33.3 40.0 Environment 3. Facilities 6 7 2 40.0 46.7 13.3 4. Communicate 6 6 3 40.0 40.0 20.0 94
  • 150. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 5. Geographic 7 2 6 46.7 13.3 40.0 Geographic Communication m e Facilities t I Work Environment salary 0 20 40 60 80 100 Disagreed Agreed Strongly Agreed Percentage Figure 2: Factors That Attracted Foreign Labors 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 Reduce the Red uce the Task Reduce tthe Cheaper than Project Cost Duration Construction local lab ors Duration Strongly Agreed Agreed Figure 3: Factors Why Contractors Prefer Foreign Labors 3.3 Foreign Labour Welfare Figure 4 shows the analysis of foreign welfare questionnaires that were distributed to respondents. About 60% of respondents agreed that the welfare of foreign workers in Malaysia is satisfactory and the remaining 40% is good. However, Figure 5 show items that still need to be improved. Hygiene (toilet and environment) and PPE scored the highest 95
  • 151. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam (100%) followed by workers living (kongsi) condition (93.3%), health facilities (86.7%), safety environment and continuous training (80%). Figure 4: Level of Foreign Labor’s Welfare Item Safe E nvironme nt He alth Fac iliti es Cont inous T rai ning Hygiene Site Condition PPE Hygiene Toilet Condit ion of Kongsi 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 Percentage A greed D isagreed Figure 5: Item That Should be Improved 3.4 Quality of Work The use of foreign labor in the construction industry to some extent has something to do with the quality of construction works. Quality became an important elements for the client to assess whether a job meet their needs or not. 3.4.1 Recruitment of Foreign Labor to the Construction Industry In choosing the workforce, management has various options to select their workers. Labor recruitment factors could be associated with the level of construction quality produced. This is because quality of works is very much dependent on the skilled of the workers. 96
  • 152. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Figure 6 shows the results from the questionnaires that were distributed to respondents on how the management choose foreign workers. Depends on foreman selection is the most popular method (35%), follow by the past project and from the sub-contractor (25%), skill test (10%) and by agent (5%). Figure 6: Method of Foreign Labor Selection 3.4.2 Contribution of foreign labours toward quality problems for selected works Table 2 shows that quality problems can be found in almost all major construction works. The cause of poor quality for those works somehow has been attributed to the skill level of foreign labours as indicated in Figure 7. Table 2: Respondents View on Quality Problems for Selected Tasks Frequency Respondent agreed Percentage of Respondent Respondent Strongly Agreed Disagreed Strongly Agreed Disagreed Agreed Agreed Element 1. Concrete Work 3 6 6 20.0 40.0 40.0 2. Brickwork 0 10 5 0.0 66.7 33.3 3. Timberwork 0 9 6 0.0 60.0 40.0 4. Finishes 6 5 4 40.0 33.3 26.7 5. Bar bending 0 7 8 0.0 46.7 53.3 97
  • 153. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 100.0 93.3 86.7 86.7 90.0 80.0 73.3 70.0 Percentage 60.0 53.3 53.3 46.7 50.0 40.0 40.0 26.7 30.0 20.0 13.3 13.3 6.7 6.7 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Concreting Brickwork Finishes Timberwork General Bar Bender Work Very Agreed Agreed Disagreed Figure 7: Contribution of foreign labours toward quality problems 4. CONCLUSIONS This study is concluded on the fulfilment of the aim of the study which is to identify the reasons why foreign workers are been used widely in the construction industry. The reasons of foreign labours influx are mostly due to the benefits and advantages to foreign labours and contractors themselves. Naturally, foreign labours look for better salary, work environment and facilities. In addition, labourers from Indonesia, India and China could easily assimilate into our culture (geographic) and language (communication). Contractors prefer to hire foreigners as they are cheaper, hard working, constantly available and willing to work under minimum welfare conditions. The use of foreign labors in construction industry does reflect the on the quality of construction works. This is because majority of foreign workers are unskilled and first timer at construction sites. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank our sponsor, Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for the financial support of Research University Grant (Vote No. Q.J130000.7122.03J11) which enable us to carry out this research project. Thank you also to UTM Research Management Centre (RMC) and those who had contributed towards the completion of this research. REFERENCES [1] Ahmad Fakhrul-Din Mat Ghanee, “Kesan Penggunaan Buruh Asing Terhadap Pengurusan Kontraktor.” Universiti Teknologi Malaysia: Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda, 1995. 98
  • 154. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam [2] Ahm Zehadul Karim, Mohd Asri Abdullah and Mohd Isa Haji Bakar, “Foreign Workers In Malaysia: Issues and Implications”, Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications, 1999. [3] Rusdi Omar, “Impak Pendatang Asing Ke Atas Pembangunan Ekonomi”, Pemikir p. 28 Kajang: Utusan Melayu, 2002. [4] Siti Haniza Abdul Rahman, “Tiada Lagi Monopoli.” MASSA p. 330. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Melayu, 2002. [5] Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Bachan Singh, Aminah Md Yusof, Ahmad Mahayuddin Ismail and Ong Siong Wei, “Isu-isu Berkaitan Buruh Asing Dalam Industri Pembinaan: Kajian Literatur”, presented at Seminar Penyelidikan Kejuruteraan Awam (SEPKA 2011), UTM Skudai, Malaysia, 2011. [6] Bachan Singh, Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Aminah Mohd Yusof and Nurul Huda Zainuddin. “Pengamalan Undang-undang Buruh Dalam Industri Pembinaan”, presented at Seminar Penyelidikan Kejuruteraan Awam (SEPKA 2011), UTM Skudai, Malaysia, 2011. [7] Tenah, K.A. and Guevara, J.M.R., “ Fundamentals Of Construction Management and Organization”, Reston, Va, 1985. [8] Anderson, S.D and Woodhead, R.W, “Project Manpower Management: Management Process In Construction Practice”, New York: Wiley, 1981. [9] Meissener, D., “Managing Migration.” New York: McGraw Hill Companies Inc., 1995. [10] Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Muhd Zaimi Abd Majid, Bachan Singh, Aminah Md Yusof and Subhadra Nadarajah, “Kesan Penghantaran Pulang Buruh Asing Terhadap Sektor Binaan”, presented at Seminar Penyelidikan Kejuruteraan Awam (SEPKA 2011), UTM Skudai, Malaysia, 2011. [11] Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Bachan Singh, Aminah Md Yusof and Nur Ashikin M. Abdullah, “The Employment of Foreign Workers at Construction Sites”, in Proc. 2011 2nd International Conference on Construction and Project Management IPEDR vol.15 (2011) © (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore, pp. 126-130. [12] Abdul Rahim Abdul Hamid, Bachan Singh, Wan Zulkifli Wan Yusof1, Aminah Md Yusof and Norzamzila Mustafa, “Problems Faced By Contractors in Managing Foreign Workers On Construction Sites”, in Proc. 2011 2nd International Conference on Construction and Project Management IPEDR vol.15 (2011) © (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore, pp. 131- 135. [13] Atkinson, G., “ Construction Quality and Quality Standards: The European Perspective.” United Kingdom: E & FN Spon, 1995. [14] Griffith, A., “Quality Assurance In Building.” London: Macmillan Education LTD, 1990. [15] McCabe, S., “Quality Improvement Techniques In Construction.” England: Longman Limited, 1998. 99
  • 155. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Study of the effect of limestone mineral addition on the behaviour of sustainable mortars based on sulfate resistant cement L, BELAGRAA1, W ,DEBOUCHA1, M ,BEDDAR2 1 Laboratory of Materials and Electronic Systems, Institute of Sciences and Technology, B B Arreridj University centre, Algeria.(corresponding author: Lbelagraa@yahoo.fr) 2 Departments of Civil Engineering, Faculty of technology, Msila University, Algeria.   ABSTRACT: This study aims at developing the limestone fillers combined with the cement blend in the production of a sustainable sulfate resistant cement based mortars. The first part of this research work investigates the physical properties of the mortar containing an increasing percentage of the limestone fillers (LF) [0, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%]. The second part studies the behaviour of the mortars regarding mechanical response when the limestone fillers are incorporated to produce much more sustainable compound cement materials. The results obtained showed that, the mechanical response at early age of the mortars based on sulfate resistant cement with limestone fillers addition(LM) gave more or less similar values to that of the control mortar(CM) without addition, and which decreased at a long-term for 28 days age and beyond. The absorption was much more limited in the case of sulfate resistant cement mixes with limestone fillers addition. However, normal consistence is greater for mortars with fillers (LM) in comparison with reference mix (CM). Key words: sulfate resistant cement, fillers addition of limestone, absorption, consistence, mechanical response. I- INTRODUCTION The cementing additions currently form part of the most recent development in the production of cement, regarding the improvement of the physical, chemical and mechanical properties gained for these cementing materials (mortar and concrete) [3]. In addition this use has as an economic objective by reducing the clinker consumption, and consequently a positive impact on the environment by limitation of the gas and dust emissions resulting from cement plants. Since 1980, the use of limestone fillers (LF) to produce the cement has been increased in a variety of countries due to the economics and environmental consideration. In Algeria, the limestone is considered the main source of aggregates used in concrete. However this production is associated with high percentage of fines which make aggregates not acceptable within the concrete concept. As a result more than 20% of this waste is rejected and has negative impact on the environment [2]. This present research work assesses the effect of limestone added by substitution on the physico-mechanical properties of of tested mortars at fresh state, consistence, as for hard state the study concerned the mechanical response and absorption. 2- EXPERIMENTAL SCOPE 2.1 Materials used in the research 100
  • 156. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam In this study, the components of the mixture are the following: 2.1.1 Cement Sulfate resistance cement (SRC) which is according to NF P 15-301Type I (42.5 MPa) [6] was used in this research program. The chemical composition and physical properties of the cement used in this research are given in Tables 1 and 2. 2.1.2 Limestone fillers are subjected to the standard NFP 18-508 [7] which is defined as dry finely divided product obtained by grinding and or selection, extracted from limestone rocks[2]. The used limestone fillers were collected from the quarry company ENG, Ain Touta, Algeria. Its chemical composition and particle size are given in table 1 and 3. 2.1.3 Sand The sand is natural, siliceous, rounded grains, density equal to 2640 kg/m3, with at least 98% of silica and its water content is less than 0.2% [8]. The particle size is within the limits given in table 4. 2.1.4 Water Pure water in this research was used for validation testing. Table 1: Chemical composition of cement and limestone fillers Major element Cement (%) Limestone fillers (%) SiO2 21.03 2.62 Al 2O3 3.49 0.8 Fe2O3 4.45 0.63 CaO 63.62 51.45 Na2O 0.13 0.01 K2O 0.56 0.11 MgO 1.79 1.3 So₃ 1.91 0.16 LOI 3.00 42.5 Table 2: Mechanical and physical properties of the used cement Specific gravity (g/cm3) 3.17 Blaine specific surface (cm2/g) 3135 Initial setting time (min) 182 Final setting time (min) 243 Volume expansion (mm) 1.00 Compressive strength (MPa) 2 days 16.63 7 days 29.71 28 days 58 101
  • 157. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Table 3: sieve analysis of limestone fillers. Sieve 90 μm 45 μm Refusal (%) 0 9.8 Table 4: Particle size and sieve analysis for the used sand Sieve dimension Refusal accumulated on sieve (mm) (%) 2.00 0 1.60 7±5 1.00 33±5 0.50 67±5 0.16 87±5 0.08 99±1 2.2. Mixture design Several of experimental tests were carried out in order to assess the effect of limestone fillers on the proprieties of mortars based on SRC. Five mixtures were prepared. The control mixture contained 100%of SRC without addition. Four mixtures were made at dosage 0f 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% of limestone fillers addition (see table 5). 60 prismatic specimens with the size of 40x40x160 mm to cover the whole experimental program were used. The specimens were cured at the 20±2c⁰ and relative humidity of around 50%±5. The testing of specimens were realized according to the standards NF EN 196-1, DIN 52 617[1], and NF EN 196-3[4], respectively. Table 5: mixtures for experimental program Mixture Name Binder (%) Cement (%) Limestone filler (%) SRC control (CM*) 100 100 0 SRC +2.5%LF (LM**) 100 97.5 2.5 SRC +5% LF (LM**) 100 95 5 SRC +7.5% LF (LM**) 100 92.5 7.5 SRC +10% LF (LM**) 100 90 10 (* )Control mortar (CM) (**) limestone mortars (LM). 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In this section, the above tests (Compressive strength, Capillary  absorption  and  normal  consistance) results are explained 3.1 Compressive strength 102
  • 158. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Figure1 presents the development of compressive strength at 2, 7 and 28 days. The compressive strength progressively increased with regards to the curing age. This might be attributed to the kinematic mineral hydration (C 3S, C 2S).As the two minerals are the principal elements to ensure the development of the mechanical strength at short and medium terms [5]. The test was conducted at the age of 2, 7 and 28 days, respectively. It can be noticed that the strength values at early age for control mixture at 0% dosage are similar to the results obtained for mixtures with limestone fillers addition. However, it is marked that at 28 days age of testing for the limestone fillers mixtures (LM), the strength is lower compared to control mortar (CM), 51.10 Mpa and 58 Mpa, respectively. This is because of the characteristics of the limestone fillers with no activation as inert mineral in the cementituous matrix. 60 50 40 27.9 30 20 16.35 10 Figure 1: Compressive strength development for CM and LM 3.2  Capillary absorption   The measurement of water absorption by capillary is highly correlated with the size and the number of pores. The results are presented in figure 2. It showed that the addition of the limestone reduces the water absorption coefficient by capillary (At) compared to control mortar. This reduction is depending on the duration of specimens water immersion. This decrease is marked for all mixtures (at ∆t =1.6 min0.5: for CM At =1.17, for SRC+10%LF At= 0.78. and at ∆t=11min0.5: for CM At =0.85, for SRC+10%LF At= 0.62). It is clear that the sulfate resistant cement without any addition of fillers gave a high absorption coefficient (At =0.85 for ∆t=11min0.5). Whereas, cements with limestone addition (SRC+5%LF At= 0.62 for ∆t=11min0.5) gave better results compared to the control mortar (CM). This means that the additional limestone is advantageous by improving the impermeability of limestone mortar (LM) matrix; Resulting in a more compact mortars specimens incorporating fillers.   103
  • 159. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 1.2 Water absorption coefficient by capillary C 1.1 SRC+2.5%LF SRC+5%LF SRC+7.5%LF 1 SRC+10%LF 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 1.6 3.2 6.4 11 0.5) Time (min   Figure 2: water absorption coefficients by capillary for CM and LM mixtures. 3.3  normal consistance   The  components of pure and combined cement with limestone demonstrate that the normalised consistance varies proportionally with the dosage of limestone. As long as the percentage of the limestone is increased, the necessary quantity of water can be higher in order to attain a cement paste with normalised consistence. For instance, the highest is the one at 10 % LF percentage reaching the value of (29.6%) and the lowest can be noticed for control mortar without addition (27.7%) (see figure 3). This rise is probably caused by the increased ratio (Ca/Si). This ratio is higher while the limestone percentage is greater. The ordinary cement have a lower ratio of (Ca/Si) than the cement with limestone fillers. This additional amount of water is mainly to cover the larger contact surface of cement grains. 30 29.5 normal consistance (%) 29 28.5 28 27.5 27     Figure 3: Normal consistance against limestone fillers dosages.   104
  • 160. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam 4- CONCLUSION In this paper, the effect of limestone fillers on physico-mechanical properties of the mortars based on sulphate resistant cement is studied mainly, the compressive strength, the capillary absorption and the normal consistence. Test of compressive strength were conducted at ages of 2, 7 and 28 days. While the capillary absorption was carried out after 28 days of curing. The compressive strength results shew similarity between the mortars based on sulfate resistant cement with limestone addition(RML) and control mortars (CM) at early age, whereas at 28 days of age, the compressive strength decreased compared to control mortars. According to the standard cement types, water absorption coefficient by capillary is reduced where the limestone fillers is added to sulphate resistant cement. Limestone fillers addition to the sulphate resistant cement up to 10% gave satisfactory results as the obtained compound blend still within the range of the cement grade of (42.5 Mpa).. 5- REFERENCES [1] DIN 52 617. Determination of the Water Absorption Coefficient of Building Materials,1987. [2] F. Gabrysiak "cours des matériaux", béton, chapitre 4, pp 20, académie Nancy-Metz [3] H.Chicouche, "Influence de l’ajout pouzzolanique  (Argile cuite) sur les caractéristiques physico-chimique des ciments" thèse de magister , département de génie civil. Université de M’sila,.Algeria, 2004. [4] Methods of testing cement - Part 3: Determination of setting times and soundness [5 ] M.Bouglada, "Effet de lactivation du ciment avec ajout minéral par la chaux fine sur le comportement mécanique du mortier" , these de magister ,dept. de génie Civil. Université de . M’sila, .2008. [6] NF P 15-301. Liants hydrauliques. Ciments courants: Composition, spécifications et critères de conformité. Juin 1994. [7] NFP 18-508 - Juil. 1995 Additions pour béton hydraulique - Additions calcaires - Spécifications et critères de conformité [8] NF EN 196-1 Methods of testing cement - Part 1: Determination of strength [9] Z. Guemmadi1, B. Toumi, H. Chabi1, M. Resheidat "Analyses des actions des fillers calcaire sur les propriétés physico-chimiques et la microstructure des pâtes de ciment ",7eme séminaire, Lafarge, Décembre 2010. 105
  • 161. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam Solid Waste Disposal by Semi-Aerobic Sanitary Landfill: Towards Achieving a Sustainable Development (Penang Experience) Hamidi Abdul Aziz1 and Seyed Mohammad Hosseini2 1 Professor in Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, MALAYSIA, Email: cehamidi@eng.usm.my 2 PhD student in Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, MALAYSIA, Email: envhosseini@gmail.com Abstract Most of the existing solid waste landfill sites in developing countries are practicing either open dumping or unsanitary landfilling. Some are located at the upstream of water intakes or at sensitive groundwater catchment area. Most of these sites are simply dumping grounds without any environmental protection. This practice is very unsustainable and creates a lot of problems such as fires due to landfill gases, rodents, bad odours and leachate pollution. Leachate is formed when water passes through the waste in the landfill cell. The water mainly comes from rain and from waste degradation process. As the liquid moves through the landfill, many organic and inorganic compounds, like heavy metals, are transported in the leachate. This moves to the base of the landfill cell and may pollute the groundwater. Organics in the wastes decompose to produce CH4 and CO2 gases, trace amounts of toxic substances, and bad odours, which are the side products of decomposition. CH4 and CO2, both greenhouse gases, contribute to global warming. This paper highlights the basic rule in sustainable waste disposal by means of a semi-aerobic landfilling technology which is more environmental friendly. Some of the important design criteria of semi-aerobic landfill and their advantageous will be highlighted, backed with technical data as implemented in Malaysia. Local experience in effectively handling and treating the leachate up to the standard discharge limit will be discussed. The recovery of landfill gases for use as an energy resource has become the center of interest in recent years since it solves both environmental pollution and energy shortage. In view of this, gas emissions data sampled at selected semi- aerobic landfill in Malaysia will be shared. The Clean development mechanism (CDM) approach in reducing greenhouse gas emissions for a developing country will also be highlighted. Keywords: integrated solid waste management, semi-aerobic landfill, leachate, greenhouse gases 1. INTRODUCTION In general, solid waste may be defined as any material, solid, liquid or gas that is unwanted and/or unvalued, and discarded or discharged by its owner [1]. These include solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations, and from community activities. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is the waste collected by a local authority, which consists mainly of household waste, but also contains a range of other wastes such as trade waste and street sweepings. Household waste makes up about 85–90% of the total MSW content for the majority of local 106
  • 162. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam authorities in the UK [2].The biodegradable organic matter contained in municipal solid waste (MSW) probably is one of the most problematic fractions to deal with [3]. Integrated solid waste management (ISWM) can be defined as the selection and application of suitable techniques, technologies, and management programs to achieve specific waste management objectives and goals [4]. A hierarchy (arrangement in order of rank) in waste management can be used to rank actions to implement programs within the community. The ISWM hierarchy is usually compost of source reduction, recycling, waste transformation/processing, and landfilling. Greater portion should be emphasized on source reduction and the least is for final disposal, as shown in Figure 1 [5]. Figure 1: Waste management hierarchy A proper system with waste segregation is expected to improve the overall recycling process and increase the lifespan of the landfill. At the same time, campaign on 3R’s (recover, reuse, recycle) should also be given a priority. The importance for residents to sort their waste at source and awareness through education are the key measures to any successful recycling programme. 2. CURRENT MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL OF MSW IN MALAYSIA-PENANG 2.1 Background information Presently, Malaysia generated nearly 18,000 metric tonnes of solid waste daily. Significant amount (30-35%) is in form of food waste [6],[7],[8]. In 2003, the average amount of municipal solid waste produced in Malaysia was 0.5–0.8 kg/person/day; it has risen to 1.7 kg/person/day in major cities. By the year 2020, the quantity of MSW generated was estimated to have increased to 31,000 tons [9]. It is estimated at only 3-5 percent of the waste is actually recycled. An efficient and systematic disposal method is needed to avoid problems associated with this issue. The Fukuoka method semi-aerobic system was developed more than 20 years ago at the Fukuoka University but it is not widely known to many countries around the world. It is a proven technology practically tested in many places in Japan, and in a few developing countries such as Malaysia, Iran and China [10]. Generally, semi-aerobic landfill is designed with piping system underneath the landfill. The function of leachate collection pipe is to allow the air to flow in and out from the solid waste. The pipes are designed to permit the passive movement of air through the headspace of the pipes which are open to the atmosphere via natural convection. This helps to enlarge aerobic parts, to make aerobic bacteria active, and increase the rate of waste decomposition. Then 107
  • 163. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam these actions make the leachate quality better by lowering the level of leachate concentration, and reducing the generation of hazardous gases, all of which lead to faster stabilization of the landfill site [10]. Following this method, a leachate recirculation system sometimes is incorporated when applicable, where the leachate collected is recirculated by using a pump from the top into the waste layers. The waste mass plays a role as a natural filter medium for the leachate and subsequently improves the leachate quality after each round of recirculation. The mechanisms and concepts used in the semi-aerobic system are illustrated in Figure 2 to 4. In Malaysia, the implementation of semi-aerobic landfilling began in 1988, and the results have shown significant improvements in the leachate quality. Figure 2: Difference between cross sectional areas of anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfills [11] Figure 3: Design of semi-aerobic landfill [11] Figure 4: Cross section of semi-aerobic landfill [10] 2.3 characteristics of disposal site There are two disposal sites in Seberang Perai Municipal Council (SPMC) namely Ampang Jajar Landfill Site (AJLS) and Pulau Burong Landfill Site (PBLS), both are located in Penang. Both used to be an open dumping/controlled tipping site since 1989. They cause various 108
  • 164. Brunei International Conference on Engineering & Technology 2012 25-26 January 2012, Brunei Darussalam environmental problems such as fires and bad odours in their vicinities. The site was constantly burning and emitting smoke for more than six months every year. From 1989 to 1991, SPMC has upgraded the AJLS to a semiaerobic site (Level III) with the assistance from JICA. The concept was developed in Japan and it has been claimed that it is more efficient than anaerobic landfill in terms of leachate, BOD and COD reductions. Leachate from the AJLS was collected in integrated collection systems connected to a retention ditch. The leachate in the retention ditch is aerated and then recirculated to the landfill through gas- venting facilities and collection pipes. Vent pipes were packed with stones through which the recirculated leachate trickles. The packed stones serve as an anaerobic system and as a medium for microorganisms. PBLS is also a waste disposal site adopting a semi-aerobic landfill system. The landfill operation at the site began in August 2001, and completed for two-sections at the end of 2007. It was found that the leachate from a semi-aerobic system has slightly lower organic contaminants compared with an anaerobic landfill in t