Responding to Crisis in 140 Characters

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Summary of my Crisis Communication study on responding to crisis in 140 characters.

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Responding to Crisis in 140 Characters

  1. 1. Responding to Crisis in 140 Characters<br />Andi Narvaez<br />University Of Maryland<br />
  2. 2. Social Media and Crisis<br />Use of Twitter is on the rise<br />
  3. 3. Global Fortune 100 Social Media Stats<br /><ul><li>84% of Fortune Global 100 companies use social media
  4. 4. Twitter is the most popular channel, used by 77% of companies
  5. 5. Use of Twitter has increased by 18% from 2009 to 2010
  6. 6. Companies have an average of 5.8 Twitter accounts, up from 4.2 in 2010</li></ul>Burson-Marsteller 2011 Global Social Media Check-up<br />
  7. 7. Increased possibility of making mistakes that can potentially spread quickly and be highly visible<br />
  8. 8. Social Media Crises = One that originates and is responded to via social media channels<br />
  9. 9. Research Purpose<br />Apply Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) and Discourse Renewal in an analysis of organizations’ responses to social media crises.<br />Recommend 140-character response strategies<br />Suggest social media policies to prepare and respond to social media crises more effectively<br />
  10. 10. Crisis Communication Theories<br />SCCT <br />Clusters: Victim, accidental, preventable<br />Response Strategies: <br />Denial(attaching the accuser, denial, scapegoating)<br />Diminishment(excusing, justification)<br />Rebuilding(compensation, apology)<br />Bolstering(reminding, ingratiation, victimage)<br />Most frequently used = Bolstering, denial<br />Most effective: Full apology<br />Least effective: Denial<br />
  11. 11. Crisis Communication Theories<br />Discourse Renewal<br />Prospective focus<br />Opportunities <br />Provisional rather than strategic responses <br />Ethical communication, leadership<br />
  12. 12. Social Media and Crisis Management<br />Dialogic nature of blogs and Twitter<br />Influencers’ roles in covering crises<br />Twitter leads to less negative reactions than blogs and newspapers<br />Twitter users more likely to have secondary reactions (word-of-mouth)<br />Twitter users less likely to boycott organization<br />
  13. 13. Method<br />In-depth interviews with 9 public relations, social media professionals<br />Consulting, agency, nonprofit, and for-profit experience<br />On Twitter since early 2008<br />
  14. 14. Social Media Crises<br />Four “perpetrators”<br />Employee<br />C-Level Executive<br />Agency of Record<br />Spokesperson<br />
  15. 15. Employee<br />
  16. 16. Ryan found two more 4 bottle packs of Dogfish Head’s Midas Touch beer… when we drink we do it right #gettngslizzerd<br /> @RedCross<br /> February 15, 2011<br />
  17. 17. Ryan found two more 4 bottle packs of Dogfish Head’s Midas Touch beer… when we drink we do it right #gettngslizzerd<br /> @RedCross<br /> February 15, 2011<br />We’ve deleted the rogue tweet but rest assured the Red Cross is sober and we’ve confiscated the keys<br /> @RedCross<br /> February 16, 2011<br />
  18. 18. C-Level Executive<br />
  19. 19. Millions are in uproar in #Cairo. Rumor is they heard our new spring collection is now available online at http://bit.ly/KCairo - KC<br /> @KennethCole<br /> February 13, 2011<br />
  20. 20. Millions are in uproar in #Cairo. Rumor is they heard our new spring collection is now available online at http://bit.ly/KCairo - KC<br /> @KennethCole<br /> February 13, 2011<br />Re Egypt tweet: we weren’t intending to make light of a serious situation. We understand the sensitivity of this historic moment – KC<br /> @KennethCole<br /> February 13, 2011<br />
  21. 21. Agency of Record<br />
  22. 22. I find it ironic that Detroit is known as the #motorcity and yet no one here knows how to fucking drive <br /> @ChryslerAutos<br /> March 9, 2011<br />
  23. 23. I find it ironic that Detroit is known as the #motorcity and yet no one here knows how to fucking drive <br /> @ChryslerAutos<br /> March 9, 2011<br />Our apologies – our account was compromised earlier today. We are taking steps to resolve it.<br /> @ChryslerAutos<br /> March 9, 2011<br />
  24. 24. Spokesperson<br />
  25. 25. Japan called me. They said “maybe those jokes are a hit in the US, but over here, they’re all sinking”<br /> March 12, 2011<br />Japan is really advanced. They don’t go to the beach. The beach comes to them.<br /> @RealGilbert<br /> March 13, 2011<br />
  26. 26. I meant no disrespect, and my thoughts are with the victims and their families. <br />I sincerely apologize to anyone who was offended by my attempt at humor regarding the tragedy in Japan.<br /> @RealGilbert<br /> March 15, 2011<br />
  27. 27. I meant no disrespect, and my thoughts are with the victims and their families. <br />I sincerely apologize to anyone who was offended by my attempt at humor regarding the tragedy in Japan.<br /> @RealGilbert<br /> March 15, 2011<br />Love that you want to be my new voice. But first I’m using it to ask for donations to the Red Cross for Japan. www.redcross.org/donate<br /> @aflacduck<br /> March 15, 2011<br />
  28. 28. Results<br />RQ1: What type of crises did the organizations experience due their actions on Twitter?<br />Accidental caused by improper use of technology and insufficient social media training<br />New cluster: Inevitable<br />
  29. 29. Results<br />RQ2: What type of crisis response strategies do crisis communications professionals believe the organizations employed via Twitter?<br />Apology used most often in combination with other approaches<br />Full apology, discourse renewal<br />Apology from spokesperson, bolstering (ingratiation) and discourse renewal<br />Apology and denial (scapegoat)<br />Apology and diminishment(excuse)<br />
  30. 30. Results<br />RQ3: Which organization’s crisis response strategies are perceived to be most effective on Twitter by crisis communications professionals?<br />Acknowledged, apologized, moved forward<br />Characteristics of discourse renewal!<br />Mislead, denied, contradicted, condescended, lost opportunity<br />New response strategy: Humor<br />LOL<br />
  31. 31. Results<br />RQ4: What situational factors influence professionals’ perceptions of which strategies are most effective?<br />Perpetrator: Employees can <br /> make mistakes, CEOs cannot<br />Context is King: Sensibility, tact<br />Timing: 24 hour magic window<br />Type of organization<br />Nothing on use of hashtags,<br /> links or other Twitter features<br />
  32. 32. Implications<br />Best social media crises response strategies<br />Role of discourse renewal<br />Need for technical social media training<br />Preparing for the inevitable<br />
  33. 33. Limitations and Future Research<br />Sample size<br />Case study selection<br />Responses on other social media channels<br />Interviews  Focus groups<br />Experimental design<br />Isolate situational mediators<br />

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