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  • 1. CopenhagenSoren Kierkegaard: “I regard the whole of Copenhagen as one of great social gathering”
  • 2. City of Copenhagen● World renowned cycling facilities● Pedestrian oriented● High Accessibility● Character● Mixed land use● Active
  • 3. Jan Gehl● Danish architect and urban design consultant● Influential in the transformation of copenhagen● Best known for the Stroget● Stresses the importance of cycling within communities
  • 4. Stroget● Pedestrian oriented● Walkable● Comfortable● Safe● Accessible
  • 5. Pedestrian and Bicycle only Streets
  • 6. Finger Plan
  • 7. Transportation Authorities Danish Ministry Of TransportThe Danish Transport Authority ROAD DIRECTORATEGreater Copenhagen Authority Copenhagen Metro Movia (Bus Company) DSB (Railway Company)
  • 8. Road Directorate● Government Agency- The " tool "used by the government, ministry of transport, parliament and public to promote and develop the road system in Denmark.● Influences: ○ planning, construction, operation, service, maintenance of main country highways.● Cooperates with local and regional authorities● Implemented the Road Sector Information System (VIS) ○ Owned by the directorate and regional authorities jointly ○ Contains national and regional data about roads, bridges, pavements, traffic, accidents
  • 9. Movia● 2007 Municipal Reform● Trafikselskabet Movia: agency responsible for buses in Copenhagen● Movia does not own any of the lines they pay subcontractors to run them● Movia is trying to introduce contactless "smartcards" as a new fare system (Rejsekort)● Operates 24 hr/day
  • 10. Movia Map
  • 11. DSB (Danish State Railways)● DSB is the largest Danish train operating company, and the largest in Scandinavia● Responsible for passenger train operation on most of the Danish railways● Founded in 1885● DSB is an independent public state-owned corporation under the Danish Ministry of Transport and Energy since 1999
  • 12. Copenhagen Metro● Rapid Transit System● Orestand Act 1992, Metro Planning Act● Driverless light Metro that aids the larger S-Train rapid transit system.● It is owned by Metroselskabet (owned by the Municipality of Copenhagen and the Ministry of Transport)● January 7th 2011 "Cityringen" (project that would add two extra lines) ○
  • 13. Current Metro System
  • 14. New Metro System (Line M3 and M4 added)
  • 15. Amagerbro Station Rapid transit station
  • 16. Cycling Network in Copenhagen
  • 17. Transportation Planning: [History of Cycling in Copenhagen]● 1892 - ● First bicycle path in Copenhagen● 1907 - ● Copenhagen is top cycling city in Europe● 1934 - ● First cycling race (spectator sport)● 1940 - ● Recreational bicycle routes in green spaces● 1950 - ● Automobile affordability increase Bicycling popularity decrease● 1970 - ● Modal share of bicycles at an all time low of 10%● 1980 - ● Energy crisis causes "Cycling Renaissance"● 1990s - ● City of Copenhagen pushes to increase cycling in the municipality and transportation planning involving cycling begins
  • 18. Transportation Planning:[Cycling Policies]● 1996 - ● Copenhagen released its first bicycle account ○ Consisting of 10 Key Indicators: ■ budget allocated to cycling infrastructure ■ length of the bicycle network ■ modal share ■ number of cyclists ■ accident statistics ■ cyclists opinion on infrastructure ■ cyclist opinion on maintenance ■ perceived sense of safety ■ citizens an overview the citys plans for cycling ■ initiatives initiated since the last account was published
  • 19. Transportation Planning: [Cycling Policies]● 1997 - ● Municipal Development Plan ○ introduced a new concept of green bicycle routes ○ coherent network of cycle routes ○ off street routes through parks and other open green areas● 2000 - ● City released a proposal for a network of 22 green bicycle routes with a total length of 110 km● 2001 - ● "Cycle policy 2002 - 2012" ○ prioritize cycling in city planning ○ coordinate initiatives for improvements of cycling conditions ○ increase in modal share from 34% to 40%
  • 20. Transportation Planning:[Cycling Policies]● 2006 - ● "Cycle Track Priority Plan 2006-2016" ○ 70 kilometres of new cycle tracks and cycle lanes will be established in the 10 years covered by plan● 2007 - ● "Action plan for safe bicycle traffic 2007-2012" ○ goal of reducing the number of accidents by 50% compared to 1996● 2011 - ● Municipal council unanimously adopted the new cycling strategy, "good, better, best – The City of Copenhagen’s Bicycle Strategy 2011-2025" ○ replaces the previous cycling policy covering the years 2002 to 2012 ○ increase the modal share of the bicycle to 50% of commuter trips
  • 21. Trends in cycle use in Copenhagen
  • 22. Copenhagen Bicycle Rush Hourhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-Un1RJ-P_w
  • 23. Environmental PoliciesReduce CO2 emissionsIncrease amount of green areas and improve access to themPromote walking, cycling and public transit
  • 24. Climate Plan 2025
  • 25. Drawbacks: PlanningFinger plan seems to be getting congested ○ Street widening is currently being consideredAs inner city develops ○ Increased automobile congestion in fingers ○ Increased cycling congestion
  • 26. Drawbacks Police have excessive power● Veto proposed changes● Lack of knowledge ○ Focus on automobiles ○ Cycling is unsafe?● Oppose decreasing speed limits
  • 27. Conclusion Focused on improving quality of life● Strict Environmental Initiatives● Transportation Agencies● Policy● Multimodal Infrastructure
  • 28. Bibliography● http://www.international.fhwa.dot.gov/pubs/pl10010/ch02.cfm● http://www.copenhagenize.com/2012/09/the-state-of-copenhagen-congestion-part_3.html● http://www.eltis.org/docs/tools/THI-Thomas_Budde_Christensen_Tyge_Kj_r.pdf● http://www.google.com/imgres? um=1&hl=en&sa=N&tbo=d&rlz=1C1GGGE_enUS508US508&biw=1280&bih=923&tbm=isch&tbnid=J9vN9FdH4oNe6M: &imgrefurl=http://www.except.nl/consult/pedestrianizationtools/pedestrianizationtools1. html&docid=W9AdjaXDn9N9TM&imgurl=http://www.except.nl/consult/pedestrianizationtools/Fig%25252011%252520-% 252520Copenhagen_ped_map. jpg&w=1050&h=400&ei=AF2VUPmVGKm60QHPnoG4BA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=148&vpy=176&dur=4737&hovh=138&h ovw=364&tx=127&ty=83&sig=103525647615985306105&page=1&tbnh=99&tbnw=262&start=0&ndsp=29&ved=1t:429,r:1, s:0,i:77● http://www.metropolismag.com/html/content_0802/ped/● http://www.google.com/imgres? hl=en&rlz=1C1GGGE_enUS508US508&biw=1280&bih=923&tbm=isch&tbnid=yZ6C0opuMibyBM:&imgrefurl=http: //switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/kbenfield/copenhagens_10point_plan_for_a.html&docid=e5a1gPXHnuKkMM&imgurl=http: //farm3.static.flickr.com/2467/3694077239_b0712400e6_o. jpg&w=490&h=326&ei=YOeWUMbSHOS90QHZzYC4Cg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=296&sig=102369845098272562881&pag e=1&tbnh=140&tbnw=218&start=0&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:68&tx=175&ty=71● http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&sa=X&biw=624&bih=895&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=h-g1R5imgy2oJM: &imgrefurl=http://kjoller.eu/blog/2007/09/11/grontmij-carl-bro-summer-school/&docid=dF0_ggDojx7FKM&imgurl=http: //kjoller.eu/media/legacy-uploads/2007/09/fingerplan. jpg&w=470&h=470&ei=_fSWUMbbA5Sw0QHXpoHwBQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=310&sig=102369845098272562881&page =1&tbnh=107&tbnw=87&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0,i:86&tx=58&ty=53● http://www.copenhagenize.com/2012/09/the-state-of-copenhagen-congestion-part_3.html