Love and Ecstasy in Anwar's Taman and Stevenson's Romance
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Love and Ecstasy in Anwar's Taman and Stevenson's Romance

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Comparative Literature Class' Assignment

Comparative Literature Class' Assignment

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Love and Ecstasy in Anwar's Taman and Stevenson's Romance Love and Ecstasy in Anwar's Taman and Stevenson's Romance Document Transcript

  • LOVE AND ECSTASY IN ANWAR’S TAMAN AND STEVENSON’S ROMANCE Arranged by: 1. Andi Kurniawan 2105111048 2. Apriati Amlian 2105111038 3. Pintaria Anggreiny Br. Sitepu 2105111080 ENGLISH LITERATURE DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF CULTURAL SCIENCE YOGYAKARTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 2013
  • LOVE AND ECSTASY IN ANWAR’S TAMAN AND STEVENSON’S ROMANCE Apriati Amlian, Andi Kurniawan, and Pintaria Anggreiny Br. Sitepu Yogyakarta University of Technology I. THEORETICAL BASES Charles Dickens in his A Chrismast Carol stated, “I wear the chain I forged in life....I made it link by link, and yard by yard; I girded it on of my own free will, and of my own free will I wore it.” It shows his belief on human being‟s freedom of life. Human is free to determine what he wants and also free to express what he feels. Feeling expression can be love expression. According to Oxford Learner‟s Pocket Dictionary, love is strong feeling of deep affection for somebody/something. Elaine Hatfield and Richard L. Rapson gave a short definition that love is a basic emotion. In Love and Intimacy, Hatfield and Rapson said that most scientists distinguish love into two kinds: passionate love and compassionate love. The first kind of love, passionate love, is defined as a state of intense longing for union with another. This love is sometimes also called as obsessive love, puppy love, lovesicknes, infatuatuin, or being-in-love. Passionate love is characterized by intense emotions, sexual attraction, anxiety, and affection. This love refers to transitory love or short-time love. The second kind of love, compassionate love, is defined as the affection and tenderness men and women feeling for those with whom their loves are deeply entwined. This love is sometimes called as true love or conjugal love. It is a feelings combination of deep attachment, commitment, and intimacy. Robert Sternberg (via Regan, 2002: 4) said that there are three basic components of love based on his trianglular theory of love: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Intimacy is primarily emotional or affective in nature and involves feelings of wamth, closeness, connection, and bondedness in the love relationship. Passion is motivational and consists of the drives that are involved in romantic and physical attraction, sexual comsummation, and related phenomena. Commitment is largely cognitive and represents both the short-term decision that one individual loves another and the longer term commitment to maintain that love. Sternberg classified the types of love relationship into eight types: nonlove, liking, infatuation, empty love, romantic love, companionate love, fatuous love, and consummate love. Nonlove has no love components. Liking, infatuation, and empty love have only one love component. Romantic love, companionate love, and fatuous love are combinations of only two love components. Consummate love is the complete love which has all love components. For clear explanation, below is Sternberg‟s Triangular Model of Love.
  • Picture 1. Sternberg‟s Triangular Model of Love Based on Sternberg‟s Triangular Model of Love, compassionate love refers to consummate love relationship and passionate love refers to all types of love relationship which have no, only one, or only two components of love. Nevertheless, passionate love as transitory love more refers to romantic love relationship. Romantic love has passion and intimacy elements without commitment. As Hatfield said that, ideally, passionate love leads to compassionate love. Hatfield and Rapson, in their further explanation about love response, said that reciprocated love is associated with fulfillment and ecstacy and unrequited love is associated with emptiness, anxiety, or despair. Love, in his relation to literature, is one of the common theme besides friendship, war, mistery, and revenge. Love becomes an universal theme in literature in almost all countries in the world. According to Claudio Guillén (via Pramono, 2013), basically the concept of literature is world wide; local and universal. A comparatist gets drowned into these locality and universality to gain complete comrehension because specifying exclusively in one nation or one nationality is not adequate and cannot be sustained as a practical matter. Francois Jost (via Eckhardt, 2006) said that whoever is concerned with the international rather than nationalistic mode of the study of the letters is practicing comparative literature. The universal value appears as the values that are accepted around the world. Both locality and universality are still exist together in a universal value. Two poems from different countries titled Taman by Chairil Anwar of Indonesia and Romance by Robert Stevenson of United Kingdom also tell about love. Those poems can be the authors‟ love expression and show ecstasy and fulfilment. Those poems refers to show that the authors have compassionate love in their life. This paper tries to analyse and compare the love relationships that are exist in those two poems by Hatfield and Rapson‟s theory of love and the Sternberg‟s Triangular Model of Love; and also to find the universal value which is exist in both poems.
  • II. THE POEMS TAMAN By Chairil Anwar Taman punya kita berdua tak lebar luas, kecil saja satu tak kehilangan lain dalamnya. Bagi kau dan aku cukuplah Taman kembangnya tak berpuluh warna Padang rumputnya tak berbanding permadani halus lembut dipijak kaki. Bagi kita bukan halangan. Karena dalam taman punya berdua Kau kembang, aku kumbang aku kumbang, kau kembang. Kecil, penuh surya taman kita tempat merenggut dari dunia dan „nusia ROMANCE By Robert Stevenson I will make you brooches and toys for your delight Of bird−song at morning and star−shine at night. I will make a palace fit for you and me, Of green days in forests and blue days at sea. I will make my kitchen, and you shall keep your room, Where white flows the river and bright blows the broom, And you shall wash your linen and keep your body white In rainfall at morning and dewfall at night. And this shall be for music when no one else is near, The fine song for singing, the rare song to hear! That only I remember, that only you admire, Of the broad road that stretches the roadside fire
  • III. ANALYSES Anwar‟s Taman consists of one stanza only and fourteen lines, while Stevenson‟s Romance consists of three stanzas and twelve lines or four lines each stanza. a. Type and Love Elements Love is distingushed into two kinds: compassionate love and passionate love. To determine what type of love that is exist in both poems, element analyses must be done. Three elements of love based on Sternberg‟s Triangular Model of Love, are intimacy, passion, and commitment. 1. Intimacy Intimacy is primarily emotional or affective in nature and involves feelings of warmth, closeness, connection, and bondedness in the love relationship. Oxford Learner‟s Pocket Dictionary said that imtimacy is state of having a close personal relationship with somebody. The close meaning of intimacy is closeness relationship between someone to other one. Anwar‟s Taman shows the intimacy between the author and his love with pronoun “kita” or “we, our, us” that mentioned three times. First line stated “Taman punya kita berdua” or “Garden, owned by us;” eighth line stated “Bagi kita bukan halangan” or “For us, not a hidrance;” and thirteen line stated “Kecil, penuh surya taman kita” or “Small, full of sun, our garden.” Kita replaces the words “kau dan aku” or “you and me” that also appears once in forth line which stated “Bagi kau dan aku cukuplah” or “For you and me, enough”. Those words, kita and kau dan aku shows their closeness. They have their own garden which only for them. It is stated twice in first line and tenth line. First line stated “Taman punya kita berdua” or “Garden, owned by us” and tenth line stated “dalam taman punya berdua” or “in the garden that we have”. Those line show that they have something together. Garden is a house for them both. It is for they spend their rest of life. It is stated in last line. Fourteenth line stated “tempat merenggut dunia dan „nusia” or “place of yanking out from the world and humans”. That line shows that they want to live there till they die. Those proves show their intimacy. Having something together shows their warmth relations and there is bondedness between them. Moreover, the thing that they own together is for their future till they die. It shows their intimacy clearly. Stevenson‟s Romance also shows the intimacy between the author and his love. Desires of the author stated three times in two first-stanzas. First line of first stanza stated “I will make you brooches and toys for your delight”, third line of first stanza stated “I will make a palace fit for you and me,” and first line of second stanza stated “I will make my kitchen, and your shall keep your room,”. Those lines show the intimacy between them both. The author wants to do something to make his life happy (first stanza) and asked his love to do other things when he is doing something (second stanza). Those desires will only stated by someone who has close-relation to someone else. The author wants are for his love based on third line of first stanza which shows that is only for them both. It is similar to Anwar‟s Taman that used word “you and me.” Third line of first stanza stated “I will make a palace fit for you and me,”. That line shows their intimacy of having a place together. While
  • Anwar used taman or garden, Stevenson used palace. Each place is owned by them both. Stevenson‟s palace also refers to a house to spend their rest of life. It shows in forth line of second stanza which stated “In rainfall at morning and dewfall at night.” The words rainfall-dewfall and morning-night symbolize the eternity of their love relationship. 2. Passion Passion is motivational and consists of the drives that are involved in romantic and physical attraction, sexual comsummation, and related phenomena. According to Oxford Learner‟s Pocket Dictionary, passion is strong feeling of love, hate, anger, etc. Anwar‟s Taman shows its author‟s passion clearly in eleventh and twelfth lines. Eleventh line stated “Kau kembang, aku kumbang” or “You‟re flower, I‟m the bee”, twelfth line stated similar phrases in different arrangement “aku kumbang, kau kembang” or “I‟m bee, you‟re the flower”. Those resemble lines show passion between the author and his love. Bee and flower need each other. Bee always interests to a flower. While Anwar used “bee” and “flower” to show passion in his love relationship, Stevenson shows that in different way. Stevenson who wants to make a palace for he and his love, automatically places he as the king and his love as the queen. As a king of his love kingdom, he has responsibility to keep the kitchen full of foods; as a queen of him, his love should keep the palace clean and prepare what he needs at home. Those shows in second stanza. The passion completely shows in third line that stated “And you shall wash your linen and keep your body white”. The phrase keep your body white shows his passion to his love. He wants his love is still beautiful as before. His wants that aksed his love to do or prepare something at home also shows the passion itself. As a woman, they must do that for her man (the author). That clearly shows the passion in their love relationship. 3. Commitment Commitment is largely cognitive and represents both the short-term decision that one individual loves another and the longer term commitment to maintain that love. According to Oxford Learner‟s Pocket Dictionary, commitment is something that you have promise to do. Anwar‟s Taman shows the commitment in third line, eighth line, and fourteen line. Third line stated “satu tak kehilangan lain dalamnya” or “one doesn‟t lost other one there”. It shows the commitment that they will be there for his love and vise versa. Eighth line stated “Bagi kita bukan halangan” or “For us, not a hidrance”. It shows the commitment that they will pass everything for their life together. It is supported by previous line that stated about the simplicity of their garden (house). Fourteen line stated “tempat merenggut dunia dan „nusia” or “place of yanking out from the world and humans”. It shows commitment that they will be together till they die there. The other supporting lines is eleventh and twelfth line which tell us about role sharing between them. It is also commitment that is exist on their love relationship.
  • Stevenson‟s Romance shows the commitment in two last-stanzas. Second stanza tells about role sharing, as like as in Anwar‟s Taman. The author will do what usually a man do and his love will do what usually a woman do. That shows their commitment in their love relationship. Third stanza clearly stated the commitment in their love relationship. The third line stated “That only I remember, that only you admire,”. That line shows what they should remember together. Previous lines tell about what it is. It is about the rules that they have to keep. First and second line stated “And this shall be for music, when no one else is near,” and “The fine song for singing, the rare song to hear!” It means that when they have no friend anymore, they must be motivated each other. Music symbolizes motivation that can be a belief, quotes, etc. Second line shows that they must get motivation carefully. Fine song symbolizes something that is usual happened or done, so it can be followed (singing) by them. Rare song symbolizes something that is unusual happened or done, so it cannot be followed directly but be paid close attention first (hear). Singing symbolizes direct action and hear symbolizes postponed action or neatness. They must hear to know the right meaning and sing then. Those lines are closed by “Of the board road that stretches the roadshire fire.” It means that they must always remember those rules because of the benefits. It will bring them easy of life (broad road) and make them easier to pass the test of life (fire). Those proves shows that both poems shows the commitment that is exist on the love relationship of the authors. The element analyses above shows that both poems, Taman by Chairil Anwar and Romance by Robert Stevenson, have all elements of love: intimacy, passion, and commitment. It means that type of love that exist in both poems is compassionate love or consummate love relationship. b. Ecstasy As stated by Hatfield and Rapson that reciprocated love is associated with fulfillment and ecstacy and unrequited love is associated with emptiness, anxiety, or despair. Both poems show the reciprocated love that will lead the lovers to feel fulfilment and ecstasy. There is no emptiness, anxiety, and despair in both poems. Fulfilment comes first and will make someone feels very happy or ecstasy. Ecstasy, according to Oxford Learner‟s Pocket Dictionary, is feeling of great happiness. In this case, esctasy is from the love feeling. That feeling is preceded by fulfilment. Anwar‟s Taman shows the fulfilment in forth line that stated “Bagi kau dan aku cukuplah” or “For you and me, enough”. That shows the fulfilment clearly. The previous line is about the garden (house) that is not large (second line). Following lines also show the fulfilment. Fifth stated that the garden has flower with no much colour. It means that the accessories of their house is not much. Sixth line stated that the garden has no grass as smooth as carpet. It means that the floor is not from an expensive material. Those conditions does not make them sad because it is enough for them and it is not a hidrance. It is stated in forth and eighth line. From the feeling of fulfilment, the feeling of ecstasy appears. It is stated in last line that said that they decided to stay there till they die.
  • Stevenson‟s Romance shows the fulfilment clearly in third line of first stanza. It is stated “I will make a palace fit for you and me” That line clearly said that the palace will be fited for them both. It means that the palace has everything that they need to stay alive. It is supported by the previous and following line. The previous line stated that the brooches and toys will be made from bird-song at morning and star-shine at night. It means that the accessories of the palace (their house) will be never used up. Bird-song and star-shine is from nature. Morning-night is symbol of eternity or continueity. The following line shows that the palace is also made from nature. It stated “of green days in forest and blue days at sea”. Green and blue is the colours that symbolize the life, while forest and sea simbolyze the resource. It means that their needs will be fulfiled there. The ecstasy comes up after fulfilment is complete. This poem also shows that the love brings the ecstasy. The ecstasy is also showed in the titles. Both poems are titled Taman and Romance. Taman in English means garden. Chairil Anwar choose this word to create the nuance of happiness. According to Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI), taman adalah kebun yang ditanami dengan bunga-bunga dan sebagainya (tempat bersenang-senang). It means that taman is a place of getting happiness. This shows that Chairil Anwar gives the title to tell about his happiness that comes from love. In the body of the poem, Chairil Anwar expresses his love by describing the place that he called taman or garden and his feeling of ejoying the love. While Chairil Anwar chooses the word taman, Robert Stevenson chooses the word romance. According to Oxford Learner‟s Pocket Dictionary, romance is [1] feeling of excitement and adventure, and [2] love or the feeling of being in love. This shows that Robert Stevenson choose this word to create the excitement. The excitement itselft shows in the body of the poem which tells us about his love expression. Both poets choose the titles to create the nuance of happiness or exitement which comes from their love story. The great feeling of happiness is ecstasy. c. Universal Value The places which are described dominantly are taman in Chairil Anwar‟s Taman and palace in Robert Stevenson‟s Romance. Taman in Chairil Anwar‟s poem is described as a place to spend his rest of life. Chairil Anwar describes that the taman is not large but enough nd rd th for them. It shows in 2 , 3 , and 4 line. It also describes that they can enjoy live there. Taman in that poem is theirs which shows togetherness. The taman refers closely to the house as their place to spend their life. Chairil Anwar does not use the word house but something that comes from nature. Taman is described as a house where grass is the floor, flowers as the th th th accessories, and sky as the roofs. That‟s all showed in 5 , 6 , and 7 line. The word Taman that is described in his poem is symbol of freedom. The poem was created in 1943. It is two year before Indonesia got its indepence or freedom. While Chairil Anwar chooses taman, Robert Stevenson chooses palace as his place to spend his life together with his love. The palace is describe as a place that is built from th nature. It shows in 4 line. The palace is built from the green forest and blue sea. Similar to
  • Chairil Anwar who expresses that the place is fit enough for them, so does Robert Stevenson. It is stated in 3 rd line. Eventhough both poets choose the place which come from nature, they choose different word. Chairil Anwar chooses taman or garden and Robert Stevenson chooses palace. When we look at their society background, Robert Stevenson who is from Britain where the kingdom is still exist and Chairil Anwar is from Indonesia where kindom is not exist fully anymore. It shows their own locality based on their country or cultural backgound. Both poets also show their ways of love expression are simple but precious. Chairil Anwar mainly tells about taman which shows that their love is expressed by what is exist around them. Taman who has grass as the floor, flower as the accessories, and sky as the roof describes that he expresses his love by something simple which are nature but it is precious because it is used for their life. Similar to Chairil Anwar, Robert Stevenson also describes that he uses the nature to express his love. He built a place for he and his love from forest and sea which he calls as palace. He also makes several things from nature for his love. It shows in 1 and 2 nd st line where are stated that the brooches is made of bird−song at morning and toys is made of star−shine at night. IV. CONCLUSION Those two poems shows similar type of love, that is compassionate love based on Hatfield and Rapson‟s theory of love or consummate love relationship based on Sternberg‟s Triangular Model of Love. Those poems shows all elements of love: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Those two poems also show the fulfilment which brings ecstasy, so it is categorized as reciprocated love. It can conclude that love will bring great happiness or called ecstasy for the lovers if they can reach the true love. There must be understanding, trust, and role sharing between one to other one. Those two poems show that the authors expresses their love, as the universal value, use what they have in the world. In other words, nature is the sources of their way of love expression. The other things that we can learn from those poems is that we can express our love by something simple but precious and it can be from everything that we have or exist around us.
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