Citizen and the state: From Government to Governance


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MA Social Theory Lecture

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Citizen and the state: From Government to Governance

  2. 2. STRUCTUREWhat is government?What is governance?What is governmentality?Group discussion. Think about the ideas andperspectives explored and their (non-)applicationto your area of research interest.
  3. 3. FROM ABSTRACT TO CONCRETE The term governance risks becoming a ‘stipulativedefinition’ (Rhodes 1997), giving new meaning to oldjargon Concepts of ‘governance’ and ‘governmentality’ oftenappear too abstract (e.g. grounded in a lot of theorizing,‘epochal’ analysis) to the point of becoming analyticallyredundant for the purpose of studying really existing‘reality’ To compensate concrete examples from education policyhistory will be provided.
  4. 4. GOVERNMENT• ‘The practice of politics, policy and administration withinthe state-form’ (Clarke and Ozga 2012, p.1)Powers include:LegislativeExecutiveStatutory
  5. 5. GOVERNMENT...howeverGovernment power is LIMITEDHM Judges, Local Authorities and the Charity Commission:all legally independent (subject to law) of the government.…thereforePower is not concentred but dispersed, ‘rhizomatic’
  6. 6. GOVERNMENT Functional view of government Equating power (only) with the executive, statutory andlegislative core of government echoes a ‘modernist liberaldemocratic narrative of government’ (Colebatch 2009, p.62) We have still not cut off the king’s head (Foucault 1986)
  7. 7. GOVERNANCEThe shift from government to governance – governingwithout governmentGovernance signifies the co-production of services by aplurality of actors andorganizations (governmentand non-government).
  8. 8. GOVERNANCEKey concepts: ‘cooperation’ or ‘co-governance’: the delivery of servicesbased on the interorganizational structure of relationsbetween institutions and actors, including public-privatepartnerships, networks, regimes and co-management.• Example: Schools permitted to ‘opt out’ of the locallycontrolled system and become grant-maintained (1988ERA), that is, administratively self-governing.Encouraged to raise money from industry and/or charity.
  9. 9. GOVERNANCECompetition AND cooperation‘They [neoliberal reforms] fragmented the systems fordelivering public services and created pressures fororganizations to cooperate with one another to deliverservices’ (Rhodes 2007, p. 1245).…hence ‘coopetition’: a neologism coined byBrandenburger and Nalebuff to describe competition +cooperation
  10. 10. GOVERNANCEKey concepts ‘Policy networks’: ‘refers to sets of formal and informalinstitutional linkages between governmental and otheractors shared around interests in public policy making andimplementation’ (Rhodes 2007, p. 1244) Example 1: EducationInvestor Summit Example 2: Academies Show, London
  11. 11. GOVERNANCE
  12. 12. GOVERNANCE
  13. 13. GOVERNANCEKey examples of ‘governance’ in British education reform1988 onwards – ‘governing at a distance’ Greater parental involvement in schools, statutory rightsfor parents to be elected as school governors Increased emphasis on parental choice, parents asconsumers of education provision, schools as providers Introduction of league tables and Ofsted in 1990s, e.g.performance indicators, audit, target setting, inspection Creation of academies and free schools, e.g. independentstate-funded schools
  14. 14. GOVERNANCE: SUMMARY Government and non-government actors and institutions Intersecting and blurring of roles and responsibilities Power interdependence in relationships between actors andinstitutions Governing through self-organizing networks ‘steer and guide’ rather than command as a tool for governing(Stoker 1998)
  15. 15. GOVERNANCE: DECENTRALISATION‘hollowing out’ of the stateInternational interdependence (EU, globalisation)Agencies Para-statal bodiesMarketisation and networksSTATE
  16. 16. GOVERNANCE: RECENTRALISATION?‘Roll back’ AND ‘roll out’ (Peck 2012)…e.g. steering and framing governing at a distance throughinspection, audit, performance indicators, league tables,target setting, public-private accountabilities, etc.Underestimated power of government?…e.g. ‘the centre can unilaterally change the rules of thegame’ (Rhodes 2007, p. 1253),
  17. 17. GOVERNANCE: PROBLEMS ‘Institutionalist’ view of governance particular to politicalscience perspectives - operates with a ‘‘thin’ conception ofthe social’ (Clarke and Ozga 2012, p. 2) ‘Governance’ risks becoming a ‘stipulative definition’(Rhodes 1997)…so case study and ethnographicapproaches are necessary/desirable How ‘new’ is governance?
  18. 18. GOVERNMENTALITY The ‘art of government’ (Foucault), developed through hislectures on biopolitics (circa 1978-79) Neoliberal governmentalities…not to be confused with laissez-faire (e.g. anti-statism)but are characterized by ‘permanent vigilance, activity, andintervention’ (Foucault 2008, p. 132), e.g. ‘roll out’
  19. 19. GOVERNMENTALITYFoucault’s early writings on discipline and punishment: Punishment as public spectacle: method for reaffirmingthe power of the sovereign 1830-48: physical spectacle of torture and punishmentwas replaced by the birth of the prison Panoptic effect of prison structures created self-disciplining, self-governing subjects (‘Visibility is a trap’,Foucault 1977, p. 200)
  20. 20. GOVERNMENTALITY Self-governance…the capacity and willingness of subjects (citizens, consumers,workers) to be self-governing and practice self-care outside thepurview of the government. Hence the neologism ‘governmentalisation’ (Foucault)…‘the function of producing, breathing life into, and increasingfreedom, of introducing additional freedom through additionalcontrol and intervention’ (Foucault 2008, p. 67)
  21. 21. GOVERNMENTALITY Neoliberalism ‘runs from the market to the state, andwhich plays out through new practices of regulatoryintervention and surveillance’ (Gane 2012, p. 614) Reversal of the Panopticon The market does not seek legitimacy from the state toexist. Rather the reverse is true. The state must justifyitself to the market.
  22. 22. GOVERNMENTALITY: PROBLEMS ‘the difficulty of combining the heterogeneity of micro-politicalanalyses with a tendency towards ‘epochal’ analysis of liberalgovernmentality and its phases/forms’ ‘the separation of liberal governmentality from its constitutivecolonial conditions’ ‘assuming the ‘success’ of governmental projects in practice’(Clarke and Ozga 2012, p. 2)
  23. 23. CONTROL SOCIETIES ‘ultrarapid forms of apparently free-floating control’(Deleuze 1995, p. 178) control operates through a modulation or modality, andNOT a mould, a fixed space or institution Consider social media, communication and entertainmentnetworks: digital, responsive means of ‘capturing’ peoplethrough the medium of capitalism, ‘communicativecapitalism’ (Dean 2009)
  24. 24. PANOPTICON TO SYNOPTICON Synopticon…new fluid and transient forms of sociality orindividualisation through which freedoms andresponsibilities are devolved from the state to individuals(Bauman 2000)
  25. 25. END