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CITIZENS AND THE STATE:FROM GOVERNMENT TOGOVERNANCEDr. Andrew WilkinsEmail: firstname.lastname@example.orgTwitter: @andewilkins
STRUCTUREWhat is government?What is governance?What is governmentality?Group discussion. Think about the ideas andperspectives explored and their (non-)applicationto your area of research interest.
FROM ABSTRACT TO CONCRETE The term governance risks becoming a ‘stipulativedefinition’ (Rhodes 1997), giving new meaning to oldjargon Concepts of ‘governance’ and ‘governmentality’ oftenappear too abstract (e.g. grounded in a lot of theorizing,‘epochal’ analysis) to the point of becoming analyticallyredundant for the purpose of studying really existing‘reality’ To compensate concrete examples from education policyhistory will be provided.
GOVERNMENT• ‘The practice of politics, policy and administration withinthe state-form’ (Clarke and Ozga 2012, p.1)Powers include:LegislativeExecutiveStatutory
GOVERNMENT...howeverGovernment power is LIMITEDHM Judges, Local Authorities and the Charity Commission:all legally independent (subject to law) of the government.…thereforePower is not concentred but dispersed, ‘rhizomatic’
GOVERNMENT Functional view of government Equating power (only) with the executive, statutory andlegislative core of government echoes a ‘modernist liberaldemocratic narrative of government’ (Colebatch 2009, p.62) We have still not cut off the king’s head (Foucault 1986)
GOVERNANCEThe shift from government to governance – governingwithout governmentGovernance signifies the co-production of services by aplurality of actors andorganizations (governmentand non-government).
GOVERNANCEKey concepts: ‘cooperation’ or ‘co-governance’: the delivery of servicesbased on the interorganizational structure of relationsbetween institutions and actors, including public-privatepartnerships, networks, regimes and co-management.• Example: Schools permitted to ‘opt out’ of the locallycontrolled system and become grant-maintained (1988ERA), that is, administratively self-governing.Encouraged to raise money from industry and/or charity.
GOVERNANCECompetition AND cooperation‘They [neoliberal reforms] fragmented the systems fordelivering public services and created pressures fororganizations to cooperate with one another to deliverservices’ (Rhodes 2007, p. 1245).…hence ‘coopetition’: a neologism coined byBrandenburger and Nalebuff to describe competition +cooperation
GOVERNANCEKey concepts ‘Policy networks’: ‘refers to sets of formal and informalinstitutional linkages between governmental and otheractors shared around interests in public policy making andimplementation’ (Rhodes 2007, p. 1244) Example 1: EducationInvestor Summithttp://www.educationinvestor.co.uk/summit.aspx Example 2: Academies Show, Londonhttp://www.academiesshow.co.uk/
GOVERNANCEKey examples of ‘governance’ in British education reform1988 onwards – ‘governing at a distance’ Greater parental involvement in schools, statutory rightsfor parents to be elected as school governors Increased emphasis on parental choice, parents asconsumers of education provision, schools as providers Introduction of league tables and Ofsted in 1990s, e.g.performance indicators, audit, target setting, inspection Creation of academies and free schools, e.g. independentstate-funded schools
GOVERNANCE: SUMMARY Government and non-government actors and institutions Intersecting and blurring of roles and responsibilities Power interdependence in relationships between actors andinstitutions Governing through self-organizing networks ‘steer and guide’ rather than command as a tool for governing(Stoker 1998)
GOVERNANCE: DECENTRALISATION‘hollowing out’ of the stateInternational interdependence (EU, globalisation)Agencies Para-statal bodiesMarketisation and networksSTATE
GOVERNANCE: RECENTRALISATION?‘Roll back’ AND ‘roll out’ (Peck 2012)…e.g. steering and framing governing at a distance throughinspection, audit, performance indicators, league tables,target setting, public-private accountabilities, etc.Underestimated power of government?…e.g. ‘the centre can unilaterally change the rules of thegame’ (Rhodes 2007, p. 1253),
GOVERNANCE: PROBLEMS ‘Institutionalist’ view of governance particular to politicalscience perspectives - operates with a ‘‘thin’ conception ofthe social’ (Clarke and Ozga 2012, p. 2) ‘Governance’ risks becoming a ‘stipulative definition’(Rhodes 1997)…so case study and ethnographicapproaches are necessary/desirable How ‘new’ is governance?
GOVERNMENTALITY The ‘art of government’ (Foucault), developed through hislectures on biopolitics (circa 1978-79) Neoliberal governmentalities…not to be confused with laissez-faire (e.g. anti-statism)but are characterized by ‘permanent vigilance, activity, andintervention’ (Foucault 2008, p. 132), e.g. ‘roll out’
GOVERNMENTALITYFoucault’s early writings on discipline and punishment: Punishment as public spectacle: method for reaffirmingthe power of the sovereign 1830-48: physical spectacle of torture and punishmentwas replaced by the birth of the prison Panoptic effect of prison structures created self-disciplining, self-governing subjects (‘Visibility is a trap’,Foucault 1977, p. 200)
GOVERNMENTALITY Self-governance…the capacity and willingness of subjects (citizens, consumers,workers) to be self-governing and practice self-care outside thepurview of the government. Hence the neologism ‘governmentalisation’ (Foucault)…‘the function of producing, breathing life into, and increasingfreedom, of introducing additional freedom through additionalcontrol and intervention’ (Foucault 2008, p. 67)
GOVERNMENTALITY Neoliberalism ‘runs from the market to the state, andwhich plays out through new practices of regulatoryintervention and surveillance’ (Gane 2012, p. 614) Reversal of the Panopticon The market does not seek legitimacy from the state toexist. Rather the reverse is true. The state must justifyitself to the market.
GOVERNMENTALITY: PROBLEMS ‘the difficulty of combining the heterogeneity of micro-politicalanalyses with a tendency towards ‘epochal’ analysis of liberalgovernmentality and its phases/forms’ ‘the separation of liberal governmentality from its constitutivecolonial conditions’ ‘assuming the ‘success’ of governmental projects in practice’(Clarke and Ozga 2012, p. 2)
CONTROL SOCIETIES ‘ultrarapid forms of apparently free-floating control’(Deleuze 1995, p. 178) control operates through a modulation or modality, andNOT a mould, a fixed space or institution Consider social media, communication and entertainmentnetworks: digital, responsive means of ‘capturing’ peoplethrough the medium of capitalism, ‘communicativecapitalism’ (Dean 2009)
PANOPTICON TO SYNOPTICON Synopticon…new fluid and transient forms of sociality orindividualisation through which freedoms andresponsibilities are devolved from the state to individuals(Bauman 2000)