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¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos
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¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos

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Juan Manuel Gers, Experto internacional, Gers USA …

Juan Manuel Gers, Experto internacional, Gers USA
Jornada Académica Andesco
“Retos y Oportunidades del Tratado de Libre Comercio –TLC- entre Colombia y
Estados Unidos para el sector de Servicios Públicos Domiciliarios y TIC”

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  • 1. ¿Por qué el TLC entre Colombia y EEUU ofrece nuevas oportunidades para los productos y servicios nacionales? Juan Manuel Gers, PhD1
  • 2. BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. ELECTRICITY MARKET Juan Manuel Gers, PhD May 29, 2012 2
  • 3. Contents Information about the U.S. Electric Power Industry Selection of Attractive States Projects and specific available possibilities Barriers and Requirements to Establish and Operate in US Establishing a company in the U.S. Marketing strategies Conclusions
  • 4. Contents Information about the U.S. Electric Power Industry Selection of Attractive States Projects and specific available possibilities Barriers and Requirements to Establish and Operate in US Establishing a company in the U.S. Marketing strategies Conclusions
  • 5. Free Trade AgreementThe FTA between USA and COLOMBIAformally entered into force last 15th of May2012. “We welcome today’s signing of the FTA,which brings Colombia and the United Statesone step closer to the entry into force of thishistoric agreement.The FTA is a fundamental building block in thedevelopment of a new chapter in U.S.-Colombia relations, and will help to expandboth of our economies, exports and jobcreation opportunities," said ColombianAmbassador to the U.S. Gabriel Silva.
  • 6. General aspects about the US Power Industry The US power industry The Energy Information Association (EIA), part of the Department of Energy, has described the electric power industry as one of the largest and most creditworthy in the US, with an estimated end-user market of nearly $254bn of electricity sales in 2011. The delivery of electricity to retail, commercial and industrial consumers was historically handled by large integrated utilities, which provided generation, transmission and distribution services in monopoly franchise areas. Now the situation is changing and more players are participating in the market.
  • 7. Most Important Institutions in the U.S. Electricity Industry The US Electricity Industry has several government andprivate institutions that oversee its operation and define its policies and rules. Among them, the most important policymakers are: The U.S. Congress FERC – Federal Energy Regulatory Commission NERC – North American Reliability Council NAESB – North American Energy Standards Board State Public Utility Commissions and Legislatures
  • 8. Most Important Policymakers NERC Members and Sub-RegionsECAR-East Central Area ReliabilityCoordination AgreementERCOT-Electric Reliability Council ofTexasFRCC-Florida Reliability CoordinationCouncilMACC-Mid-Atlantic Area CouncilMAIN-Mid-America InterconnectedNetworkMAPP-Mid-Continent Area PowerPoolNPCC-Northeast Power CoordinatingCouncilSERC-Southeastern Electric ReliabilityCouncilSPP-Southwest Power PoolWECC-Western ElectricityCoordination Council
  • 9. Overview of the Electric Industry in the United States The U.S. electric system Over 200 million customers participating in an deregulated market Over 3200 utilities Over 16,802 generators in commercial operation Over 161,000 miles of transmission lines (230 kV and above)
  • 10. Transmission System InfrastructureU.S. High Voltage Transmission System Voltage Miles of Transmission Line AC 230 kV 76,762 345 kV 49,250 500 kV 26,038 765 kV 2,453 Total AC 154,503 DC 250-300 kV 930 400 kV 852 450 kV 192 500 kV 1,333 Total DC 3,307 Total AC + DC 157,810 Source: NERC
  • 11. RestructuringThe transition period for phasing in restructuring has begun in these states, and they are These states have passed legislation suspending thecurrently implementing a competitive electric utility market for investor-owned utilities. restructuring process.These states are continuing to study and/or monitor restructuring investor-owned utilities, These states have passed legislation delaying the restructuringbut are not currently pursuing further action. process.These states have completed studies investigating restructuring investor-owned utilities These states have passed legislation repealing the restructuring(power providers), and have decided not to pursue further action at this time. process.
  • 12. U.S. Electric Industry Generating Capacity by State in 2009There are roughly 5,000 power plants in the UnitedStates, and they have a total generating capacity of nearly 1025 gigawatts
  • 13. Generating Capacity U.S. Net Summer Capacity by U.S. Existing Capacity by Energy Sources, 2009Energy Sources, Year-End 2009 Existing Capacity by Energy Source, 2009 (Megawatts) Number of Nameplate Net Summer Net Winter Energy Source Generators Capacity Capacity Capacity Coal[1] 1,436 338,723 314,294 316,363 Petroleum[2] 3,757 63,254 56,781 60,878 Natural Gas[3] 5,470 459,803 401,272 432,309 Other Gases[4] 98 2,218 1,932 1,899 Nuclear 104 106,618 101,004 102,489 Hydroelectric 4,005 77,910 78,518 78,127 Conventional[5] Wind 620 34,683 34,296 34,350 Solar Thermal and 110 640 619 537 Photovoltaic Wood and Wood 353 7,829 6,939 6,992 Derived Fuels[6] Geothermal 222 3,421 2,382 2,561 Other Biomass[7] 1,502 5,007 4,317 4,382 Pumped Storage 151 20,538 22,160 22,063 Other[8] 48 1,042 888 900 Total 17,876 1,121,686 1,025,400 1,063,848 Source: Energy Information Administration
  • 14. U.S. Electric Industry Net Generation by State in 2009
  • 15. Energy Sources 2500 Note : Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil 2000 1933 fuels resulting in net generation of 11.466 thousandMillion Megawatthours megawatt-hours are not included. An additional 5.714 thousand megawatt-hours , not shown here , were 1500 generated from "Other" energy sources. 1000 780 691 500 256 95 87 0 Coal Nuclear Natural Gas Hydroelectric Petroleum Other Renewables
  • 16. InvestmentTransmission System Investment
  • 17. PlanningPlanned Transmission by Interconnection and NERC Member Transmission Circuit Miles – 230 kV and Above 2005 Existing 2006-2010 Additions 2011-2015 Additions 2015 Total Installed United States ERCOT 8,311 648 - 8,959 FRCC 6,998 350 127 7,475 MRO 15,912 1,382 272 17,566 NPCC 6,426 364 16 6,806 New England 2,493 273 16 2,782 New York 3,933 91 - 4,024 RFC 26,258 592 - 26,85 SERC 31,179 1,292 947 33,418 Entergy 2,666 94 - 2,76 Gateway 5,037 151 268 5,456 Southern 1,897 111 - 2,008 TVA 9,405 350 513 10,268 VACAR 12,174 586 166 12,926 SPP 7,592 14 21 7,627 WECC 58,539 3,063 1,821 63,423 AZ-NM-SNV 10,271 835 1,471 12,577 CA-MX-US 17,676 790 - 18,466 NWPP-US 24,671 704 350 25,725 RMPA 5,921 734 - 6,655 Total-U.S. 161,215 7,705 3,204 172,124 Canada MRO 6,73 303 65 7,098 NPCC 28,998 603 - 29,601 Maritimes 2,196 60 - 2,256 Ontario 11,137 95 - 11,232 Québec 15,665 448 - 16,113 WECC 11,019 416 233 11,668 Total-Canada 46,747 1,322 298 48,367 Mexico WECC 638 152 192 982 Total-NERC 208,56 9,179 3,694 221,433 Source: NERC
  • 18. Blackout of August 14, 2003The blackout started in Northern Ohio and spreaded throughout Midwest, Northeast U.S. And Canada 61,800 MW of power lost Shutdown 265 power plants with 508 individual units
  • 19. RecommendationsTask Force issued 46 recommendations grouped into four categories:  Institutional Issues Related to Reliability (14 recommendations)  Support and Strengthen NERC’s actions of February 10, 2004 (17 recommendations)  Physical and Cyber Security of North American Bulk Power Systems (13 recommendations)  Canadian Nuclear Power Sector (2 recommendations)
  • 20. Contents Information about the U.S. Electric Power Industry Selection of Attractive States Projects and specific available possibilities Barriers and Requirements to Establish and Operate in US Establishing a company in the U.S. Marketing strategies Conclusions
  • 21. US Map
  • 22. Selection Criteria84. ¿Cuáles son los estados de EE.UU. a donde Colombia podráexpandirse en el tema de servicios?Teniendo en cuenta la estrecha relación entre el flujo migratorio decolombianos en Estados Unidos y el crecimiento del comercio bilateral debienes y servicios, se identificó que los Estados más representativos parael comercio de servicios profesionales son New York, New Jersey,California, Texas, Florida y el Distrito de Columbia.Precisamente, fue esa identificación de Estados lo que impulsó aestablecer compromisos más específicos en materia de facilitación para laprestación de servicios profesionales.
  • 23. Selection CriteriaThe following parameters were considered to be the mostrepresentative:  Population  GSP  State income tax  Income tax  Housing construction permits  Unemployment rate
  • 24. Selection of attractive states for the electrical sector of Colombia based on general criteria Gross State Product Total Income Tax Housing Unemployment STATE Weighted Population (GSP) Burden Sales Tax Construction Permits Rate ITEM Abv Name Rank Inhabitants Ranking Billions Ranking Tax Ranking Tax Rank Permits Ranking Rate Ranking U.S. (Avg or Total) 290.809.777 25% 10.137,2 30% 27,80% 20% 4,8% 5% 1.889.214 10% 4,20% 10% 1 TX Texas 8,55 22.118.509 2 763,9 3 26,80% 25 4,0% 3 177.194 3 4,60% 17 2 CA California 9,70 35.484.453 1 1.359,3 1 28,40% 41 0,0% 1 191.948 2 5,20% 7 3 FL Florida 11,80 17.019.068 4 491,5 4 27,00% 26 5,6% 26 213.567 1 3,90% 30 4 PA Pennsylvania 12,35 12.365.455 6 408,4 6 26,50% 22 5,1% 23 47.356 12 4,40% 23 5 NY New York 13,75 19.190.115 3 826,5 2 32,30% 51 2,9% 2 49.708 11 5,20% 10 6 NC North Carolina 14,70 8.407.248 11 275,6 12 26,40% 19 0,0% 1 79.226 5 3,20% 40 7 TN Tennessee 15,30 5.841.748 16 182,5 18 25,10% 4 4,0% 4 37.530 20 4,00% 29 8 OH Ohio 15,55 11.435.798 7 373,7 7 27,50% 34 6,0% 28 53.041 10 4,30% 25 9 IL Illinois 15,80 12.653.544 5 475,5 5 27,90% 38 7,3% 47 62.211 7 4,30% 24 10 GA Georgia 15,90 8.684.715 9 299,9 10 27,30% 30 6,0% 29 96.704 4 4,00% 28 11 MI Michigan 16,25 10.079.985 8 320,5 9 27,40% 31 5,8% 27 53.913 9 3,80% 31 12 AL Alabama 18,40 4.500.752 23 121,5 25 25,00% 2 5,0% 15 22.256 26 4,80% 14 13 NJ New Jersey 18,45 8.638.396 10 365,4 8 29,90% 48 4,0% 5 32.984 21 4,60% 16 14 LA Louisiana 19,60 4.496.334 24 148,7 24 25,40% 7 5,3% 24 22.220 27 5,10% 11 15 MO Missouri 19,75 5.704.484 17 181,5 19 25,90% 12 6,0% 30 29.309 23 3,40% 36 16 SC South Carolina 19,95 4.147.152 25 115,2 28 25,10% 3 5,0% 16 38.191 19 4,50% 20 17 IN Indiana 20,35 6.195.643 14 189,9 16 26,70% 23 6,0% 31 39.421 18 3,00% 41 18 AR Arizona 20,80 5.580.811 18 160,7 23 27,20% 29 5,0% 18 74.996 6 4,40% 21 19 VA Virginia 20,95 7.386.330 12 273,1 13 27,40% 32 6,3% 39 55.936 8 2,80% 49 20 WA Washington 21,25 6.131.445 15 223,0 14 28,80% 44 6,0% 32 42.825 14 4,70% 15Sources and dates:Population: US Census Bureau, 2003Gross State Product: US Department of Commerce, 2001Total State Tax Burden: The Tax Foundation, 2004New Housing Construction Permits: US Census Bureau, 2003Unemployment Rate: US Census Bureau, 2000
  • 25. Attractive states according to first selection
  • 26. Selection CriteriaThe following parameters were considered to be the mostrepresentative for the second selection:  Number of utilities  Number of Customers  KWh Cost  Generation Capacity  Load Demand  Consumption Per Capita  Total Income Tax  Gross State Product
  • 27. Final selection of attractive states considering aspects associated to the electricity market Net Generation Consumption Total Income Gross State STATE Utilities Customers Cost of KWh Summer Load Per Capita Tax Product (GSP) Weighted MWh /ITEM Abv Name Rank Qty Rank Qty Rank U.S. cents Rank MW Rank (MWh) Rank Person Rank Tax Rank Billions Rank U.S. (Avg or Total) 3211 10% 131,840,027 10% 7.09 15% 953,178 10% 3,462,520,834 20% 11.91 10% 27.80% 10% 10,137.2 15% 1 TX Texas 4.15 184 1 10,266,976 2 6.62 10 100,136 1 320,845,849 1 14.51 7 26.80% 9 763.9 3 2 FL Florida 6.25 53 14 8,533,279 3 7.31 5 49,336 3 210,473,530 3 12.37 13 27.00% 10 491.5 4 3 CA California 6.30 45 16 13,546,442 1 12.52 1 59,589 2 235,248,942 2 6.63 20 28.40% 17 1,359.3 1 4 PA Pennsylvania 7.20 59 13 5,229,651 6 7.97 4 42,725 5 140,786,670 6 11.39 14 26.50% 7 408.4 6 5 NY New York 7.60 62 11 7,486,228 4 10.89 2 37,375 6 143,563,666 5 7.48 19 32.30% 20 826.5 2 6 OH Ohio 7.80 119 3 4,606,566 8 6.55 11 34,088 8 155,999,230 4 13.64 9 27.50% 15 373.7 7 7 IL Illinois 8.10 77 8 5,393,586 5 7.01 7 45,675 4 137,665,583 7 10.88 16 27.90% 16 475.5 5 8 NC North Carolina 8.60 108 5 4,315,789 9 6.74 9 27,188 12 122,686,468 9 14.59 6 26.40% 6 275.6 11 9 GA Georgia 9.20 98 6 4,071,484 10 6.24 12 36,512 7 123,789,078 8 14.25 8 27.30% 12 299.9 10 10 MI Michigan 10.45 61 12 4,682,066 7 6.99 8 30,374 9 107,310,696 10 10.65 17 27.40% 14 320.5 9 11 IN Indiana 11.70 119 4 2,934,676 13 5.34 20 25,747 14 101,428,550 11 16.37 5 26.70% 8 189.9 14 12 TN Tennessee 12.05 91 7 2,896,050 14 5.72 18 20,827 17 98,233,027 13 16.82 4 25.10% 3 182.5 15 13 AL Alabama 12.50 63 9 2,317,229 18 5.71 19 29,946 10 83,067,078 14 18.46 2 25.00% 1 121.5 19 14 VA Virginia 13.15 35 19 3,238,175 12 6.22 13 21,239 16 100,540,736 12 13.61 10 27.40% 13 273.1 12 15 MO Missouri 13.30 136 2 2,883,323 15 6.09 14 19,916 19 75,000,629 18 13.15 11 25.90% 5 181.5 16 16 LA Louisiana 13.75 40 18 2,110,768 20 5.99 15 26,048 13 79,260,989 15 17.63 3 25.40% 4 148.7 18 17 SC South Carolina 14.10 47 15 2,144,820 19 5.83 16 20,641 18 77,819,392 16 18.76 1 25.10% 2 115.2 20 18 NJ New Jersey 14.25 14 20 3,698,416 11 9.32 3 18,710 20 74,460,421 19 8.62 18 29.90% 19 365.4 8 19 WA Washington 14.60 63 10 2,837,916 16 5.73 17 27,666 11 76,491,883 17 12.48 12 28.80% 18 223.0 13 20 AR Arizona 14.95 45 17 2,351,763 17 7.21 6 23,559 15 62,600,737 20 11.22 15 27.20% 11 160.7 17
  • 28. Selected states according to the second selection criteria
  • 29. Working Schemes
  • 30. Modes of supplying services defined by GATS Criteria Supplier PresenceMode 1: Cross- Service delivered within the territory of the Member, from theborder supply territory of another Member Service supplier not present within theMode 2: Service delivered outside the territory of the Member, in the territory of the memberConsumption territory of another Member, to a service consumer of theabroad MemberMode 3: Service delivered within the territory of the Member, throughCommercial the commercial presence of the supplierpresence Service supplier present within the territory of the MemberMode 4: Service delivered within the territory of the Member, withPresence of a supplier present as a natural personnatural personNote: From the document MTN.GNS/W/124, available on the World Trade Organization Website, posted courtesy of ISTIA
  • 31. Modes of supplying services defined by GATS87. ¿Cómo explicarles a los profesionales colombianos, las formas comopodrán prestar sus servicios?Los prestadores de servicios colombianos podrán hacerlo de cuatro modos. Elprimero se refiere al “suministro transfronterizo”, o el caso donde lo que se trasladaes el servicio. En este caso, ni el consumidor ni el prestador se desplazan al otroterritorio; un ejemplo es el envío de una consultoría, la atención de llamadas de callcenters, y la telemedicina.También se puede exportar a través del modo 2, denominado “consumo en elextranjero”, que se presenta cuando el consumidor se desplaza al otro país arecibir el servicio; el mejor ejemplo en este caso es el turismo. Así mismo, el modo3 que se refiere a la “presencia comercial”, o cuando se desplaza es el capitalcomo puede ser una filial de una empresa. Este se relaciona con la inversiónextranjera directa y se encuentra cubierto en el Capítulo de Inversión.Finalmente, también se podrá comercializar servicios por el modo 4, “presencia depersonas físicas”, a través del cual el prestador del servicio es quien se desplazatemporalmente al otro país, tal como sucede cuando se da una capacitación o sepresta un servicio de reparación en el otro territorio.
  • 32. Contents Information about the U.S. Electric Power Industry Selection of Attractive States Projects and specific available possibilities Barriers and Requirements to Establish and Operate in US Establishing a company in the U.S. Marketing strategies Conclusions
  • 33. Some ProjectsUtility‐Scale Solar Projects in the US
  • 34. SunShot Initiative
  • 35. SunShot Initiative
  • 36. Utility‐Scale Solar Projects in the US Updated October 24, 2011
  • 37. Utility‐Scale Solar Projects in the US Updated October 24, 2011
  • 38. Utility‐Scale Solar Projects in the US Updated October 24, 2011
  • 39. Some ProjectsThe Obama administration projects
  • 40. Construction Of Seven Transmission Lines in US Idaho Powers 500-kilovolt, 300-mile single-circuit Boardman-Hemingway Line powering Oregon and Idaho 345-kv Gateway West Project bringing new transmission across Wyoming and Idaho 345-kv Hampton-Rochester-La Crosse Line powering Minnesota and Wisconsin Portland General Electrics 500-kv Cascade Crossing Line to provide Oregon with additional transmission SunZia Transmission LLCs 500-kv transmission lines to bring power to New Mexico and Arizona PPL Electric Utilities and Public Service Electric and Gas Companys 145-mile long, 500-kv Susquehanna-Roseland power line project to bring transmission to Pennsylvania and New Jersey TransWest Express LLCs 700-mile, 600-kv transmission line from Wyoming to Utah and Nevada, expected to create 1,035-1,550 direct jobs, and facilitate the development of new wind projects in Wyoming.
  • 41. Construction Of Seven Transmission Lines in US Sun Zia Project
  • 42. Construction Of Seven Transmission Lines in US Sun Zia Project
  • 43. Construction Of Seven Transmission Lines in US
  • 44. Some ProjectsListing of Dept. of Administration, Divisionof State Facilities (DSF) constructionprojects. State of Wisconsin
  • 45. Bid for Department of Administration. State of Wisconsin List of Projects Out for Bid Wednesday, May 23 2012
  • 46. Bid for Department of Administration. State of Wisconsin
  • 47. Contents Information about the U.S. Electric Power Industry Selection of Attractive States Projects and specific available possibilities Barriers and Requirements to Establish and Operate in US Establishing a company in the U.S. Marketing strategies Conclusions
  • 48. Immigration Law.  The U.S. immigration laws prohibit employers from employing persons who are not authorized to work in the U.S.  There are economic penalties for employing unauthorized aliens and criminal penalties can be imposed for a pattern or practice of violations.  Legal immigration status is divided into two major categories:  Non-immigrant visas, which connotes temporary status.  Immigrant visas, which means permanent status.
  • 49. Immigration Law Each of these two categories has a number of options for the employment of foreign nationals in the United States. Visa Options for the FTA  Non Immigrant Visa  The H1-B Visa  The L Visa  The E Visa  The B1 Visa  Immigrant Visa  Skilled or Professional Employee  Multinational Manager or Executive  Immigrant Investor
  • 50. US Regulation of Foreign Investment. “Buy America Act” states that:  Only articles, materials and supplies produced in the U.S. may be acquired by the federal government for public use.  Foreign ownership is restricted in sectors considered particularly sensitive:  Aviation, Banking, Communications & Broadcasting, Insurance, Real Estate  Maritime, Mineral leases & resources  Power generation & utility services
  • 51. US Regulation of Foreign Investment Regarding the Power Generation & Utility Services the law states that:  Foreign ownership or control of nuclear power facilities is prohibited.  Only U.S. persons may obtain to own or operate hydroelectric power facilities.  The U.S. person may be a U.S.-registered corporation, and there is no limit on foreign ownership or control. Law has changed towards greater competition in the generation of electricity and related services. Interstate transmission of natural gas and electricity is still subject to federal regulation.
  • 52. Some Employment Laws on the Federal Level Fair Labor Title VII Equal Pay Act (EPA) Standards Act Prohibits Prohibits• Minimum wage discrimination (race, discrimination due to requirements color, religion, sex, sex in payment of national origin, wages.• Overtime requirements pregnancy) Americans with Age Disabilities Discrimination Prohibits Prohibitsdiscrimination against discrimination individuals with a against people age serious disability. 40 and over
  • 53. Occupational Safety Occupational Safety and Health Administration Mission: Prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths Requires employers to provide their employees with:“A workplace that is free from recognized hazards that are causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm”.Every establishment covered by the Act is subject to inspection, programmed and unprogrammed. There are penalties according to the type of violation
  • 54. Insurance U.S. architects and engineers can obtain malpractice insurance – that pays for their legal defense and any damages resulting from their professional errors and omissions. Such insurance is not available to U.S. contractors. However, commercial general liability (CGL) insurance is available to contractors. CGL pays for their legal defense and any damages resulting from property damage and personal injuries to third parties. Lawyers sometimes can help contractor clients obtain CGL insurance coverage for damages caused by construction defects.
  • 55. Professional Licensing There is no federal construction licensing in the United States. Architects and engineers are licensed (or registered) in all 50 states. In many states, their business entities also must be licensed or registered. Licensing is regulated at the state and the laws can vary greatly from one state to the next. There is less consistency in contractor licensing. Contractors are licensed in about three-quarters of states.
  • 56. Professional Licensing85. ¿Se facilitará la homologación de títulos académicos a loscolombianos en Estados Unidos?El reconocimiento mutuo de títulos universitarios es un tema quecomplementa el ámbito comercial y se consolida por medio de otrosacuerdos. Sin embargo, en el Tratado se logró establecer que los dospaíses busquen, con sus respectivas autoridades, elaborar normas para elotorgamiento de licencias y certificados a proveedores de serviciosprofesionales.A través de una Carta Adjunta al Capítulo de Servicios, Estados Unidos secomprometió a revisar las medidas de nivel estatal que requieranresidencia permanente o ciudadanía para los servicios profesionales deingeniería, contabilidad, arquitectura, servicios jurídicos, enfermería,odontología, medicina general y servicios prestados por personalparamédico.
  • 57. Professional Licensing86. ¿Es decir que habrá nuevos negocios para Colombia con EE.UU. porcuenta de los servicios profesionales?La creación de un grupo de trabajo para servicios profesionales dentro delTLC ofrece un marco permanente para que los cuerpos profesionales delos dos países, realicen trabajos en materia de reconocimiento mutuo ydesarrollo de estándares para licenciamiento.Aunque el TLC ha identificado los sectores de ingeniería y arquitecturacomo prioridades, otros como servicios de salud y de consultoría podránutilizar este marco en el futuro para impulsar acuerdos en dichas materias.
  • 58. General requirements for a PE licensure Successfully completion of the eight-hour Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Examination Virtually every SuccessfullyFour-year engineering state law completion of thedegree in a program outlines a four- eight- hour Principlesapproved by the state step process to and Practice ofengineering licensure be licensed as Engineering (PE)board Examination a PE Four years of qualifying engineering experience
  • 59. Requirements for a foreign engineering degreeMathematics & Basic Engineering Sciences: Science & Humanities & 32 credit Design: Social TOEFL score Computer hours 48 credit Sciences: over 550 or a Skills Should hours 16 credit passing satisfy hours score on the computer GRE based skill examination with Engineering applications
  • 60. Contents Information about the U.S. Electric Power Industry Selection of Attractive States Projects and specific available possibilities Barriers and Requirements to Establish and Operate in US Establishing a company in the U.S. Marketing strategies Conclusions
  • 61. Types of Business Organizations THE CORPORATE FORM MENUCORPORATE OWNERSHIP RULES TAX TREATMENT LIABILITY PROS AND CONSSTRUCTURE Sole One owner Pass-through federal tax Unlimited Is easy to set up butProprietorship entity personal leaves your personal liability for finances at risk. Plus, business you miss out on all debts. kinds of business deductions.S Corporation Up to 75 Pass-through federal tax Limited Is easy to set up but shareholders, only entity may limit your financing one basic class of options later on. stock; slight flexibility on voting rights.C Corporation Unlimited number of Dividend income gets Limited Can be costly from a shareholders; no taxed at the corporate tax perspective but limits on stock classes and shareholder levels; investor friendly. or voting losses and deductions arrangements. stay at the corporate level.
  • 62. Types of Business Organizations THE CORPORATE FORM MENU CORPORATE OWNERSHIP RULES TAX TREATMENT LIABILITY PROS AND CONS STRUCTURELimited Liability Unlimited number of Pass-through federal tax Limited Has lots of advantages Company “members”; flexible entity but makes investors membership leery, which could make arrangements, with financing deal dicey. voting rights and Cost of switching forms income divided as from S or C-corporation desired. status is generally prohibitive. Partnership Two or more owners Pass-through federal tax Personal Allows lots of room to entity; flexibility about assets of play with tax benefits, profit and loss any but in a general allocations among operating partnership, that partners. partner at personal liability can be risk from scary. business creditors
  • 63. Company LicensingMost states and many cities and/orcounties impose licenses and permits on awide variety of businesses.Typically:  State license  County and city occupational license  City certificate of useRecommended for engineeringcompanies:  Professional Engineer
  • 64. Contents Information about the U.S. Electric Power Industry Selection of Attractive States Projects and specific available possibilities Operational schemes Barriers and Requirements to Establish and Operate in US Establishing a company in the U.S. Marketing strategies Conclusions
  • 65. Type of CustomersCustomers could be classified in 4 types within the US electrical sector:  Federal Government.  Utilities.  Contracting Companies and Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM’s).  End Users.
  • 66. Advantages of Being a Subcontractor Countrys single largest buyer Government Prime Contractor-Delay-Contractual obligation Prime Contractor-Exceed payment periods-Cash flow problems-Complicate procedures -Services to government Company -Simply agreements -Payment protection -Easy procedures
  • 67. Federal Procurement The federal government purchases billions of dollars in goods and services each year from paperclips to complex space vehicles. To ensure that small businesses get their fair share, statutory goals have been established for Federal executive agencies. They are:  23 percent of prime contracts for small businesses  5 percent of prime and subcontracts for small disadvantaged businesses  5 percent of prime and subcontracts for women-owned small businesses  3 percent of prime contracts for Historically Underutilized Business Zone (HUBZone) small businesses  3 percent of prime and subcontracts for service-disabled veteran-owned small businesses.
  • 68. Registering a Company: Central Contractor Registration The Central Contractor Registration (CCR) is the primary vendor database for the U.S. Federal Government.  Collect  Validates  Store and disseminates Registration in CCR in order to be awarded contracts by the government. Registration to provide information relevant to procurement and financial transactions.
  • 69. Information Needed to Register Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number CAGE Code Legal Business Name and Doing Business As (DBA) US Federal TIN Physical Street Address 1 Date Business Started North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Codes Bank accounts information This is some of the information needed. The complete list is in the CCR webpage http://www.ccr.gov
  • 70. Finding Possibilities through InternetThere are good number of search engines that provide at definite fee or even freeinformation about projects, RFP, RFQ in government and private companies. Someof these web sites are:  Fedbizopps.gov  DemandStar.com  Comm-pass.com  Findrp.com  Onvia.comAlso, some government and private entities post in their website the opportunitiesthey have. Examples of this are: US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) andBechtel Corporation
  • 71. Where to find Federal Contracts ?
  • 72. Where to find Federal Contracts ?
  • 73. Where to find Federal Contracts ?
  • 74. www.usace.army.mil
  • 75. Doing business with the US Army Corps
  • 76. Doing business with the US Army Corps
  • 77. Doing business with the US Army Corps
  • 78. Doing business with the US Army Corps
  • 79. Doing business with the US Army CorpsRegistration is toreceive notifications ofany changes to thespecified solicitation bye-mail
  • 80. Contents Information about the U.S. Electric Power Industry Selection of Attractive States Projects and specific available possibilities Operational schemes Barriers and Requirements to Establish and Operate in US Establishing a company in the U.S. Marketing strategies Conclusions
  • 81. Conclusions The electrical system of the USA presents a giant and well developed infrastructure but presents severe weaknesses and needs important projects. Therefore it offers huge market possibilities for transnational and established companies. Doing business in the USA is both easy and difficult. It is easy in the sense that there are thousands of opportunities well paid generally. It is difficult though in the sense that penetrating the American market is complicated, high investment is normally required and getting acquainted with the bid process is lengthy. It is very important to stress that the US offers possibilities in each of the 50 states. From a selection based on economical figures and parameters of the electricity market a total of 10 states were taken: Texas, Florida, California, Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, Illinois, North Carolina, Georgia and Michigan.
  • 82. References
  • 83. BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLOMBIAN COMPANIES IN THE U.S. MARKET Questions?jmgers@gersusa.com Tel: +1-954-3848925

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