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  • 1. English Primer<br />Systematic vocabulary<br />By: jhon Anderson sanchez<br />Juan sebastian escobar<br />Josman jeferson gutierrez<br />Esteban hincapié<br /> <br /> <br /> for: lina<br /> Jhon<br /> Selene<br />Institución educativa GABO<br />10-2<br />Cartago (valle)<br />2010<br /> <br /> <br />access: Database Manager, made by Microsoft.  Ada: structured programming language, which allows several object-oriented features. It is the language used by the Department of Defense (DoD) U.S. ..  ADC: analog to digital converter.  Manager: The person who supervises and controls the correct operation of a computer system.  AGP: Accelerated Graphics Port, a new connecting slot for graphics cards that exist in the motherboard Pentium II computers.  needles (printer " needles" ): see matrix. AI: Abbreviation for Articial Intelligence (Artificial Intelligence).  AIX: UNIX operating system version by IBM for their computers.  Alpha: A set of letters, numbers and other symbols such as punctuation marks or mathematical symbols. Refers to keyboard characters and character sets available for different data transfer operations of the computer.  AMD processors known manufacturer, compatible with the Intel x86 series (Advanced Micro Devices).  AmiPro: Word Processor by Lotus, now improved and called WordPro. ANSI: American National Standards Institute. Organization established to adopt and define standards for various technical disciplines.  Antivirus: Computer application designed to detect and remove viruses.  API: Application Programming Interface (Applications Programming Interface): a series of functions that are available for programs for a certain environment computer application: A computer program that is purchased and made ready for use. They come in many different types, depending on what purpose they are designed: word processors, databases, accounting software, billing, etc. Apple: Home computer maker, maker of computers like the Apple II, Lisa, Macintosh and iMac. ARC: Extension of compressed files. The corresponding compressor is ARC Archive: It is often used as synonymous with file. In the world of compressors, often make a distinction, saying that several original files are compressed and packed into an archive. ARJ: Extending compressed files. The corresponding compressor is also called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Start: this name is often used to refer to the action of making a working computer. It is common to distinguish between " cold start" (when the computer was off) and " hot start" (when the computer was on and " reset" without actually physically turn off).English is often called " boot" , and distinguish between " cold boot" (cold) and " warm boot" (hot) or " reset."  AT: Name the first computer was created by IBM with 80286 processor. Thus, we often speak of AT-compatible PC from referring to computers with 80286 or higher processors. / / AT: Computer Games for the modem, the house created by Hayes and today considered standard. AutoCad: Known CAD software by Autodesk. Autodesk: House software developer, author of applications such as AutoCad, 3D Studio, Animator, AutoSketch, etc. or AVI, compressed video format for computer, the Windows standard. <br />BackUp: Backup. <br />Down: It is increasingly common to hear phrases like " I downloaded the network an update for my antivirus."  The word " down" (in English, " download" ) indicates a transfer of information from a remote computer (eg, a computer who is hosting on the Internet or other network) to our PC. The word " up" (in English " upload" ) indicates the sending of information from our computer to a host computer on the network.  Database: Computer application for managing information in the form of " tokens" customers, articles, films, etc. Most databases now allow listing, queries, create data display screen, control user access, etc.. It is also becoming more common queries can be done in a standard language called SQL. Basic: Programming language initially designed for Beginners (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). BAT: Extension of a file consists of a lot (batch) Two orders. Baud: bits per second which is theoretically capable of transmitting / receiving a modem or serial connection between two computers, or between a computer and an external device. BCD: Binary Coded Decimal (Binary Coded Decimal). Acronym used to refer to a special form of binary coded decimal numbers, using 4 bits for each decimal digit, so a byte can store two decimal numbers. BIOS: System Basic Input / Output (Basic Input Output System). Typically involve one or more ROM chips (usually EPROMs) containing the basic routines and out, the first steps you should take a computer to fire, the basic system configuration, etc.. <br />Bit: The smallest unit of information that can store and manage a computer equivalent to a 0 or 1. bitmap (or bitmap). One type of images to your computer, which stores information about the points that make and color of each point (as opposed to vector images).This means that the larger picture is lost definition, are " fat points."  BMP: This is the extension corresponding to a graphic file type of bitmap (the standard Windows): BitMaP. Borland: Known software maker, author of languages such as Turbo Pascal, Turbo C, Delphi, C Builder, JBuilder, etc., and applications such as Paradox, Quattro Pro, etc. It has now been renamed and is called Inprise. Bps: Bits per second: the unit used to measure the actual transfer speed of a modem or a serial connection. BSD: Berkeley Software Distribution, University of California at Berkeley, author of a version of UNIX that bears his name. Buffer: buffer for temporary data storage in communication between a computer and an external device (eg a printer). When is a computer program that makes the task of intermediate storage for data that are sent to the printer, the program is often called Spooler. Bug: error in a program, which means that in certain circumstances may not behave correctly. Byte: A basic unit of information. In practice, one can consider that a byte is the amount of space required to store a letter. Have multiples as the Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte and Terabyte. Internally, it corresponds to 8 bits. <br />________________________________________ C <br />Cache: A special type of memory, faster than normal RAM (and more expensive), which gets in the way of data ranging from the processor to the RAM. Thus, all information that goes to the processor RAM is left temporarily stored in the cache.When re-read information, it first checks if it is in the cache, if there is no need to go to RAM searching. In practice, very often repetitive operations or work with repetitive data, which makes owning cache to help speed up your computer to normal operation. Today it is often also distinguish cache " first level" and " second level" . The first level is within the processor itself. The second level is on the motherboard, is larger and somewhat slower. CAD: Computer Aided Design (Computer Aided Design). Caldera: One of the shops that specialize in making distributions of Linux, specifically known as OpenLinux. CAM: Computer-aided manufacturing (Computer Aided Manufacturing). or Country: In the world of databases, each of the data that make up a record (or tab).For example, in the file for each provider would have fields like your name, postal address, phone, etc.. Canon: known manufacturer of printers, computers and other hardware. CASE: Engineering of Computer-Aided Software (Computer Aided Software Engineering). CCD: Device used to capture images. In scanners, this is usually a row of cells that moves, and digital cameras a two-dimensional array. Each cell consists of a photocell and a capacitor. The charge acquired by the capacitor depends on the amount of light received by the photocell. (Charge Coupled Device). CD: Usually refers to Compact Disc. Other abbreviations are: a CD-ROM, CD-R and CD-RW. Compact Disc A computer will be able to store about 650 Mb of information. CD-R: A Compact Disc which can record information (Recordable), but not delete or modify the existing one. CD-ROM: A Compact Disc playback, which can read data but not delete or modify (Read Only Memory). Also commonly use this same name for the device manager to read this Compact Disc for your computer (it would be more appropriate to call " CD-ROM). CD-RW: A Compact Disc which can record information and delete or amend existing (Recordable-Writable). Centronics: a standard parallel connection, used to connect a computer and a printer. On the computer, usually a female DB25 connector. . CGA: Color Graphics adapter (Color Graphics Adapter). One of the first graphics cards available on PCs and compatibles. Allowed resolutions of 320x200 points with 4 colors and 640x200 points in 2 colors. CGM:, is the extension corresponding to a vector graphic file type: Computer Graphics Metafile. clone: The term " clone" is being used almost as synonymous with " compatible" , but led to a still more marked: a computer that is cloned from another so closely resembles the original (at least internally) as permitted by law in copyright. CMY color decomposition based on three basic components: light blue (cyan), Violet (Magenta) and yellow (Yellow). Decomposition is common in printers. This is subtractive colors: the greater the amount thereof closer the resulting color to black. It is increasingly common base to add more color, more pros looking black (CMYK, with black-black) or more precisely in the intermediate colors (CcMmYK, with two additional shades of Cyan and Magenta). Cobol: Programming language focused on business applications, now quite obsolete (COmmon Businness-Oriented Language). machine code: the language in which the computer is able to recognize commands. The programs created in other languages must be translated prior to machine code (compiled) or the computer can not understand. COM: The extension that corresponds to a type of executable file under MSDOS. / / COM: Name given under DOS serial ports (to connect modem or mouse, for example). Typically a computer has two ports of this kind, which would be designated COM1 and COM2. Coma (fixed and floating): The term " fixed point" (in English fixed point) is used to refer to numbers with a constant number of decimal places. These numbers are easier to handle (but less useful in practice) that the numbers in " float" (in English, Floating Point), with a variable number of decimal places. Commodore: Home hardware developer, now defunct, creator of old computer as PET, Vic20, C16, C64, C128, Amiga and some compatible PC (PC-10, PC-20, etc).. .  Compatible: It is said that a computer is compatible with everything else when you can use software designed for that (sometimes all or part of hardware). Nowadays, computers often speak of " compatible" when referring to computers " PC compatible" with the range x86 processors. Compiler: Computer application used to create programs in a programming language. Converts programs created in a programming language the computer's internal language (machine code).  compressor: Computer application is responsible for " compressed" information to save space and to facilitate its storage and transport. In most cases, this compression is done without any loss: the data can " unzip" to come back to stay exactly as they were. Concurrent: A computer performs several tasks concurrently when you have a single processor, and devotes a short time to each of the tasks on. controller: controller is often called (driver, in English) the program required for a certain program or operating system is capable of using a device (eg a printer).  co-processor: Processor auxiliary work designed to download the main processor.When using only the word " coprocessor" , is commonly referred to math coprocessors, in charge of operations with real numbers (with decimals, also called " float" ). Most current processors have already incorporated the math coprocessor (for example, the range Pentium and most 486). CORBA: Common ORB Architecture, a standard based on ORB. Corel: Known software maker, author of packages such as Corel Draw and also acquired and developed others such as Ventura Publisher and WordPerfect. CP / M: OS " professional" created by Digital Research, which was quite used 8-bit computers. on impresorasmatriciales. CPU: Central Processing Unit (Central Processing Unit). See " Processor."  or Cracker: A person who tries to break the protections of a computer system, usually for malicious purposes (other than a " hacker" , which seeks to deepen some system to learn from him). CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Code, a verification code that is usually added to the data transmitted in many communications and to detect (to some extent) if there has been any error in transmission. Cyrix: Known chipmaker, compatible with the Intel X86 series. <br />DAC: Digital to analog converter. Dbase: Database Manager, by Ashton Tate and then bought and improved by Borland. DBF: It is the extension corresponding to a type of database file, originally used by Dbase, but that is common to find all types of applications. DCE: data communications equipment, a name that usually receives in a communication used by a computer modem to connect to another computer (Data Communication Equipment). DIMM: Type of RAM modules (Dual In-Line Memory Module). Hard Disk: A storage device, which was born as an evolution of the disk. Has a much higher capacity (now usual passing of 2.5Gb) and is much faster, but is not designed to be carried from one place to another, but to remain within the computer (except a few exceptions, themselves are portable.) DMA: Direct Memory Access, a process that allows a device (external or internal) transfer data to computer memory can speed without data passing through the processor (Direct Memory Access). DNS domain name server (Domain Name Server). DOC: Extension files created with Word and other word processors (short document). DOS: Disk Operating System (Disk Operating System). This is a single-user single-tasking operating system.  DPI: Dots per inch (Dots Per Inch),. DPMI: A series of functions that allowed DOS programs work in protected mode, making use of all existing memory (Dos Protected Mode Interface). DRAM: Dynamic RAM. Driver: display driver. DSP: Digital Signal Processor (Digital Signal Processor). DSTN: (Dualscan SuperTwist Nematic). Dual Scan: type color LCD screen for laptops. Offers less contrast and poorer viewing angle TFT that, in exchange for a lower price. DTE: Data Terminal Equipment, a name that usually receives in a communication to the computer that receives or sends the data (Data Terminal Equipment). DVD digital disk improved, with a capacity far superior to CD. (Digital Video Disk or Digital Versatile Disk). ."  <br />  <br />EGA: enhanced graphics adapter (Enhanced Graphics Adapter). Graphics Card PC and compatible computers, evolution of the CGA, which could work well in 16 colors with 320x200, 640x200 and 640x350 points. . . EISA-type standard architecture motherboard with expansion slots of 32 bits, based on ISA and now abandoned (Enhanced ISA). Executable: A program that can " run" or use " alone" , without the need to have a certain software application from which to manage it (for details, see Compiler). Run: In computing, the word " executed" (in English RUN) is equivalent to putting a program in operation. E-mail: e-mail (electronic mail). Message (usually private) sent over a computer network. . EPROM: erasable and programmable ROM memory (Erasable Programmable ROM). Excel: spreadsheet application by Microsoft. EXE extension is corresponding to a type of executable file under DOS, OS / 2 and / or Windows. expanded (memory): One of the conventions that emerged on how to access memory above 1 Mb from the DOS operating system, something he was not initially designed. Was inconsistent with the other proposed standard, extended memory, which was used most. <br /> Extension: In operating systems like MS-DOS and Windows, is often the name of a file consists of two parts, separated by a period. The first part (Two limited to 8 letters long) is the name itself, the second part (up to 3 letters in Two) is the extension, which usually indicates the type of information stored that file.  <br /> <br />FAQ: Collection of frequently asked questions about a certain topic and answers (Frequently Asked Questions).  FAT file status table (File Allocation Table), something like an index of what data is on a drive, and where are located the data. File: A collection of information that is stored or used for consultation later. In a computer, usually each file should have a name you can reference it. . Firewire: Trade name of IEEE 1394, a new type of digital connection, which enables speeds from 100 Mbps (million bits per second), and aims to reach up to 400 Mbps (million bytes per second). Firmware: The " software that is within the hardware."  Refers to ROMs recorded programs.  Fortran, programming language, aimed at engineering (Formula Translator). FoxPro, database manager, made by Microsoft. FPU, math coprocessor (Floating Point Unit). FreeBSD UNIX operating system freely distributed. Freeware: Computer application can be copied and distributed freely, and whose use is free. <br />FTP: Internet standard protocol for file transfer (File Transfer Protocol). Also commonly use this name for programs sending and receiving files that are supported by this protocol<br />.    <br />GEM graphical environment developed by Digital Research (Graphic Environment Manager). In the world of PC support was superseded by Windows, which is the current standard. GIF: This is the extension corresponding to a graphic file type of bitmap (Graphics Interchange Format). GigaByte: Multiple byte: a gigabyte is 1,024 megabytes, about 1,000 million bytes.GMT: Greenwich Mean Time (Greenwich Mean Time). There is a unique concept of computer science, but appears in the time settings of many programs and operating systems. For example, the time is GMT Madrid 1. GUI: GUI (Graphical User Interface). <br />  <br />Hacker: computer enthusiast. The word is often used to indicate also a certain intrusion, a hacker is a person who is always willing to learn and meet new challenges, which you can find access to a theoretically closed system. But this does not mean it is done with malice, but by the challenge itself. When it comes to someone with malicious intent is seldom used the word " cracker."  Hardware: The part " you can touch" of a computer: box (and all its contents), keyboard, screen, etc. and Hayes modems known manufacturer, the operator of the AT commands. HD: HDD (Hard Disk) / / HD: High density (High Density). <br /> Hewlett-Packard, a major manufacturer of hardware for nearly all types: computers, laser and inkjet printers, plotters, etc. Hypertext: In a classic text, the structure is completely linear reading from start to finish, in a hypertext, it is intended to break the linear structure, through " links" (also called " Links" or " hyperlinks" ) that allow jump to related topics, where to find extended information. Internet Web pages (like this) are a clear example of Hypertext or Spreadsheet: Computer application to manipulate numeric data: do all kinds of operations on them, display graphics, etc.. HPGL: graphic language designed by Hewlett-Packard for its plotters (Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language). HSP: Name given to the modems that have no digital signal processor (DSP), but this mission is accomplished by the computer you are connected. Therefore, they are cheaper, but usually give poor performance and not work with any operating system because they need a specific driver (Host Signal Processor). HTM: Extension under MSDOS files to HTML.  HTTP: The protocol used in WWW pages (HyperText Transfer Protocol). <br /> <br /> <br />IBM: Major manufacturer of computers and software (International Business Machines). IDE: One of the standards in connection of hard drives and similar devices. There is an improved variant, faster, called EIDE. / / IDE integrated development environment: an environment from which you can edit programs, compile and debug (Integrated Development Environment). IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, an American institution responsible for the creation of a large number of standards in electronics and computers. Printer: A device responsible for the paper stream to a computer information handling. Today the most common are those of injection, laser and dot matrix, although there are many other types, such as the daisy, the thermals, the sublimation, etc.. Intel: processor known manufacturer, creator of the X86 line. Interface: Connecting a computer to the outside, or between two devices. Internet: Computer network worldwide. It offers various services, such as sending and receiving electronic mail (e-mail), the ability to see information on Web pages, participate in discussion forums (News), to send and receive files via FTP, time chatsReal-IRC, etc. or Rick: See compiler. injection (or inkjet, or " ink jet) printer type whose operation is based on the role fire ink droplets that form the images or text. IRC: Chat (written, not loud) in real time between multiple people on the Internet (Internet Relay Chat). ISA standard architecture type of motherboard with expansion slots 8 and 16 bit (Industry Standard Architectecture). ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network or ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network). ISP: Internet Service Provider (Internet Services Provider). <br />  <br />Java: programming language, object-oriented C-based, increasingly widespread, especially through Internet.  JAZ: storage unit like a floppy disk, but with a capacity of 1 Gb and 2 Gb (depending on model) created by Iomega. Joystick: Joystick used in many games. JPEG, JPG: This is the extension corresponding to a graphic file type of bitmap. It is a compressed format that, unlike most, becomes rough when compressed: JVM: Java Virtual Machine (Java Virtual Machine).  <br />Kbps: Thousands of bps. Kernel: kernel of an operating system. kilobytes: Multiple byte: A kilobyte is 1,024 bytes. K5: Processor by AMD, intermediate between the 486 and the Intel Pentium. K7: processor made by AMD, after the K6 range, and whose final name in the market has been Athlon<br />.  <br /> <br />LAN: Local Area Network (Local Area Network). Laptop: Laptop which lifts a cover that houses the screen and the bottom is the keyboard and the internal circuitry Laser: A type of printer is generally based on a mechanism similar to that of photocopiers. <br />LCD: LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). LED: light emitting diode (Light Emitting Diode). Linux: freeware version (free) operating system Unix, developed by Linus Torvalds, with contributions from programmers around the world. Logo: programming language, which for a time was considered more appropriate to introduce computers to young children. Lotus: Renowned software house, creating programs like 1-2-3, Ami Pro, WordPro, Freelance, Notes, etc. LPT: DOS name given to the parallel port (for connecting printers). Typically a computer has a port of this type, to be designated LPT1. LZH: Extension of compressed files. The corresponding compressor is LHA  <br /> <br />MacOS: Operating system of Apple Macintosh computers. or Macintosh: Known range of computers made by Apple, initially based on processors from the Motorola 68000 series, and today on PowerPC processors. Mainboard: English, motherboard. Matrox: Known graphics card manufacturer. Is well-known ranges such as the Millennium, Mystique and Production. MBR: Master Boot Record, the boot sector of hard disk. Megabyte: Multiple of byte: a megabyte is 1,024 kilobytes, about one million bytes.MFM: Used by many of the early hard drives on PC and XT-compatible computers.MHz: megahertz, is a measure of frequency (number of times something happens in one second). In the case of computers, a computer at 200 MHz will be able to give 200 million steps per second. In the real speed of work not only influence the MHz, but also the architecture of the processor (and the rest of the components), for example, in the X86 series, unPentium to 60 MHz was about twice as fast as a 486 to 66 MHz Microsoft: software development house, maker of operating systems like MS-DOS and Windows, as well as applications of all kinds. MID: Extent that corresponds to a type of sound files (usually Windows). MIDI: Musical Instrument connection standard (Musical Instrument Device Interface). Minix: Version of the UNIX operating system developed for educational purposes by Professor Andrew Tannenbaum. MIPS: Millions of instructions per second, a measure of computer speed / / MIPS: a family of RISC processors, which equipped many workstations, such as Silicon Graphics. MMX: MultiMedia Extensions, set of new instructions added to the high-end Pentium processors, with the intention to accelerate the most common operations enmultimedia. Modem: A device that allows a computer to send and receive information by telephone (modular-demodulator). <br />Mouse: A device used to communicate with the computer. Lets point out areas of the screen, as a way to tell the computer what you want to do. MPEG:, compressed video format for PC (Motion Pictures Expert Group). MP3:, compressed audio format for computer, subformat MPEG (MPEG-1 Layer 3).  Media: The growing trend that computers are not only able to manage information in text, but images of large, colorful, or even sounds and video clips. This capability is what is known as Multimedia. Multitask: This is when a computer is able to perform more than one task at a time.It may be in parallel (if more than one processor) or concurrently (if you only have one). <br />News: One of the services offered by the Internet. This is an open discussion forum, consisting of thematic news groups, in which anyone can write public messages and read existing ones. NFS: Network File System (Network File System), a file system that allows a computer to " mount" directories and remote file systems, on the other (s) computer (s) of the network. NMI: Non-Maskable Interrupt. Is the input of an interrupt has the highest priority and is always accepted by the processor. Node: a computer on a network. Notebook or handheld computer (laptop) closed is similar in size <br />.    <br />Objective C programming language, object-oriented language based on C. OCR: Computer application is converted to text images acquired with a scanner (OCR). Octal: numbering system in base 8. Used the numbers 0 through 7, and each position of a number indicates a power of 8. For example, the decimal number 101 would be converted to octal 145 (1x64 4x8 5x1). Office: Suite by Microsoft, which includes applications such as Word, Excel, Outlook (and optionally other as Access or Publisher). and Olivetti: known manufacturer of computers, printers, typewriters, etc. OOP: Object Oriented Programming or OOP (Object Oriented Programming). OpenLinux: Linux operating system version, compiled by Caldera. ORB: Object Request Broker (Object Request Broker). The basic idea is: in a client / server, the services to which access may not always be available on the same server, so that these services are requested to an agent, which is what really connects to application client server application without the client application needs to know where these services are physically located. Outlook: Personal Organizer by Microsoft. ________________________________________ <br />  <br />Paradox: Database Manager, by Borland. Password: password or password required to access a system. PC: PC (Personal Computer). This abbreviation comes from the IBM Personal Computer, the house created by IBM in the early 80's. The original PC was working with unprocesador8086 at 4.77 MHz and 64 Kb of memory. Since then often speak of the " PC" as the computers compatible with the original IBM PC (capable of using any program that was designed for that), processors based on Intel's X86 series. PCB: PCB (Printed Circuit Board). PCI: Type standard architecture motherboard with expansion slots 32 or 64 bits, used on computers with Pentium processor and above <br />PCMCIA: Standard expansion slots in handheld computers (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association).  PCX: The extension that corresponds to a graphic file type of bitmap. PerfectOffice: Suite by Novell, which includes applications such as WordPerfect and Quattro Pro or peripheral, auxiliary device that can connect to a computer (eg a printer). Pixel: The smallest element that forms an image (" a point" ). Short for Picture Element. PNG: The extension that corresponds to a graphic file type bitmaps (Portable Network Graphics). Postscript: A graphics language page description, widely used in printers for medium and high. Powerpoint: Application for creating presentations, made by Microsoft. PPM: Pages per minute: is the drive that measures the speed of printing in laser printers and inkjet.. Processor: The brain of the computer. Its working speed is measured in megahertz (MHz) and its processing capacity by the number of bits that can handle at a time (eg 32 bits or 64 bits) .. or word processor. One type of application that allows you to write texts of all kinds, from letters to books. Today it is often possible to use different fonts, include images and tables, write columns add mathematical equations, etc.. Program: a set of commands to a computer. When a program is completed and purchased, we often speak of a Computer Application. Programs should be written in a programming language. Programming languages that are closer to human language that the computer are called " high-level languages (like Pascal) which are closer to the computer are" low level " (as the assembler). The most common is to create programs in a high-level language (called " source" ) and then convert the computer's own language (" compile" for an executable). PROM: programmable ROM memory (Programmable ROM). Protocol: Rules to follow in a certain communication, data format to send the transmitter, how to be each of the responses of the receiver, etc. Proxy: Software that allows multiple computers to access the Internet through a single physical connection. As advanced, can allow access to Web pages, FTP, email, etc. It is often also include other services such as firewalls (firewalls). or inch: English system unit of length equal to 2.54 cm.  Q <br />Quattro: spreadsheet application made by Borland. <br />  <br />RAM: Direct Memory Access (Random Access Memory). This name is usually used to refer to reports which you can read and write (RWM). In últimosPC is usual to use Fast Page Ram (386 and above), EDO Ram (486 and Pentium) and SDRAM (latest Pentium, Pentium MMX and above). RAR: Extension of compressed files. The compressor for the RAR. Raster: Image Type (see BitMap). Rasterize: Convert an image from vector to bitmap. ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network, the digital telephone network. Real (mode): work mode 80x86 processors (see protected.) or computer network: A group of computers connected together to share resources (eg printers) and information. Red Hat: One of the shops that specialize in making Linux distributions. Registration: In the world of databases, each of the chips that make up a table. Release: (in Spanish, " review" or " version" ). It is common for a software application to be unchanged, improvements or corrections. The version number usually indicates the progress of the changes. Numbers are often correlated, and often are two figures separated by a dot<br />RGB color decomposition based on three basic components: red, green and blue (Red, Green, Blue). Decomposition is common in computer displays. This is additive color, the greater the amount of red, green and blue, closer the resulting color to white. RISC: A type of processor that recognizes a small set of orders, but is capable of responding to these orders with great speed (as opposed to CISC). RLL: Used by many of the early hard drives on PC and XT-compatible computers. RMI: Remote Method Invocation (Remote Method Invocation), is that an object access method (one of the features) from another remote object (which is located elsewhere on a network). ROM, read only memory (Read Only Memory). Root: Unix system administrator. RS232 serial connection is a standard, very common in personal computers.There are two standard connectors, 9 pin (DB9) and 25 pins (DB25). RTB: Telephone Network: the conventional telephone network, analog. Run: Run View. RWM: Memory in which you can read write (Read / Write Memory). <br />   <br />SB: It is often used as shorthand for SoundBlaster. Scanner: A device capable of reading and send still images to your computer.From your computer will be able to print these images, modify them, etc. SCO: Santa Cruz Operation, a home developer of extended commercial UNIX. SCSI: Small Computer System Interface, a standard connection for various devices such as hard drives or scanners. SCSI hard disks are usually faster (and more expensive) losIDE. SDK: Software Development Kit, a set of applications to develop programs in a language or for a particular environment (Software Development Kit). SDRAM RAM type used in high-end PCs (Pentium II and above, plus some Pentium " normal" ). Series: In a serial connection, the information bits are sent one after another. This makes communication slower than parallel transmission. or Shareware: Computer application can be copied and distributed freely. This is a trial version, which is usually limited in some way. If the application appears to be satisfactory to the user that the test must then pay the author, and receives a version of the application without any limitation. SIMM: Type RAM Module (Single In-line Memory Module). Sinclair: Home computer manufacturer, now defunct, that had a heyday with the first home computers, especially with his model ZX Spectrum. It was also the author of earlier models, such as 80 or ZX ZX81 and later (but with less success) as the QL. SIPP: Type of RAM module (obsolete, used in some 286). operating system: A layer between the computer and the user. It could be considered as a program (usually large) that takes control of the computer and provides the basic utilities. For more advanced uses, need to install applications such as databases, spreadsheets, custom programs, etc. SLIP: A standard Internet protocol for connections over serial port (Serial Line Internet Protocol). Smalltalk: Language object-oriented programming. SmartSuite: Lotus Suite by, which includes applications such as WordPro, 1-2-3 and Organizer. Software: The party " can not touch" of a computer: programs and data. SoHo: Generally speaking SoHo environments to refer to domestic premises or small business, in which teams may require relatively low power (Small Office - Home Office).<br /> Sound Card: A device that gives the computer the ability to synthesize and make sounds as well as capture. Often a computer that has no sound card has at least a small speaker, which can be controlled directly from the processor toSolaris version of Unix operating system, developed by Sun. Sound Blaster: One of the brands most popular sound cards. Corresponds to a range created by Creative Labs home Spectrum: Range of computers developed by Sinclair different houses (like Sony, Philips, Toshiba, Spectravideo, etc.) mid 80's. Were based on the Z80 processor with 16 or 48k of memory (the first versions), ability to make graphics with 8 colors to 256x186 dots and make sounds, and could connect to any television. Later improved versions were developed, more comfortable with keyboards (Spectrum-Plus-), tape drive built in (Spectrum 2) or drive 3 " 178K, expanded memory and 128-K and other internal improvements (Spectrum 3). SQL: A standard query language database (Structured Query Language). SRAM: Static RAM. SSL: Secure Socket Layer (Secure Sockets Layer). StarOffice Suite by StarDivision, now owned by Sun, which includes applications for word processing, spreadsheet, database, drawing, presentations, and is available for various operating systems .. Streamer: reader / writer for computer tapes special. Allow a high capacity at a low price, but are slower than other devices such as diskettes, CD-Rom, or hard disk. Subnotebook: notebook (laptop) to a size smaller than A4. Suite: A set of programs designed to work together. In Spanish is often called " Integrated Package."  Often that includes a word processor, a spreadsheet, a personal organizer, and may have other modules, such as database managers, graphics programs or presentations, etc. or Sun: house hardware and software developer, which has boomed recently due to the creation of the Java language.  Suse: One of the shops that specialize in making Linux <br />S3M: Extent that corresponds to a type of sound files. <br />________________________________________ <br />Table: In the world of databases, a set of records (cards) that have a certain homogeneity (for example, data from our suppliers may be stored in a single table). : A component of many laser printers and copiers (for details, see Laser). Tb: Abbreviation of TeraByte. TCP / IP: Protocol Standard Internet communications (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol). issue low-quality sound. Graphics Card: A device that gives the computer the ability to display images on screen. The performance of a graphics card usually depend on the number of points and colors that are able to show, speed, and the amount of memory available (the higher the amount of memory, will be able to display images with more points and / or more colors). The graphics card must be in accordance with the display or monitor.For example, a screen display that allows only 800x600 or less, you can not take full advantage card points to reach 1024x768. The most common in the PC have been, earliest to latest: Hercules, CGA, EGA, MCGA, VGA, SVGA. Telnet: One of the services offered by the Internet: the ability to remotely access another computer on the network, and work from our screen as if we were really in front of the computer typing. Terabyte: Multiple byte: A terabyte is 1,024 gigabytes, about a trillion (one trillion) bytes. TFT type color LCD screen for laptops. Provides more contrast and better viewing angle than dual scan, but is more expensive (Thin Film Transistor). TIF, is the extension corresponding to a graphic file type bitmap, TIFF format. TIFF: One type of graphic file bitmap more widespread, even among very different types of computers (Tagged Image File Format). Toner: Ink powder commonly used in laser printers and copiers (for details, Turbo C: C language compiler developed by Borland. Turbo Pascal Compiler Pascal developed by Borland. <br />  <br />UC2: Extension of compressed files. The compressor for the Ultra Compressor (UC). Unix operating system and multi-tasking. URL: Direction of a certain page of information in Internet (Universal Resource Locator). USB: Universal Serial Bus (universal serial bus), a new type of serial connection that is gaining rapidly on certain characteristics such as: you can connect multiple devices to a single port (up to 127), may be connected to the computer on, and the computer detects the device in question. or Usenet: One of the services offered by the Internet, also known as News. <br />________________________________________ <br />Vector: A type of images to your computer, which stores information about the lines and geometric shapes that compose them. This allows not lose definition if developed further, contrary to what happens with the images " Bitmap" . Vectorize: convert image to vector Bitmap. VESA: Video Electronics Standards Association. An association responsible for conducting standards related to graphics cards for computers. Architecture of boxes made of 32-bit base (Vesa Local Bus or VLB) and identified a number of standard video modes for a variety of SVGA graphics card. VGA: video graphics array (Video Graphics Array). Graphics Card PC and compatible computers, evolution of the MCGA, which could work well in 16 colors with 640x480 pixels. Virtual: This word is often used to refer to something that does not really exist, but only inside the computer. The two most common meanings are " Virtual Reality" , referring to a 3-dimensional space created inside the computer, whereby the user can move (usually with the aid of assistive devices such as stereoscopic glasses, gloves and joysticks), and "  virtual memory, which is that a computer appears to have more memory than is physically, thanks to the hard drive is used as a buffer zone in which you are turning information when real memory is saturated (for transparently without the user having to do anything). Virus: A program with malicious intent, which is able to spread from one file to another computer. VLB: VESA Local Bus standard architecture type of motherboard with expansion slots 32-bit ISA-based, designed specifically for graphics cards, now abandoned. <br />________________________________________ <br />WAN: Wide Area Network (Wide Area Network). WAV: The extension that corresponds to a sound file (the standard Windows): WAVE. Web: See WWW. Winchester: The name was formerly of the hard drives. Windows: Generic name for a family of software designed by Microsoft. Earlier versions (up to 3.11) were a Windows-based graphical environment for the DOS operating system. From Windows 95 (Windows 95 and Windows 98) and is an operating system itself, with multitasking capabilities. There are also " Special" version of Windows such as Windows NT, designed for professional environments, or Windows CE, for laptops with very small dimensions. WMF, is the extension corresponding to a vector graphic file type (the standard Windows): Windows MetaFile. Word: Word Processor by Microsoft. WordPerfect: Word Processor WordPerfect initially made and now by Corel Corporation. WordPro: Word Processor by Lotus, the evolution of a previous call AmiPro. WordStar, Word Processor, which was a standard under MSDOS but currently does not continue to improve (as far as I know). World Wide Web: See WWW. WP: It is often used as shorthand for Word Processing (word processing) or WordPerfect. WWW: World Wide Web: possibly the best-known Internet service: a series of pages of information, text, images (sometimes even other possibilities, such as sound or video clips), and linked in turn with other pages containing information related thereto. <br />________________________________________ <br />Xbase: Generic name is usually given to the programming language for databases using dBase and applied (and extended) other tools such as Clipper or FoxPro. Xenix, UNIX operating system version developed by Microsoft in the late 70's and early 80's, designed specifically for PC-compatible computers. Xerox, known manufacturer of printers, copiers and plotters. XLS: Extension files created with Excel. XML description language websites (eXtensible Markup Language), designed with the intention of replacing the current standard HTML. XMS: See extended memory. XT: The IBM XT was a variant of the original IBM PC, including hard disk (original PC). XWindows: window-based graphical environment for the Unix operating system. X86: Generic name is often given to the family of Intel processors based on the 8086: the 8086 original and its variant 8088, 80286, 386, 486 and the current range Pentium (Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium MMX, Pentium II, Celeron). <br /> <br /> ZIP: Extension of compressed files. The corresponding compressor is often called ZIP or PKZIP. / / ZIP: storage unit like a floppy disk, but with a capacity of 100 Mb, created by Iomega. Z80: 8-bit processor, the house created by Zilog, which was widely used in the first generation of personal computers, for teams like the Sinclair ZX Spectrum, MSX<br />