By: jhon Anderson sanchez
Juan sebastian escobar
Josman jeferson gutierrez
Institución educativa GABO
access: Database Manager, made
Ada: structured programming
language, which allows several
object-oriented features. It is the
language used by the Department of
Defense (DoD) U.S. ..
ADC: analog to digital converter.
Manager: The person who
supervises and controls the correct
operation of a computer system.
AGP: Accelerated Graphics Port, a
new connecting slot for graphics
cards that exist in the motherboard
Pentium II computers.
needles (printer "needles"): see
AI: Abbreviation for Articial
Intelligence (Artificial Intelligence).
AIX: UNIX operating system
version by IBM for their computers.
Alpha: A set of letters, numbers
and other symbols such as
punctuation marks or mathematical
symbols. Refers to keyboard
characters and character sets
available for different data transfer
operations of the computer.
AMD processors known
manufacturer, compatible with the
Intel x86 series (Advanced Micro
AmiPro: Word Processor by Lotus,
now improved and called WordPro.
ANSI: American National Standards
Institute. Organization established to
adopt and define standards for
various technical disciplines.
Antivirus: Computer application
designed to detect and remove
API: Application Programming
Interface (Applications Programming
Interface): a series of functions that
are available for programs for a
computer application: A computer
program that is purchased and
made ready for use. They come in
many different types, depending on
what purpose they are designed:
word processors, databases,
accounting software, billing, etc.
Apple: Home computer maker,
maker of computers like the Apple
II, Lisa, Macintosh and iMac.
ARC: Extension of compressed
files. The corresponding compressor
Archive: It is often used as
synonymous with file. In the world of
compressors, often make a
distinction, saying that several
original files are compressed and
packed into an archive.
ARJ: Extending compressed
files. The corresponding compressor
is also called juvenile rheumatoid
Start: this name is often used to
refer to the action of making a
working computer. It is common to
distinguish between "cold start"
(when the computer was off) and
"hot start" (when the computer was
on and "reset" without actually
physically turn off).English is often
called "boot", and distinguish
between "cold boot" (cold) and
"warm boot" (hot) or "reset."
AT: Name the first computer was
created by IBM with 80286
processor. Thus, we often speak of
AT-compatible PC from referring to
computers with 80286 or higher
processors. / / AT: Computer
Games for the modem, the house
created by Hayes and today
AutoCad: Known CAD software by
Autodesk: House software
developer, author of applications
such as AutoCad, 3D Studio,
Animator, AutoSketch, etc.
or AVI, compressed video format for
computer, the Windows standard.
Down: It is increasingly common to
hear phrases like "I downloaded the
network an update for my
antivirus." The word "down" (in
English, "download") indicates a
transfer of information from a
remote computer (eg, a computer
who is hosting on the Internet or
other network) to our PC. The word
"up" (in English "upload") indicates
the sending of information from our
computer to a host computer on the
Database: Computer application for
managing information in the form of
"tokens" customers, articles, films,
etc. Most databases now allow
listing, queries, create data display
screen, control user access, etc.. It
is also becoming more common
queries can be done in a standard
language called SQL.
Basic: Programming language
initially designed for Beginners
(Beginners All-purpose Symbolic
BAT: Extension of a file consists of
a lot (batch) Two orders.
Baud: bits per second which is
theoretically capable of transmitting
/ receiving a modem or serial
connection between two computers,
or between a computer and an
BCD: Binary Coded Decimal (Binary
Coded Decimal). Acronym used to
refer to a special form of binary
coded decimal numbers, using 4
bits for each decimal digit, so a byte
can store two decimal numbers.
BIOS: System Basic Input / Output
(Basic Input Output
System). Typically involve one or
more ROM chips (usually EPROMs)
containing the basic routines and
out, the first steps you should take a
computer to fire, the basic system
Bit: The smallest unit of information
that can store and manage a
computer equivalent to a 0 or 1.
bitmap (or bitmap). One type of
images to your computer, which
stores information about the points
that make and color of each point
(as opposed to vector images).This
means that the larger picture is lost
definition, are "fat points."
BMP: This is the extension
corresponding to a graphic file type
of bitmap (the standard Windows):
Borland: Known software maker,
author of languages such as Turbo
Pascal, Turbo C, Delphi, C Builder,
JBuilder, etc., and applications such
as Paradox, Quattro Pro, etc. It has
now been renamed and is called
Bps: Bits per second: the unit used
to measure the actual transfer
speed of a modem or a serial
BSD: Berkeley Software
Distribution, University of California
at Berkeley, author of a version of
UNIX that bears his name.
Buffer: buffer for temporary data
storage in communication between
a computer and an external device
(eg a printer). When is a computer
program that makes the task of
intermediate storage for data that
are sent to the printer, the program
is often called Spooler.
Bug: error in a program, which
means that in certain circumstances
may not behave correctly.
Byte: A basic unit of information. In
practice, one can consider that a
byte is the amount of space required
to store a letter. Have multiples as
the Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte
and Terabyte. Internally, it
corresponds to 8 bits.
Cache: A special type of memory,
faster than normal RAM (and more
expensive), which gets in the way of
data ranging from the processor to
the RAM. Thus, all information that
goes to the processor RAM is left
temporarily stored in the
cache.When re-read information, it
first checks if it is in the cache, if
there is no need to go to RAM
searching. In practice, very often
repetitive operations or work with
repetitive data, which makes owning
cache to help speed up your
computer to normal
operation. Today it is often also
distinguish cache "first level" and
"second level". The first level is
within the processor itself. The
second level is on the motherboard,
is larger and somewhat slower.
CAD: Computer Aided Design
(Computer Aided Design).
Caldera: One of the shops that
specialize in making distributions of
Linux, specifically known as
manufacturing (Computer Aided
or Country: In the world of
databases, each of the data that
make up a record (or tab).For
example, in the file for each provider
would have fields like your name,
postal address, phone, etc..
Canon: known manufacturer of
printers, computers and other
CASE: Engineering of Computer-
Aided Software (Computer Aided
CCD: Device used to capture
images. In scanners, this is usually
a row of cells that moves, and digital
cameras a two-dimensional
array. Each cell consists of a
photocell and a capacitor. The
charge acquired by the capacitor
depends on the amount of light
received by the photocell. (Charge
CD: Usually refers to Compact
Disc. Other abbreviations are: a CD-
ROM, CD-R and CD-RW. Compact
Disc A computer will be able to store
about 650 Mb of information.
CD-R: A Compact Disc which can
record information (Recordable), but
not delete or modify the existing
CD-ROM: A Compact Disc
playback, which can read data but
not delete or modify (Read Only
Memory). Also commonly use this
same name for the device manager
to read this Compact Disc for your
computer (it would be more
appropriate to call "CD-ROM).
CD-RW: A Compact Disc which can
record information and delete or
amend existing (Recordable-
Centronics: a standard parallel
connection, used to connect a
computer and a printer. On the
computer, usually a female DB25
CGA: Color Graphics adapter (Color
Graphics Adapter). One of the first
graphics cards available on PCs
and compatibles. Allowed
resolutions of 320x200 points with 4
colors and 640x200 points in 2
CGM:, is the extension
corresponding to a vector graphic
file type: Computer Graphics
clone: The term "clone" is being
used almost as synonymous with
"compatible", but led to a still more
marked: a computer that is cloned
from another so closely resembles
the original (at least internally) as
permitted by law in copyright.
CMY color decomposition based on
three basic components: light blue
(cyan), Violet (Magenta) and yellow
(Yellow). Decomposition is common
in printers. This is subtractive colors:
the greater the amount thereof
closer the resulting color to black. It
is increasingly common base to add
more color, more pros looking black
(CMYK, with black-black) or more
precisely in the intermediate colors
(CcMmYK, with two additional
shades of Cyan and Magenta).
Cobol: Programming language
focused on business applications,
now quite obsolete (COmmon
machine code: the language in
which the computer is able to
recognize commands. The
programs created in other
languages must be translated prior
to machine code (compiled) or the
computer can not understand.
COM: The extension that
corresponds to a type of executable
file under MSDOS. / / COM: Name
given under DOS serial ports (to
connect modem or mouse, for
example). Typically a computer has
two ports of this kind, which would
be designated COM1 and COM2.
Coma (fixed and floating): The term
"fixed point" (in English fixed point)
is used to refer to numbers with a
constant number of decimal
places. These numbers are easier
to handle (but less useful in
practice) that the numbers in "float"
(in English, Floating Point), with a
variable number of decimal places.
Commodore: Home hardware
developer, now defunct, creator of
old computer as PET, Vic20, C16,
C64, C128, Amiga and some
compatible PC (PC-10, PC-20,
Compatible: It is said that a
computer is compatible with
everything else when you can use
software designed for that
(sometimes all or part of
hardware). Nowadays, computers
often speak of "compatible" when
referring to computers "PC
compatible" with the range x86
Compiler: Computer application
used to create programs in a
programming language. Converts
programs created in a programming
language the computer's internal
language (machine code).
compressor: Computer application
is responsible for "compressed"
information to save space and to
facilitate its storage and transport. In
most cases, this compression is
done without any loss: the data can
"unzip" to come back to stay exactly
as they were.
Concurrent: A computer performs
several tasks concurrently when you
have a single processor, and
devotes a short time to each of the
controller: controller is often called
(driver, in English) the program
required for a certain program or
operating system is capable of using
a device (eg a printer).
co-processor: Processor auxiliary
work designed to download the
main processor.When using only the
word "coprocessor", is commonly
referred to math coprocessors, in
charge of operations with real
numbers (with decimals, also called
"float"). Most current processors
have already incorporated the math
coprocessor (for example, the range
Pentium and most 486).
CORBA: Common ORB
Architecture, a standard based on
Corel: Known software maker,
author of packages such as Corel
Draw and also acquired and
developed others such as Ventura
Publisher and WordPerfect.
CP / M: OS "professional" created
by Digital Research, which was
quite used 8-bit computers.
CPU: Central Processing Unit
(Central Processing Unit). See
or Cracker: A person who tries to
break the protections of a computer
system, usually for malicious
purposes (other than a "hacker",
which seeks to deepen some
system to learn from him).
CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Code, a
verification code that is usually
added to the data transmitted in
many communications and to detect
(to some extent) if there has been
any error in transmission.
Cyrix: Known chipmaker,
compatible with the Intel X86
DAC: Digital to analog converter.
Dbase: Database Manager, by
Ashton Tate and then bought and
improved by Borland.
DBF: It is the extension
corresponding to a type of database
file, originally used by Dbase, but
that is common to find all types of
DCE: data communications
equipment, a name that usually
receives in a communication used
by a computer modem to connect to
another computer (Data
DIMM: Type of RAM modules (Dual
In-Line Memory Module).
Hard Disk: A storage device, which
was born as an evolution of the
disk. Has a much higher capacity
(now usual passing of 2.5Gb) and is
much faster, but is not designed to
be carried from one place to
another, but to remain within the
computer (except a few
exceptions, themselves are
DMA: Direct Memory Access, a
process that allows a device
(external or internal) transfer data to
computer memory can speed
without data passing through the
processor (Direct Memory Access).
DNS domain name server (Domain
DOC: Extension files created with
Word and other word processors
DOS: Disk Operating System (Disk
Operating System). This is a single-
user single-tasking operating
DPI: Dots per inch (Dots Per Inch),.
DPMI: A series of functions that
allowed DOS programs work in
protected mode, making use of all
existing memory (Dos Protected
DRAM: Dynamic RAM.
Driver: display driver.
DSP: Digital Signal Processor
(Digital Signal Processor).
DSTN: (Dualscan SuperTwist
Dual Scan: type color LCD screen
for laptops. Offers less contrast and
poorer viewing angle TFT that, in
exchange for a lower price.
DTE: Data Terminal Equipment, a
name that usually receives in a
communication to the computer that
receives or sends the data (Data
DVD digital disk improved, with a
capacity far superior to CD. (Digital
Video Disk or Digital Versatile
EGA: enhanced graphics adapter
Adapter). Graphics Card PC and
compatible computers, evolution of
the CGA, which could work well in
16 colors with 320x200, 640x200
and 640x350 points. . .
EISA-type standard architecture
motherboard with expansion slots of
32 bits, based on ISA and now
abandoned (Enhanced ISA).
Executable: A program that can
"run" or use "alone", without the
need to have a certain software
application from which to manage it
(for details, see Compiler).
Run: In computing, the word
"executed" (in English RUN) is
equivalent to putting a program in
E-mail: e-mail (electronic
mail). Message (usually private)
sent over a computer network. .
EPROM: erasable and
programmable ROM memory
(Erasable Programmable ROM).
Excel: spreadsheet application by
EXE extension is corresponding to a
type of executable file under DOS,
OS / 2 and / or Windows.
expanded (memory): One of the
conventions that emerged on how to
access memory above 1 Mb from
the DOS operating system,
something he was not initially
designed. Was inconsistent with the
other proposed standard, extended
memory, which was used most.
Extension: In operating systems
like MS-DOS and Windows, is often
the name of a file consists of two
parts, separated by a period. The
first part (Two limited to 8 letters
long) is the name itself, the second
part (up to 3 letters in Two) is the
extension, which usually indicates
the type of information stored that
FAQ: Collection of frequently asked
questions about a certain topic and
answers (Frequently Asked
FAT file status table (File Allocation
Table), something like an index of
what data is on a drive, and where
are located the data.
File: A collection of information that
is stored or used for consultation
later. In a computer, usually each
file should have a name you can
reference it. .
Firewire: Trade name of IEEE
1394, a new type of digital
connection, which enables speeds
from 100 Mbps (million bits per
second), and aims to reach up to
400 Mbps (million bytes per
Firmware: The "software that is
within the hardware." Refers to
ROMs recorded programs.
Fortran, programming language,
aimed at engineering (Formula
FoxPro, database manager, made
FPU, math coprocessor (Floating
FreeBSD UNIX operating system
Freeware: Computer application
can be copied and distributed freely,
and whose use is free.
FTP: Internet standard protocol for
file transfer (File Transfer
Protocol). Also commonly use this
name for programs sending and
receiving files that are supported by
GEM graphical environment
developed by Digital Research
(Graphic Environment Manager). In
the world of PC support was
superseded by Windows, which is
the current standard.
GIF: This is the extension
corresponding to a graphic file type
of bitmap (Graphics Interchange
GigaByte: Multiple byte: a gigabyte
is 1,024 megabytes, about 1,000
GMT: Greenwich Mean Time
(Greenwich Mean Time). There is a
unique concept of computer
science, but appears in the time
settings of many programs and
operating systems. For example, the
time is GMT Madrid 1.
GUI: GUI (Graphical User
Hacker: computer enthusiast. The
word is often used to indicate also a
certain intrusion, a hacker is a
person who is always willing to learn
and meet new challenges, which
you can find access to a
theoretically closed system. But this
does not mean it is done with
malice, but by the challenge
itself. When it comes to someone
with malicious intent is seldom used
the word "cracker."
Hardware: The part "you can touch"
of a computer: box (and all its
contents), keyboard, screen, etc.
and Hayes modems known
manufacturer, the operator of the AT
HD: HDD (Hard Disk) / / HD: High
density (High Density).
Hewlett-Packard, a major
manufacturer of hardware for nearly
all types: computers, laser and inkjet
printers, plotters, etc.
Hypertext: In a classic text, the
structure is completely linear
reading from start to finish, in a
hypertext, it is intended to break the
linear structure, through "links" (also
called "Links" or "hyperlinks") that
allow jump to related topics, where
to find extended
information. Internet Web pages
(like this) are a clear example of
or Spreadsheet: Computer
application to manipulate numeric
data: do all kinds of operations on
them, display graphics, etc..
HPGL: graphic language designed
by Hewlett-Packard for its plotters
HSP: Name given to the modems
that have no digital signal processor
(DSP), but this mission is
accomplished by the computer you
are connected. Therefore, they are
cheaper, but usually give poor
performance and not work with any
operating system because they
need a specific driver (Host Signal
HTM: Extension under MSDOS files
HTTP: The protocol used in WWW
pages (HyperText Transfer
IBM: Major manufacturer of
computers and software
(International Business Machines).
IDE: One of the standards in
connection of hard drives and
similar devices. There is an
improved variant, faster, called
EIDE. / / IDE integrated
development environment: an
environment from which you can
edit programs, compile and debug
IEEE: Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers, an American
institution responsible for the
creation of a large number of
standards in electronics and
Printer: A device responsible for the
paper stream to a computer
information handling. Today the
most common are those of injection,
laser and dot matrix, although there
are many other types, such as the
daisy, the thermals, the sublimation,
Intel: processor known
manufacturer, creator of the X86
Interface: Connecting a computer to
the outside, or between two
Internet: Computer network
worldwide. It offers various services,
such as sending and receiving
electronic mail (e-mail), the ability to
see information on Web pages,
participate in discussion forums
(News), to send and receive files via
FTP, time chatsReal-IRC, etc.
or Rick: See compiler.
injection (or inkjet, or "ink jet)
printer type whose operation is
based on the role fire ink droplets
that form the images or text.
IRC: Chat (written, not loud) in real
time between multiple people on the
Internet (Internet Relay Chat).
ISA standard architecture type of
motherboard with expansion slots 8
and 16 bit (Industry Standard
ISDN: Integrated Services Digital
Network or ISDN (Integrated
Services Digital Network).
ISP: Internet Service Provider
(Internet Services Provider).
Java: programming language,
increasingly widespread, especially
JAZ: storage unit like a floppy disk,
but with a capacity of 1 Gb and 2 Gb
(depending on model) created by
Joystick: Joystick used in many
JPEG, JPG: This is the extension
corresponding to a graphic file type
of bitmap. It is a compressed format
that, unlike most, becomes rough
JVM: Java Virtual Machine (Java
Kbps: Thousands of bps.
Kernel: kernel of an operating
kilobytes: Multiple byte: A kilobyte
is 1,024 bytes.
K5: Processor by AMD,
intermediate between the 486 and
the Intel Pentium.
K7: processor made by AMD, after
the K6 range, and whose final name
in the market has been Athlon
LAN: Local Area Network (Local
Laptop: Laptop which lifts a cover
that houses the screen and the
bottom is the keyboard and the
Laser: A type of printer is generally
based on a mechanism similar to
that of photocopiers.
LCD: LCD (Liquid Crystal Display).
LED: light emitting diode (Light
Linux: freeware version (free)
operating system Unix, developed
by Linus Torvalds, with contributions
from programmers around the
Logo: programming language,
which for a time was considered
more appropriate to introduce
computers to young children.
Lotus: Renowned software house,
creating programs like 1-2-3, Ami
Pro, WordPro, Freelance, Notes,
LPT: DOS name given to the
parallel port (for connecting
printers). Typically a computer has a
port of this type, to be designated
LZH: Extension of compressed
files. The corresponding compressor
MacOS: Operating system of Apple
or Macintosh: Known range of
computers made by Apple, initially
based on processors from the
Motorola 68000 series, and today
on PowerPC processors.
Mainboard: English, motherboard.
Matrox: Known graphics card
manufacturer. Is well-known ranges
such as the Millennium, Mystique
MBR: Master Boot Record, the boot
sector of hard disk.
Megabyte: Multiple of byte: a
megabyte is 1,024 kilobytes, about
one million bytes.
MFM: Used by many of the early
hard drives on PC and XT-
MHz: megahertz, is a measure of
frequency (number of times
something happens in one
second). In the case of computers, a
computer at 200 MHz will be able to
give 200 million steps per second. In
the real speed of work not only
influence the MHz, but also the
architecture of the processor (and
the rest of the components), for
example, in the X86 series,
unPentium to 60 MHz was about
twice as fast as a 486 to 66 MHz
Microsoft: software development
house, maker of operating systems
like MS-DOS and Windows, as well
as applications of all kinds.
MID: Extent that corresponds to a
type of sound files (usually
MIDI: Musical Instrument connection
standard (Musical Instrument
Minix: Version of the UNIX
operating system developed for
educational purposes by Professor
MIPS: Millions of instructions per
second, a measure of computer
speed / / MIPS: a family of RISC
processors, which equipped many
workstations, such as Silicon
MMX: MultiMedia Extensions, set of
new instructions added to the high-
end Pentium processors, with the
intention to accelerate the most
common operations enmultimedia.
Modem: A device that allows a
computer to send and receive
information by telephone (modular-
Mouse: A device used to
communicate with the
computer. Lets point out areas of
the screen, as a way to tell the
computer what you want to do.
MPEG:, compressed video format
for PC (Motion Pictures Expert
MP3:, compressed audio format for
computer, subformat MPEG
(MPEG-1 Layer 3).
Media: The growing trend that
computers are not only able to
manage information in text, but
images of large, colorful, or even
sounds and video clips. This
capability is what is known as
Multitask: This is when a computer
is able to perform more than one
task at a time.It may be in parallel (if
more than one processor) or
concurrently (if you only have one).
News: One of the services offered
by the Internet. This is an open
discussion forum, consisting of
thematic news groups, in which
anyone can write public messages
and read existing ones.
NFS: Network File System (Network
File System), a file system that
allows a computer to "mount"
directories and remote file systems,
on the other (s) computer (s) of the
NMI: Non-Maskable Interrupt. Is the
input of an interrupt has the highest
priority and is always accepted by
Node: a computer on a network.
Notebook or handheld computer
(laptop) closed is similar in size
Objective C programming
language, object-oriented language
based on C.
OCR: Computer application is
converted to text images acquired
with a scanner (OCR).
Octal: numbering system in base
8. Used the numbers 0 through 7,
and each position of a number
indicates a power of 8. For example,
the decimal number 101 would be
converted to octal 145 (1x64 4x8
Office: Suite by Microsoft, which
includes applications such as Word,
Excel, Outlook (and optionally other
as Access or Publisher).
and Olivetti: known manufacturer of
computers, printers, typewriters,
OOP: Object Oriented Programming
or OOP (Object Oriented
OpenLinux: Linux operating system
version, compiled by Caldera.
ORB: Object Request Broker
(Object Request Broker). The basic
idea is: in a client / server, the
services to which access may not
always be available on the same
server, so that these services are
requested to an agent, which is
what really connects to
application client server application
without the client application needs
to know where these services are
Outlook: Personal Organizer by
Paradox: Database Manager, by
Password: password or password
required to access a system.
PC: PC (Personal Computer). This
abbreviation comes from the IBM
Personal Computer, the house
created by IBM in the early
80's. The original PC was working
with unprocesador8086 at 4.77 MHz
and 64 Kb of memory. Since then
often speak of the "PC" as the
computers compatible with the
original IBM PC (capable of using
any program that was designed for
that), processors based on Intel's
PCB: PCB (Printed Circuit Board).
PCI: Type standard architecture
motherboard with expansion slots
32 or 64 bits, used on computers
with Pentium processor and above
PCMCIA: Standard expansion slots
in handheld computers (Personal
Computer Memory Card
PCX: The extension that
corresponds to a graphic file type of
PerfectOffice: Suite by Novell,
which includes applications such as
WordPerfect and Quattro Pro
or peripheral, auxiliary device that
can connect to a computer (eg a
Pixel: The smallest element that
forms an image ("a point"). Short for
PNG: The extension that
corresponds to a graphic file type
bitmaps (Portable Network
Postscript: A graphics language
page description, widely used in
printers for medium and high.
Powerpoint: Application for creating
presentations, made by Microsoft.
PPM: Pages per minute: is the drive
that measures the speed of printing
in laser printers and inkjet..
Processor: The brain of the
computer. Its working speed is
measured in megahertz (MHz) and
its processing capacity by the
number of bits that can handle at a
time (eg 32 bits or 64 bits) ..
or word processor. One type of
application that allows you to write
texts of all kinds, from letters to
books. Today it is often possible to
use different fonts, include images
and tables, write columns add
mathematical equations, etc..
Program: a set of commands to a
computer. When a program is
completed and purchased, we often
speak of a Computer
Application. Programs should be
written in a programming
language. Programming languages
that are closer to human language
that the computer are called "high-
level languages (like Pascal) which
are closer to the computer are" low
level "(as the assembler). The most
common is to create programs in a
high-level language (called
"source") and then convert the
computer's own language ("compile"
for an executable).
PROM: programmable ROM
memory (Programmable ROM).
Protocol: Rules to follow in a
certain communication, data format
to send the transmitter, how to be
each of the responses of the
Proxy: Software that allows multiple
computers to access the Internet
through a single physical
connection. As advanced, can allow
access to Web pages, FTP, email,
etc. It is often also include other
services such as firewalls
or inch: English system unit of
length equal to 2.54 cm.
Quattro: spreadsheet application
made by Borland.
RAM: Direct Memory Access
(Random Access Memory). This
name is usually used to refer to
reports which you can read and
write (RWM). In últimosPC is usual
to use Fast Page Ram (386 and
above), EDO Ram (486 and
Pentium) and SDRAM (latest
Pentium, Pentium MMX and
RAR: Extension of compressed
files. The compressor for the RAR.
Raster: Image Type (see BitMap).
Rasterize: Convert an image from
vector to bitmap.
ISDN: Integrated Services Digital
Network, the digital telephone
Real (mode): work mode 80x86
processors (see protected.)
or computer network: A group of
computers connected together to
share resources (eg printers) and
Red Hat: One of the shops that
specialize in making Linux
Registration: In the world of
databases, each of the chips that
make up a table.
Release: (in Spanish, "review" or
"version"). It is common for a
software application to be
unchanged, improvements or
corrections. The version number
usually indicates the progress of the
changes. Numbers are often
correlated, and often are two figures
separated by a dot
RGB color decomposition based on
three basic components: red, green
and blue (Red, Green,
Blue). Decomposition is common in
computer displays. This is additive
color, the greater the amount of red,
green and blue, closer the resulting
color to white.
RISC: A type of processor that
recognizes a small set of orders, but
is capable of responding to these
orders with great speed (as
opposed to CISC).
RLL: Used by many of the early
hard drives on PC and XT-
RMI: Remote Method Invocation
(Remote Method Invocation), is that
an object access method (one of the
features) from another remote
object (which is located elsewhere
on a network).
ROM, read only memory (Read
Root: Unix system administrator.
RS232 serial connection is a
standard, very common in personal
computers.There are two standard
connectors, 9 pin (DB9) and 25 pins
RTB: Telephone Network: the
conventional telephone network,
Run: Run View.
RWM: Memory in which you can
read write (Read / Write Memory).
SB: It is often used as shorthand for
Scanner: A device capable of
reading and send still images to
your computer.From your computer
will be able to print these images,
modify them, etc.
SCO: Santa Cruz Operation, a
home developer of extended
SCSI: Small Computer System
Interface, a standard connection for
various devices such as hard drives
or scanners. SCSI hard disks are
usually faster (and more expensive)
SDK: Software Development Kit, a
set of applications to develop
programs in a language or for a
particular environment (Software
SDRAM RAM type used in high-end
PCs (Pentium II and above, plus
some Pentium "normal").
Series: In a serial connection, the
information bits are sent one after
another. This makes communication
slower than parallel transmission.
or Shareware: Computer application
can be copied and distributed
freely. This is a trial version, which
is usually limited in some way. If the
application appears to be
satisfactory to the user that the test
must then pay the author, and
receives a version of the application
without any limitation.
SIMM: Type RAM Module (Single
In-line Memory Module).
Sinclair: Home computer
manufacturer, now defunct, that had
a heyday with the first home
computers, especially with his
model ZX Spectrum. It was also the
author of earlier models, such as 80
or ZX ZX81 and later (but with less
success) as the QL.
SIPP: Type of RAM module
(obsolete, used in some 286).
operating system: A layer between
the computer and the user. It could
be considered as a program (usually
large) that takes control of the
computer and provides the basic
utilities. For more advanced uses,
need to install applications such as
databases, spreadsheets, custom
SLIP: A standard Internet protocol
for connections over serial port
(Serial Line Internet Protocol).
Smalltalk: Language object-
SmartSuite: Lotus Suite by, which
includes applications such as
WordPro, 1-2-3 and Organizer.
Software: The party "can not touch"
of a computer: programs and data.
SoHo: Generally speaking SoHo
environments to refer to domestic
premises or small business, in
which teams may require relatively
low power (Small Office - Home
Sound Card: A device that gives
the computer the ability to
synthesize and make sounds as
well as capture. Often a computer
that has no sound card has at least
a small speaker, which can be
controlled directly from the
Solaris version of Unix operating
system, developed by Sun.
Sound Blaster: One of the brands
most popular sound
cards. Corresponds to a range
created by Creative Labs home
Spectrum: Range of computers
developed by Sinclair different
houses (like Sony, Philips, Toshiba,
Spectravideo, etc.) mid 80's. Were
based on the Z80 processor with 16
or 48k of memory (the first
versions), ability to make graphics
with 8 colors to 256x186 dots and
make sounds, and could connect to
any television. Later improved
versions were developed, more
comfortable with keyboards
(Spectrum-Plus-), tape drive built in
(Spectrum 2) or drive 3 "178K,
expanded memory and 128-K and
other internal improvements
SQL: A standard query language
database (Structured Query
SRAM: Static RAM.
SSL: Secure Socket Layer (Secure
StarOffice Suite by StarDivision,
now owned by Sun, which includes
applications for word processing,
spreadsheet, database, drawing,
presentations, and is available for
various operating systems ..
Streamer: reader / writer for
computer tapes special. Allow a
high capacity at a low price, but are
slower than other devices such as
diskettes, CD-Rom, or hard disk.
Subnotebook: notebook (laptop) to
a size smaller than A4.
Suite: A set of programs designed
to work together. In Spanish is often
called "Integrated Package." Often
that includes a word processor, a
spreadsheet, a personal organizer,
and may have other modules, such
as database managers, graphics
programs or presentations, etc.
or Sun: house hardware and
software developer, which has
boomed recently due to the creation
of the Java language.
Suse: One of the shops that
specialize in making Linux
S3M: Extent that corresponds to a
type of sound files.
Table: In the world of databases, a
set of records (cards) that have a
certain homogeneity (for example,
data from our suppliers may be
stored in a single table). : A
component of many laser printers
and copiers (for details, see Laser).
Tb: Abbreviation of TeraByte.
TCP / IP: Protocol Standard Internet
Control Protocol / Internet
issue low-quality sound.
Graphics Card: A device that gives
the computer the ability to display
images on screen. The performance
of a graphics card usually depend
on the number of points and colors
that are able to show, speed, and
the amount of memory available
(the higher the amount of memory,
will be able to display images with
more points and / or more
colors). The graphics card must be
in accordance with the display or
monitor.For example, a screen
display that allows only 800x600 or
less, you can not take full advantage
card points to reach 1024x768. The
most common in the PC have been,
earliest to latest: Hercules, CGA,
EGA, MCGA, VGA, SVGA.
Telnet: One of the services offered
by the Internet: the ability to
remotely access another computer
on the network, and work from our
screen as if we were really in front
of the computer typing.
Terabyte: Multiple byte: A terabyte
is 1,024 gigabytes, about a trillion
(one trillion) bytes.
TFT type color LCD screen for
laptops. Provides more contrast and
better viewing angle than dual scan,
but is more expensive (Thin Film
TIF, is the extension corresponding
to a graphic file type bitmap, TIFF
TIFF: One type of graphic file
bitmap more widespread, even
among very different types of
computers (Tagged Image File
Toner: Ink powder commonly used
in laser printers and copiers (for
details, Turbo C: C language
compiler developed by Borland.
Turbo Pascal Compiler Pascal
developed by Borland.
UC2: Extension of compressed
files. The compressor for the Ultra
Unix operating system and multi-
URL: Direction of a certain page of
information in Internet (Universal
USB: Universal Serial Bus
(universal serial bus), a new type of
serial connection that is gaining
rapidly on certain characteristics
such as: you can connect multiple
devices to a single port (up to 127),
may be connected to the computer
on, and the computer detects the
device in question.
or Usenet: One of the services
offered by the Internet, also known
Vector: A type of images to your
computer, which stores information
about the lines and geometric
shapes that compose them. This
allows not lose definition if
developed further, contrary to what
happens with the images "Bitmap".
Vectorize: convert image to vector
VESA: Video Electronics Standards
Association. An association
responsible for conducting
standards related to graphics cards
for computers. Architecture of boxes
made of 32-bit base (Vesa Local
Bus or VLB) and identified a number
of standard video modes for a
variety of SVGA graphics card.
VGA: video graphics array (Video
Graphics Array). Graphics Card PC
and compatible computers,
evolution of the MCGA, which could
work well in 16 colors with 640x480
Virtual: This word is often used to
refer to something that does not
really exist, but only inside the
computer. The two most common
meanings are "Virtual Reality",
referring to a 3-dimensional space
created inside the computer,
whereby the user can move (usually
with the aid of assistive devices
such as stereoscopic glasses,
gloves and joysticks), and " virtual
memory, which is that a computer
appears to have more memory than
is physically, thanks to the hard
drive is used as a buffer zone in
which you are turning information
when real memory is saturated
(for transparently without the user
having to do anything).
Virus: A program with malicious
intent, which is able to spread from
one file to another computer.
VLB: VESA Local Bus standard
architecture type of motherboard
with expansion slots 32-bit ISA-
based, designed specifically for
graphics cards, now abandoned.
WAN: Wide Area Network (Wide
WAV: The extension that
corresponds to a sound file (the
standard Windows): WAVE.
Web: See WWW.
Winchester: The name was
formerly of the hard drives.
Windows: Generic name for a
family of software designed by
Microsoft. Earlier versions (up to
3.11) were a Windows-based
graphical environment for the DOS
operating system. From Windows
95 (Windows 95 and Windows 98)
and is an operating system itself,
with multitasking capabilities. There
are also "Special" version of
Windows such as Windows NT,
designed for professional
environments, or Windows CE, for
laptops with very small dimensions.
WMF, is the extension
corresponding to a vector graphic
file type (the standard Windows):
Word: Word Processor by
WordPerfect: Word Processor
WordPerfect initially made and now
by Corel Corporation.
WordPro: Word Processor by
Lotus, the evolution of a previous
WordStar, Word Processor, which
was a standard under MSDOS but
currently does not continue to
improve (as far as I know).
World Wide Web: See WWW.
WP: It is often used as shorthand for
Word Processing (word processing)
WWW: World Wide Web: possibly
the best-known Internet service: a
series of pages of information, text,
images (sometimes even other
possibilities, such as sound or video
clips), and linked in turn with
other pages containing information
Xbase: Generic name is usually
given to the programming language
for databases using dBase and
applied (and extended) other tools
such as Clipper or FoxPro.
Xenix, UNIX operating system
version developed by Microsoft in
the late 70's and early 80's,
designed specifically for PC-
Xerox, known manufacturer of
printers, copiers and plotters.
XLS: Extension files created with
XML description language websites
(eXtensible Markup Language),
designed with the intention of
replacing the current standard
XMS: See extended memory.
XT: The IBM XT was a variant of the
original IBM PC, including hard disk
graphical environment for the Unix
X86: Generic name is often given to
the family of Intel processors based
on the 8086: the 8086 original and
its variant 8088, 80286, 386, 486
and the current range Pentium
(Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium
MMX, Pentium II, Celeron).
ZIP: Extension of compressed
files. The corresponding compressor
is often called ZIP or PKZIP. / / ZIP:
storage unit like a floppy disk, but
with a capacity of 100 Mb, created
Z80: 8-bit processor, the house
created by Zilog, which was widely
used in the first generation of
personal computers, for teams like
the Sinclair ZX Spectrum, MSX