World War I Section 1 The Great War Begins Preview • Starting Points Map: European Alliances and Military Forces • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Europe on the Brink of War • Quick Facts: Causes of World War I • War Breaks Out • Fighting in 1914 • Faces of History: Kaiser Wilhelm II • Map: World War I Battles, 1914
World War I Section 1 Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.
World War I Section 1 The Great War Begins Main Idea Europe in 1914 was on the brink of war. After an assassination, the nations of Europe were drawn one by one into what would be called the Great War, or World War I. Reading Focus • Why was Europe on the brink of war in 1914? • Why did war break out? • What were the results of the fighting in 1914?
World War I Section 1 Europe on the Brink of War Rising tensions in Europe, 1914 • Tensions result of four factors – Militarism – Alliances – Imperialism – Nationalism
World War I Section 1 Europe on the Brink of War Militarism Alliances • Massive military buildup in • Nations formed partnerships to European countries, late 1800s protect against opposing forces and early 1900s • Triple Alliance united • Wanted to protect overseas Germany, Austria-Hungary, colonies from other nations Italy • Growing power of armed forces • Great Britain joined France, left all sides ready to act at first Russia in Triple Entente sign of trouble • Believed no one nation would • Minor disagreements had attack another, because allies potential to turn to armed would join fight conflict
World War I Section 1 Europe on the Brink of War Imperialism Nationalism • Late 1800s and early 1900s • Strong devotion to one’s saw quest to build empires national group or culture, increased in late 1800s • Created rivalry, ill will among European nations • Led to formation of new countries, struggles for power • Germany, France, Russia, Great Britain vied to become • Most visible in Balkan great imperial nations Peninsula, southeastern Europe • Each did not want others to gain power • Home to many ethnic groups trying to break free from Ottoman Empire
World War I Section 1 Europe on the Brink of War Some of strongest nationalist tensions in Balkans in Serbia, independent nation • Serbian leaders wanted to expand borders, unite people in “greater Serbia” • Austria-Hungary, powerful empire to north, opposed expansion • Feared growth might encourage ethnic groups there to rebel • Tensions continued to rise in early 1900s
World War I Section 1 Summarize Why was Europe on the brink of war in 1914? Answer(s): rising tensions as result of militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism
World War I Section 1 War Breaks Out In the midst of the tensions with Serbia, archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary decided to visit the Bosnian city of Sarajevo. The Impact Fighting Begins • Serbian Gavrilo Princip • Germany faced war on two assassinated archduke, wife fronts: Russia to east, France • Austria-Hungary declared war to west on Serbia • Decided to strike France • Russia prepared to support quickly then move to Russia Serbia • Began with quick strike into • Austria-Hungary ally Germany neutral Belgium saw Russia as threat • Attack on neutral country led • Germany declared war on Great Britain to declare war on Russia, ally France Germany
World War I Section 1 War Breaks Out Main players in World War I in place • Central Powers – Germany – Austria-Hungary • Allied Powers – Great Britain – France – Russia – Serbia
World War I Section 1 Sequence What events led to the outbreak of World War I? Answer(s): Serbian Gavrilo Princip killed Austrian Archduke Ferdinand and his wife; Germany (an ally of Austria-Hungary) declared war on Russia (an ally of Serbia); Germany attacked Belgium; Great Britain declared war on Germany
World War I Section 1 Fighting in 1914 Germany’s plan • Germany wanted to quickly defeat France, move east to fight Russia • Great Britain’s declaration of war on Germany doomed its plan • The Great War became bloody stalemate Early battles • Battle of the Frontiers pitted German troops against both French and British • Both sides suffered heavy losses • Germany victorious Russia enters fighting • Russia attacked German territory from the east • Russians defeated in Battle of Tannenberg • Germany distracted from France, Allies turned on German invaders
World War I Section 1 Fighting in 1914 Trench warfare begins • Allied troops drove Germans back, Battle of the Marne, September 1914 • Retreating Germans dug series of trenches along Aisne River – Waited in trenches for Allied attack – Trenches elaborately constructed, cleverly concealed • Allies dug trenches of their own – Major battles for months with little change in positions – Deadlocked region became known as Western Front
World War I Section 1 Summarize What were the major events of the fighting in 1914? Answer(s): Germany advanced through Belgium to attack France; Russia attacked East Prussia; Russians crushed in Battle of Tannenberg; British and French forces regrouped; millions died or were wounded; trench warfare resulted in a stalemate