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Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University
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Top Ten Research Findings in Games, Alicia Sanchez, Defense Acquisition University

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Alicia Sanchez holds the title of “Games Czar” at the Defense Acquisition University. She will review the top ten most relevant research findings in the use of serious video games in training and …

Alicia Sanchez holds the title of “Games Czar” at the Defense Acquisition University. She will review the top ten most relevant research findings in the use of serious video games in training and education. While very little research on the use of video games in education and training makes headlines, there is great research in serious games, game components and implementations that have real impacts on the way we approach our game projects. Dr. Sanchez will aggregate the most important findings from 2012 and explain the science of video games for training and education!

When: March 28, 2013, 9.00 am PT/noon ET/17.00 CET

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  • 1. 2012Dr. Alicia SanchezDefense Acquisition University
  • 2. GROUND RULES Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012 The Top 10 Research Findings for 2012 have been decided by me alone.  All papers included have empirical results  Papers selected not solely based on quality, but on relevance to this particular conference In some cases I have not presented all of the results that were found by these researchers I will make my presentation available I can’t make the research papers available Everything in this presentation has been subject to my interpretation
  • 3. 10 Computer Games Created by Middle School Girls Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012 Stagecast Creator Software  Voluntary after school program for computer programming  Each student created 1-5 games, each taking 4-6 weeks to complete (108 total games)  4 genres of games were built: maze, maze with focused context, action, trivia  Coding strategy employed to assess games Participants – 59 girls in a voluntary after school program for computer programming, 72% Latina.  Participants had no prior coding experienceDENNER, J.; WERNER, L.; & ORTIZ, E. (2012). COMPUTER GAMES CREATEDBY MIDDLE SCHOOL GIRLS: CAN THEY BE USED TO MEASURE UNDERSTANDINGOF COMPUTER SCIENCE CONCEPTS? COMPUTERS & EDUCATION, 58(1), 240-249.
  • 4. 10 Computer Games Created by Middle School Girls Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012 Results:  Games were coded and the following conclusions were drawn:  Programming games may be a promising approach to engaging underrepresented students in the concepts and capabilities that will prepare them for computer science courses and careers  Students struggled with complex concepts  Students did not leverage full capabilities of software Discussion – Using game development as a learning tool can yield some resultsDENNER, J.; WERNER, L.; & ORTIZ, E. (2012). COMPUTER GAMES CREATEDBY MIDDLE SCHOOL GIRLS: CAN THEY BE USED TO MEASURE UNDERSTANDINGOF COMPUTER SCIENCE CONCEPTS? COMPUTERS & EDUCATION, 58(1), 240-249.
  • 5. 9The effects of learning style and gender consciousness on novice learning in games Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012 Custom Flash Development to learn programming through game-play Learning Styles  Reduced into diverging & converging via Kolb(not visual etc…..)  Divergers – best at viewing concrete situations with multiple viewpoints  Convergers – best at finding practical uses for ideas and theories Gender Consciousness  Gender role, traits, and equality Participants – 122 eighth grade students (59 m, 63 f) Goals – examine the effects of learning style and gender consciousness on:  Comprehension of programming concepts  Project performance  MotivationWANG, L. & CHEN, M. (2012). THE EFFECTS OF LEARNING STYLE AND GENDERCONSCIOUSNESS ON NOVICE’S LEARNING FROM PLAYING EDUCATIONAL GAMES.KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT & E-LEARNING: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, 4(1),63-77.
  • 6. 9The effects of learning style and gender consciousness on novice learning in games Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012 Results:  The convergers comprehended the abstract programming principles better than the divergers, but the gender consc did not have an effect  Divergers with low gender consc outperformed high gender consc divergers on project performance, but both gender consc groups of convergers performed equally  High gender consc convergers outperformed high gender consc divergers on project performance, but low gender consc convergers and divergers performed equally.  Intrinsic & extrinsic motivation was similar and positive for all four groups. Discussion – Learning style impacted programming comprehension, and gender consc impacted project performance for divergers and convergers differently.WANG, L. & CHEN, M. (2012). THE EFFECTS OF LEARNING STYLE AND GENDERCONSCIOUSNESS ON NOVICE’S LEARNING FROM PLAYING EDUCATIONAL GAMES.KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT & E-LEARNING: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, 4(1),63-77.
  • 7. 8 A Study on Exploiting Commercial Digital Games into School Context Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012 Sims 2 – Open for Business Researchers tested  Math objectives  General Ed objectives  Changes in attitudes about math teaching & learning Participants: 56, 13-14 year olds in Athens, Greece Math scores pre intervention not significantly differentPANOUTSOPLOULOS, H. & SAMPSON, D.G. (2012). A STUDY ON EXPLOITINGCOMMERCIAL DIGITAL GAMES INTO SCHOOL CONTEXT. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY &SOCIETY, 15(1), 15-27.
  • 8. 8 A Study on Exploiting Commercial Digital Games into School Context Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012 Results  Did not result in higher or lower math achievement  Better achievement for games in general education  No difference in attitudes towards math teaching and learning Conclusion- Off the shelf games can do just as well, if not better than standard curriculum for some objectivesPANOUTSOPLOULOS, H. & SAMPSON, D.G. (2012). A STUDY ON EXPLOITINGCOMMERCIAL DIGITAL GAMES INTO SCHOOL CONTEXT. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY &SOCIETY, 15(1), 15-27.
  • 9. 7 Learning to Stand in the Other’s Shoes Peacemaker Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012  COTS game that allows you to play multiple roles and make decisions related to those roles within the Israeli-Palenstinian conflict Researchers hypothesized:  Practice in the game would reduce the effects of religious views and political affiliations on decision making to reduce conflict Participants: 42 undergrads ages 18-23 Game used in class activity twice in a semester  Randomly assigned to first role (Palestinian President or Israeli Prime Minister) all played both (Total of 4 plays)  Randomly assigned to Level Difficulty – Calm vs violentGONZALEZ, C.; SANER, L. D.; & EISENBERG, L. Z. (2012). LEARNING TOSTAND IN THE OTHER’S SHOES: A COMPUTER VIDEO GAME EXPERIENCE OFTHE ISRAELI-PALENSTINIAN CONFLICT. SOCIAL SCIENCE COMPUTER VIEW,SAGE PUBLICATIONS.
  • 10. 7 Learning to Stand in the Other’s Shoes Results Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012  Balance (peace) was the goal of the game and most students did not achieve great balance scores  Role played impacted time spent playing (Palestinian role > time than Israeli role)  Religion correlated with balance in the first session, but not the second.  Political affiliation correlated with balance in the first session, but not the second. Conclusion – The game intervention mitigated the initial religious and political views of its players.GONZALEZ, C.; SANER, L. D.; & EISENBERG, L. Z. (2012). LEARNING TOSTAND IN THE OTHER’S SHOES: A COMPUTER VIDEO GAME EXPERIENCE OFTHE ISRAELI-PALENSTINIAN CONFLICT. SOCIAL SCIENCE COMPUTER VIEW,SAGE PUBLICATIONS.
  • 11. 6 Influences of Game Quests on Pupils in Math Learning My-Pet-My-Quest Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012  Pet-nurturing game as previous research indicated motivation, and researchers could implement an economic model of needs- consumption-work  Taiwanese students report relatively lower positive attitudes towards math, even though their math performance is high  Included a quest-delivery mechanism as has been used in role playing games to guide players to perform tasks –  Quests provide three elements- objectives, learning tasks and rewards  Related to goal orientation Researchers implemented a three tiered design process to include learning & quests within the gameCHEN, Z.; LIAO, C.C.Y.; CHENG, H.N.H.; YEH, C.Y.C.; & CHAN, T. (2012).INFLUENCES OF GAME QUESTS ON PUPILS’ ENJOYMENT AND GOAL-PURSUINGIN MATH LEARNING. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY, 15(2), 317-327.
  • 12. 6 Influences of Game Quests on Pupils in Math Learning Participants: 53 Taiwanese 4th grade students – within Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012 subjects design Question – What are the influences of game quests on student’s math learning in terms of perception of enjoyment and goal-pursuing Findings  Quests had positive impact  Quests influenced student’s perceptions including enjoyment, goal orientation & goal intensity  Quests elicited more active participation & promoted more enjoyable experiences Conclusion – Quests whose goals align with learning objectives are favored by studentsCHEN, Z.; LIAO, C.C.Y.; CHENG, H.N.H.; YEH, C.Y.C.; & CHAN, T. (2012).INFLUENCES OF GAME QUESTS ON PUPILS’ ENJOYMENT AND GOAL-PURSUINGIN MATH LEARNING. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY, 15(2), 317-327.
  • 13. 5 The Impact of Tutorials on Games of Varying Complexity Games – Refraction, Hello Worlds & Foldit Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012  Puzzle games of varying complexity with Foldit being most complicated by far Tutorials – Hypotheses  Games with tutorials will exhibit better player engagement and retention  Tutorials that present instructions in context will be more effective  Tutorials that restrict player freedom improve engagement and retention (by ensuring the player focuses and must complete the tutorial)  Having on demand access to help improves retention Online Data methodology – 8 types of tutorials, 3 games, 45,318 total subjects!ANDERSEN, E.; O’ROURKE, E.; LIU, Y.; SNIDER, R.; LOWDERMILK, J.; TRUONG,D.; COOPER, S.; & POPOVIC, Z. (2012). THE IMPACT OF TUTORIALS ONGAMES OF VARYING COMPLEXITY. PAPER PRESENTED AT CHI’12, AUSTIN, TX.
  • 14. 5 The Impact of Tutorials on Games of Varying Complexity Results Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012  Tutorials were only justified in Foldit (the most complex game) and not in the other two games whose mechanics might be more easily discovered through experimentation  Tutorial context sensitivity improved player engagement in Foldit (the only game where a tutorial was justified) (players in Foldit with context sensitive tutorial played 40% more levels and 16% longer)  Tutorial freedom did not affect player behavior  On-demand had a negative impact on engagement in Refraction (only 31% used it) but increased engagement a small amount in Hello Worlds. Discussion – The use of tutorials should be dependent on complexity of game. The functionality of those tutorials review these results!ANDERSEN, E.; O’ROURKE, E.; LIU, Y.; SNIDER, R.; LOWDERMILK, J.; TRUONG,D.; COOPER, S.; & POPOVIC, Z. (2012). THE IMPACT OF TUTORIALS ONGAMES OF VARYING COMPLEXITY. PAPER PRESENTED AT CHI’12, AUSTIN, TX.
  • 15. 4 Removing Gamification from an Enterprise SNS SNS based Gamification Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012  Authors implemented gamification constructs into a social networking system of a large organization  The gamification goal was to encourage content contribution  Points were awarded  5 points for photo or list  15 points for comments on profile pages, photos or lists  Badges were awarded  4 tiers of badges were based on accumulated points  Badges were displayed on user’s profile page  Leaderboard  Showing points For an initial 6 month period half of the user’s had gamification, other half didn’t and didn’t know it existed. After 6 months everyone got it. 10 months after initial introduction, it was completely removed. Participants – 3486 members who contributed at least one item of content during a four week analysis periodTHOM, J.; MILLEN, D. R.; DIMICCO, J. (2012). REMOVING GAMIFICATIONFROM AN ENTERPRISE SNS. PROCEEDINGS ACM CONFERENCE ONCOMPUTERS SUPPORTING COLLABORATIVE WORK.
  • 16. 4 Removing Gamification from an Enterprise SNS Results Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012  The gamification construct dramatically increased content contribution initially, but then decayed.  New users who could earn points added more content over the short and long term, but the proportion of new users who contributed was the same for the gamification Vs non gamification site users  The removal of the site significantly impacted the contribution of data  Two main types of comments were observed, terse comments and target of interest comments. After the gamification construct was removed, the prevalence of the terse comments (hi!) subsided Conclusion – Gamification does motivate some, but not all. If you’re going to implement, have a plan for removing!THOM, J.; MILLEN, D. R.; DIMICCO, J. (2012). REMOVING GAMIFICATIONFROM AN ENTERPRISE SNS. PROCEEDINGS ACM CONFERENCE ONCOMPUTERS SUPPORTING COLLABORATIVE WORK.
  • 17. 3 Enhancing Science Content Knowledge and Self- Efficacy through Games Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012 Crystal Island  Online 3-D game funded by NSF designed to teach science concepts focused on narrative-centered learning  Collaborative Vs Single player  Effects of condition on science content learning and science self-efficacy were evaluated Participants – 66 Fifth gradersMELUSO, A.; ZHENG, M.; SPIRES, H.A.; & LESTER, J. (2012). ENHANCING 5THGRADERS’ SCIENCE CONTENT KNOWLEDGE AND SELF-EFFICACY THROUGHGAME-BASED LEARNING. COMPUTERS & EDUCATION, 59, 497-504.
  • 18. 3 Enhancing Science Content Knowledge and Self- Efficacy through Games Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012 Results  Students did not differ on science self-efficacy between conditions, but all players demonstrated increases in science self-efficacy after playing Crystal Island  Students did not differ on science content knowledge between conditions, but all players made significant learning games from pre-post test assessments after playing Crystal island In this case, cooperative did not have significant impacts over single player game-playMELUSO, A.; ZHENG, M.; SPIRES, H.A.; & LESTER, J. (2012). ENHANCING 5THGRADERS’ SCIENCE CONTENT KNOWLEDGE AND SELF-EFFICACY THROUGHGAME-BASED LEARNING. COMPUTERS & EDUCATION, 59, 497-504.
  • 19. 2 Cooperative Vs Competitive Goal Structures in Learning Games Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012 Acquisition Proposition  Acquisition based diner dash style resource management game designed to teach which documents were needed when  Game modified to be cooperative, in which two players could work together or competitive in which two players tried to get a higher score 3 Experiments, 2 versions of game vs text based content  Coop Vs Comp (no instructions for comp)  Coop Vs Comp (told to compete)  Coop Vs Comp (Winner gets a $10 iTunes card) Participants – 160 Undergraduates 18-22SMITH, P.A. (2012) COOPERATIVE VERSUS COMPETITIVE GOALSTRUCTURES IN LEARNING GAME. A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THEUNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA.
  • 20. 2 Cooperative Vs Competitive Goal Structures in Learning Games Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012 Results  All game players had significant learning outcomes  In Exp 1 (no instruction to compete), the cooperative group reported a larger increase in intrinsic motivation.  Exp 2 & 3 saw overall increases in intrinsic motivation.  Winners of all competitive games had higher self efficacy than losers.  Game winners who won $10 had higher self efficacy than cooperators in Exp 3. Conclusion – The use of competition in games is a complex variable that can have impacts on learning, motivation and self efficacy. If you want to use it, read this paper!SMITH, P.A. (2012) COOPERATIVE VERSUS COMPETITIVE GOALSTRUCTURES IN LEARNING GAME. A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THEUNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA.
  • 21. 1 Investigating Real-Time Predictors of Engagement Gridblocker Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012  Isometric tile-based puzzle game in which player must move a block until the block ends up standing over a goal. Multiple levels of increasing complexity. 3 conditions  Linear – Players get a harder level when they complete the previous easier level  Choice – Players choose whether the next level will be easier or harder than the just completed level  Adaptive – Uses an algorithm to determine the difficulty of the upcoming level Goal – To test the impact of condition on engagement Participants – 340 people recruited through AmazonSHAREK, D. J. (2012). INVESTIGATING REAL-TIME PREDICTORS OF ENGAGEMENT:IMPLICATIONS FOR ADAPTIVE VIDEO GAMES AND ONLINE TRAINING. A DISSERTATIONSUBMITTED TO NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY.
  • 22. 1 Investigating Real-Time Predictors of Engagement Initial results indicated that those in the adaptive or choice conditions did not report significantly: Sanchez’s Top 10 of 2012  Higher engagement  Higher personal affect  Lower levels of cognitive load Adaptive algorithm analysis:  Choice players should have played easier levels less often than they chose Those in adaptive condition played fewer levels yet achieved greater difficulty than other conditions. No differences in length of time played. Conclusion – Adaptive leveling when done appropriately can lead to exposure to more challenge (and choice can lead to players selecting less challenge)SHAREK, D. J. (2012). INVESTIGATING REAL-TIME PREDICTORS OF ENGAGEMENT:IMPLICATIONS FOR ADAPTIVE VIDEO GAMES AND ONLINE TRAINING. A DISSERTATIONSUBMITTED TO NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY.

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