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  1. 1. BLOOD PRESSURE •Refers to the force that blood exerts against a vessel wall. •These points are represented by the systolic (ventricular contraction) and diastolic (ventricular relaxation) pressures.
  2. 2. BLOOD PRESSURE BP is a function of 2 elements: (1) Cardiac Output – amount of blood flow (2) Peripheral Resistance – impediment to blood flow within a vessel
  3. 3. BLOOD PRESSURE
  4. 4. BLOOD PRESSURE •Postural (Orthostatic) Hypotension -is a sudden drop in BP that occurs when movement to upright postures (sitting or standing) is initiated.
  5. 5. BLOOD PRESSURE •Hypovolemia - Abnormally low volume of circulating blood •Hypervolemia - Abnormally increase in blood
  6. 6. BLOOD PRESSUREEquipment Requirements •Sphygmomanometer •Stethoscope
  7. 7. BLOOD PRESSURE Stethoscope Sphygmomanometer
  8. 8. BLOOD PRESSURE Procedure for Measuring Blood Pressure
  9. 9. BLOOD PRESSURE •Expose the patient’s arm; • then wrap the deflated cuff evenly around the patient’s arm approximately 2.5 cm above the antecubital fossa
  10. 10. BLOOD PRESSURE •Place the earpieces of the stethoscope into ears; and place the head of the stethoscope firmly over the artery at the lower border of the BP cuff.
  11. 11. BLOOD PRESSURE •Close the valve of the BP cuff and start inflating until the estimated level previously determined or until it reaches approximately 20 to 30 mmHg above the anticipated systolic pressure.
  12. 12. BLOOD PRESSURE •Note the point at which the first sound was heard (systolic); and note when the sound first becomes muffled and the valve on the manometer when the sound disappears (diastolic).

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