Krashen's Affective Filter hypothesis & Affect in Language Learning
Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition consists of five main hypotheses: 'A mental block, caused by affective factors ... that prevents input from reaching the language acquisition device' 5- Affective Filter Hypothesis: 'Humans acquire language in only one way - by understanding messages or by receiving "comprehensible input"' (comprehensible input = data we hear around us; if we are relaxed, it goes directly to our heads) 4- Input Hypothesis: 'Conscious learning ... can only be used as a Monitor or an editor' (those who use the monitor a lot are slow learners => too conscious of what they say) 3- Monitor Hypothesis: 'Adults have two distinctive ways of developing competences in second languages .. acquisition, that is by using language for real communication (natural environment) ... learning .. "knowing about" language' 2- Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis: 'We acquire the rules of language in a predictable order' 1- Natural order hypothesis:
In this presentation, we are only interested in the fifth hypothesis -- The Affective Filter Hypothesis-- which stipulates that a number of 'affective variables' play a facilitative , but non-causal, role in second language acquisition. These variables include: motivation, self-confidence and anxiety . Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. Low motivation, low self-esteem, and debilitating anxiety can combine to ' raise ' the affective filter and form a 'mental block' that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition. In other words, when the filter is 'up' it impedes language acquisition. (Krashen, 1985) What we conclude then is that Affect plays a very important role in second language acquisition. It needs to be taken into consideration by L2 teachers so they make sure that the students' affective filter is low at all times in order for learning to take place. Since this presentation is only related to Motivation, it will not cover the two other variables: self-confidence and anxiety. Before we start by defining motivation, mentioning its sources and different theories/models and their implications, we believe it is worth asking one question that seems to guide all theorists' and researchers' work: "Why do people learn a second or foreign language? In other words, what is their Goal?
1- Why Do People Learn a Second/Foreign Language? This seems to be the key question in all kinds of research! And of course, the reasons vary from a person to another.
Here are a few suggestions:
Fulfill school/university requirements
Function and compete effectively in the global economy of today and the future
Increase job opportunities and salary potential
Develop intercultural sensitivity, increasing global understanding
Improve English vocabulary and language proficiency in order to communicate with members of that language community.
Improve critical and creative thinking skills
Improve one's education
Enhance travel and study abroad opportunities
Enjoy great literary and musical masterpieces and films in their original language
Improve likelihood of acceptance into university and graduate schools
Increase understanding of people in own country
Gain social power (prestige)
Have a secret code
Please one's parents
Any other reason(s )?
After all, we, as teachers, need to find the student's motives so that we can accommodate them.
4- Definitions of Motivation
However simple and easy the word "motivation" might appear, it is in fact very difficult to define. It seems to have been impossible for theorists to reach consensus on a single definition.
Here are a few that I have found in the literature:
According to the Webster's , to motivate means to provide with a motive, a need or desire that causes a person to act.
According to Gardner (1985) , motivation is concerned with the question, "Why does an organism behave as it does? Motivation involves 4 aspects:
A Desire to attain the goal
Favorable Attitude toward the activity in question.
Motivation is also defined as the impetus to create and sustain intentions and goal-seeking acts (Ames & Ames, 1989) . It is important because it determines the extent of the learner's active involvement and attitude toward learning. (Ngeow, Karen Yeok-Hwa, 1998)
Motivation is a desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy to work towards that goal. Many researchers consider motivation as one of the main elements that determine success in developing a second or foreign language; it determines the extent of active, personal involvement in L2 learning. (Oxford & Shearin, 1994)
Sometimes a distinction is made between positive and negative motivation. Positive motivation is a response which includes enjoyment and optimism about the tasks that you are involved in. Negative motivation involves undertaking tasks for fear that there should be undesirable outcomes, eg. failing a subject, if tasks are not completed. What can we infer from all those definitions? What are the keywords that "Motivation" triggers in our minds?
2- Definitions of L2
It is crucial here to mention the difference between a Second and a Foreign language, which are both referred to as L2.
People who are living in an English-speaking community/country are learning English as their SECOND language. "The learner of the second language is surrounded by stimulation, both visual and auditory, in the target language and thus has many motivational and instructional advantages." (Oxford & Shearin, 1994)
As for those who are not living in an English-speaking community/country, they are learning English as a FOREIGN language. "Foreign language learners are surrounded by their own native language and have to go out of their way to find stimulation and input in the target language. These students typically receive input in the new language only in the classroom and by artificial means, no matter how talented the teacher is." (Oxford & Shearin, 1994)
3- Good L2 Learners Research has shown that the use of specific learning strategies & techniques while studying a second or foreign language leads to success. "The conscious, tailored use of such strategies is related to language achievement and proficiency. (Oxford, 1994) Some of those strategies: Rubin (1975) suggested that good L2 learners are willing and accurate guessers; have a strong drive to communicate; are often uninhibited, and if they are, they combat inhibition by using positive self-talk, by extensive use of practicing in private, and by putting themselves in situations where they have to participate communicatively. are willing to make mistakes; focus on form by looking for patterns and analyzing; take advantage of all practice opportunities; monitor their speech as well as that of others; and pay attention to meaning. One of the factors that influence the choice of strategies used among students learning a second/foreign language is Motivation. More motivated students tend to use more strategies than less motivated students, hence, they tend to be more successful. (Oxford, 1990a)
. Patience, persistence and perspiration make an unbeatable combination for success. --Napolean Hill -- MOTIVATION *Energy *Active involvement *Persistence *Goal *Effort *Desire
5- Sources of Motivation
"Without knowing where the roots of motivation lie, how can teachers water those roots?" (Oxford & Shearin, 1994- p.15)
Educational psychologists point to three major sources of motivation in learning (Fisher, 1990):
The learner’s natural interest: intrinsic satisfaction
The teacher/institution/employment: extrinsic reward
Success in the task: combining satisfaction and reward
"While teachers and school systems have drawn on both of the first two sources of motivation, the third source is perhaps under-exploited in language teaching. This is the simple fact of success, and the effect that this has on our view of what we do. As human beings, we generally like what we do well, and are therefore more likely to do it again, and put in more effort . . . In the classroom, this can mean that students who develop an image of themselves as ‘no good at English’ will simply avoid situations which tell them what they already know – that they aren’t any good at English. Feelings of failure, particularly early on in a student’s school career, can therefore lead to a downward spiral of a self- perception of low ability – low motivation – low effort – low achievement – low motivation – low achievement, and so on." Littlejohn, Andrew, November, 2001 ENGLISH TEACHING professional, Issue 19, March 2001 In general, explanations regarding the source(s) of motivation can be categorized as either extrinsic (outside the person) or intrinsic (internal to the person). Intrinsic sources and corresponding theories can be further subcategorized as either body/physical, mind/mental (i.e., cognitive, affective, conative) or transpersonal/spiritual.
Note: Conation = inclination to act purposefully; impulse. (Webster's) "It is an intrinsic 'unrest' of the organism, almost the opposite of homeostasis. A conscious tendency to act... a conscious striving." (English & English, 1958)
Note: Vicarious learning = the acquisition of knowledge or ability through indirect experience and observation, rather than direct experience or practice. (Harcourt Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology) The following chart provides a brief overview of the different sources of motivation that have been studied. While INITIATION of action can be traced to each of these domains, it appears likely that PERSISTENCE may be more related to emotions and/or the affective area (optimism vs. pessimism; self- esteem; etc.) or to conation and goal-orientation .
understand purpose of one's life
connect self to ultimate unknowns
meet individually developed/selected goal
obtain personal dream
take control of one's life
eliminate threats to meeting goal, obtaining dream
reduce others' control of one's life
maintain attention to something interesting or threatening
increase security of or decrease threats to self-esteem
maintain levels of optimism and enthusiasm
increase/decrease stimulation (arousal)
activate senses (taste, touch, smell, etc.)
decrease hunger, thirst, discomfort, etc.
maintain homeostasis, balance
elicited by stimulus associated/ connected to innately connected stimulus
obtain desired, pleasant consequences (rewards) or escape/avoid undesired, unpleasant consequences
imitate positive models
behavioral/external Sources of Motivational Needs
6- Theories of Motivation
A- Behavioral Theories
Drive: .(Hull) urgent, basic, or instinctual need : a motivating physiological condition of an organism.
Classical conditioning: (Pavlov) it states that biological responses to associated stimuli energize and direct behavior.
Instrumental/operant learning: ( Skinner ) it states that the primary factor is consequences: reinforcers are incentives to increase behavior and punishers are disincentives that result in a decrease in behavior. (Stimulus => response => reward)
The desire of reward is one of the strongest incentives of human conduct; ... the best security for the fidelity of mankind is to make their interest coincide with their duty. --Alexander Hamilton (The Federalist Papers)
3. Observational/social learning: (Bandura) it suggests that modeling (imitating others) and vicarious learning (watching others have consequences applied to their behavior) are important motivators of behavior.
Incentive motivation: it refers to goal-directed behavior (behavior that is "pulled" more than "pushed"). Seeking of rewards; avoidance of punishers. Unlike drives, which were thought to be innate, incentives are usually considered to be learned.
Behaviorists explain motivation in terms of external stimuli and reinforcement. The physical environment and actions of the teacher are of prime importance.
B- Cognitive Theories Expectancy-value/VIE theory: (Vroom, 1964) it proposes the following equation: Motivation = Perceived Probability of Success (Expectancy) Connection of Success and Reward-- material benefit (Instrumentality) Value of Obtaining Goal (Valence, Value) (VIE = Valence, Instrumentality, Expectancy) . Since this formula states that the three factors of Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence or Value are to be multiplied by each other, a low value in one will result in a low value of motivation. Therefore, all three must be present in order for motivation to occur. That is, if an individual doesn't believe he or she can be successful at a task OR the individual does not s ee a connection between his or her activity and success OR the individual does not value the results of success , then the probability is lowered that the individual will engage in the required learning activity. From the perspective of this theory, all three variables must be high in order for motivation and the resulting behavior to be high. => An individual will act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. Attribution theory: (Heider, 1958; Weiner, 1974). This theory proposes that every individual tries to explain success or failure of self and others by offering certain "attributions." These attributions are either internal or external and are either under control or not under control. The following chart shows the four attributions that result from a combination of internal or external locus of control and whether or not control is possible.
In a teaching/learning environment, it is important to assist the learner to develop a self-attribution explanation of effort (internal, control). If the person has an attribution of ability (internal, no control) as soon as the individual experiences some difficulties in the learning process, he or she will decrease appropriate learning behavior. If the person has an external attribution, then nothing the person can do will help that individual in a learning situation (i.e., responsibility for demonstrating what has been learned is completely outside the person). In this case, there is nothing to be done by the individual when learning problems occur. Task Difficulty Effort Control Luck Ability No Control External Internal
Cognitive dissonance theory: it was developed by Leon Festinger (1957) and states that when there is a discrepancy between two beliefs, two actions, or between a belief and an action, we will act to resolve conflict and discrepancies . The implication is that if we can create the appropriate amount of disequilibrium, this will in turn lead to the individual changing his or her behavior which in turn will lead to a change in thought patterns which in turn leads to more change in behavior. According to the Webster's, cognitive dissonance is a psychological conflict resulting from incongruous beliefs and attitudes held simultaneously. Weiner (1990) points out that behavioral theories tend to focus on extrinsic motivation (i.e., rewards) while cognitive theories deal with intrinsic motivation (i.e., goals). Cognitivists explain motivation in terms of a person's active search for meaning and satisfaction in life. Thus, motivation is internal.
C- Cognitive Developmental Theories
Stages of Cognitive Development (Piaget, 1972, 1990) According to Piaget, children are motivated to develop their cognitive or mental abilities in a predictable set of stages:
Sensorimotor stage (Infancy, 0 to 2 years). In this period (which has 6 stages), intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols. Knowledge of the world is limited (but developing) because its based on physical interactions / experiences. Children acquire object permanence at about 7 months of age (memory). Physical development (mobility) allows the child to begin developing new intellectual abilities. Some symbollic (language) abilities are developed at the end of this stage.
Pre-operational stage (Toddler and Early Childhood, 2-7 years). In this period (which has two substages), intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a nonlogical, nonreversable manner. Egocentric thinking predominates
Concrete operational stage (Elementary and early adolescence, 7-12 years). In this stage (characterized by 7 types of conservation: number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, volume), intelligence is demonstarted through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Operational thinking develops (mental actions that are reversible). Egocentric thought diminishes.
Formal operational stage (Adolescence and adulthood, 12 years –adult). In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Early in the period there is a return to egocentric thought. Only 35% of high school graduates in industrialized countries obtain formal operations; many people do not think formally during adulthood
<=> According to this model, fulfillment of the previous stage is necessary for advancement to the next stage. In order for the child to be motivated, parents and teachers need to challenge his/her abilities, but NOT present material or information that is too far beyond the child's level. It is also recommended that teachers use a wide variety of concrete experiences to motivate the child (e.g., use of manipulatives, working in groups to get experience seeing from another's perspective, field trips, etc).
Zone of proximal development (Lev Vygotsky, 1978) The Zone of Proximal Development is the distance between the learner's actual developmental level and the level of potential development; it is the gap between what we are trying to teach and the current state of development in that area. If the gap is too large, instruction won’t be effective; too small and the learner won’t be extended, therefore teachers must have background knowledge of those they teach. => Scaffolded instruction involves an instructor or advanced peer working to support the development of the learner. The instructor should guide the learner in such a way that the gap is bridged between the learner’s current skill levels and the desired skill level. As learners become more proficient, able to complete tasks on their own that they could not initially do without assistance, the guidance can be withdrawn. Students' needs, goals and interests must be the starting point if motivation is to occur. For motivation and progress to exist, instructional input to students must be Challenging & Relevant. (Oxford & Shearin, 1994)
Need for achievement: individuals with a high need for achievement are interested in excellence for its own sake (rather for extrinsic rewards), tend to initiate achievement activities, work with heightened intensity on these tasks, and persist in the face of failure.
Fear of failure: The main drive to do well comes from avoiding a negative outcome rather than approaching a positive one.
Fear of success: "Nerd" vs. "cool" => Fear of losing social support (affiliation).
Goal-theory: (Locke & Latham, 1994) it has differentiated three separate types of goals:
Mastery goals (also called learning goals) which focus on gaining competence or mastering a new set of knowledge or skills;
Performance/normative goals (also called ego-involvement goals) which focus on achieving normative-based standards, doing better than others, or doing well without a lot of effort;
Social goals which focus on relationships among people (see Ames, 1992; Dweck, 1986; Urdan & Maehr, 1995). => interpersonal skills- cooperative learning.
In the context of school learning, which involves operating in a relatively structured environment, students with mastery goals outperform students with either performance or social goals. However, in life success, it seems critical that individuals have all three types of goals in order to be very successful. One aspect of this theory is that individuals are motivated to either avoid failure (more often associated with performance goals) or achieve success (more often associated with mastery goals). In the former situation, the individual is more likely to select easy or difficult tasks, thereby either achieving success or having a good excuse for why failure occurred. In the latter situation, the individual is more likely to select moderately difficult tasks which will provide an interesting challenge, but still keep the high expectations for success.
E- Psychoanalytic Theories
The psychoanalytic theories of motivation propose a variety of fundamental influences:
Freud (1990) suggested that all action or behavior is a result of internal, biological instincts that are classified into two categories: life (sexual) and death (aggression). .
Erikson (1993) and Sullivan (1968) proposed that interpersonal and social relationships are fundamental. (=> cooperative learning)
Develops a sense of acceptance of life as it was lived and the importance of the people and relationships that individual developed over the lifespan Older Adulthood Ego Integrity vs. Despair Develops interest in guiding the development of the next generation Middle Adulthood Generativity vs. Stagnation Develops ability to give and receive love; begins to make long-term commitment to relationships Young Adult Initimacy vs. Isolation Develops a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desires (Later work has shown two substages: a social identity focusing on which group a person will identify with and a personal identity focusing on abilities, goals, possibilities, etc.) Adolescence Identity vs. Role Confusion Child learns to do things well or correctly in comparison to a standard or to others Middle Childhood/ Elementary Accomplishment/Industry vs. Inferiority Child learns to begin action, to explore, to imagine as well as feeling remorse for actions Early Childhood Initiative vs. Guilt Child learns what he/she can control and develops a sense of free will and corresponding sense of regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of self-control. Toddlerhood Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Child develops a belief that the environment can be counted on to meet his or her basic physiological and social needs Infancy Trust vs. Mistrust Expected Resolution Age Stage Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development
Adler (1989) proposed power (money => as a motivator. ex: lawyers)
Jung (1953, 1997) proposed temperament and search for soul or personal meaningfulness .
F- Humanistic Theories
Humanistic "theories" of learning tend to be highly value-driven and hence more like prescriptions rather than descriptions. They emphasise the "natural desire" of everyone to learn. They maintain that learners need to be empowered and to have control over the learning process. So the teacher relinquishes a great deal of authority and becomes a facilitator. .
Hierarchy of Human Needs: (Abraham Maslow, 1954). It is based on two groupings: deficiency needs and growth needs. Within the deficiency needs, each lower need must be met before moving to the next higher level.
The first four levels (Deficiency Needs) are:
1) Physiological: hunger, thirst, bodily comforts, etc.; 2) Safety/security: out of danger; 3) Belonginess and Love: affiliate with others, be accepted; and 4) Esteem: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition.
According to Maslow, an individual is ready to act upon the growth needs if and only if the deficiency needs are met.
The remaining four levels (Growth Needs) are:
5) Cognitive: to know, to understand, and explore; 6) Aesthetic: symmetry, order, and beauty; 7) Self-actualization: to find self-fulfillment and realize one's potential;
Self-actualized people are characterized by:
Showing concern about personal growth;
Showing ability to have peak experiences.
8) Transcendence: to help others find self-fulfillment and realize their potential.
The essence of the hierarchy is the notion of “pre-potency”, which means that you are not going to be motivated by any higher-level needs until your lower-level ones have been satisfied.
Hierarchy of Motivational Needs . ( Alderfer , 1972)
When divided among people one person's gain is another's loss if resources are limited Includes all of the various forms of material and psychological desires Existence Satisfied by mutually sharing thoughts and feelings; acceptance, confirmation, understanding, and influence are elements Involves relationships with significant others Relatedness Satisfied through using capabilities in engaging problems; creates a greater sense of wholeness and fullness as a human being Impels a person to make creative or productive effects on himself and his environment Growth Properties Definition Level of Need
Maslow recognized that not all personalities followed his proposed hierarchy. While a variety of personality dimensions might be considered as related to motivational needs, one of the most often cited is that of introversion and extroversion . Reorganizing Maslow's hierarchy based on the work of Alderfer and considering the introversion/extroversion dimension of personality results in three levels, each with an introverted and extroverted component. This organization suggests there may be two aspects of each level that differentiate how people relate to each set of needs. Different personalities might relate more to one dimension than the other. For example, an introvert at the level of Other/Relatedness might be more concerned with his or her own perceptions of being included in a group, whereas an extrovert at that same level would pay more attention to how others value that membership.
A Reorganization of Maslow's and Alderfer's Hierarchies . Connectedness, security Physiological, biological (including basic emotional needs) Self (Existence) Value of person by group (Esteem) Personal identification with group, significant others (Belongingness) Other (Relatedness) Transcendence (assisting in the development of others' competencies and character; relationships to the unknown, unknowable) Self-Actualization (development of competencies [knowledge, attitudes, and skills] and character) Growth Extroversion Introversion Level
Self-Determination Theory: .(Deci & Ryan, 1985) it is based on the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and the basic human need for autonomy. It proposes that a person must be able to initiate and regulate, through personal choice, the effort expended to complete a task in order for the task to be intrinsically rewarding.
Intrinsic motivation: the performance of a task for its own sake. It values rewards gained through the process of task completion, regardless of any external rewards.
Extrinsic motivation: the pursuit of some reward external to the completion of the task, such as good grades. It is believed to undermine intrinsic motivation; individuals will often lose their intrinsic interest in a task if the task is seen as a means to an end.
Deci identifies autonomy, competence, and relatedness as the three criteria necessary for the self-determination theory of motivation. .
Fill the Heart, not just the Money Bag.
Edward L. Deci Humanists stress the need for personal growth. They place a great deal of emphasis on the total person, along with the related news of personal freedom, choice and self determination.
G- Social Cognition
Self-efficacy: ( Bandura, 1986, 1997) it highlights the belief that a particular action is possible and that the individual can accomplish it. =>judging one's own ability and competence.
Self-regulation: ( Bandura, 1986, 1997) it highlights the establishment of goals, the development of a plan to attain those goals, the commitment to implement that plan, the actual implementation of the plan, and subsequent actions of reflection and modification or redirection.
H- Transpersonal / Spiritual Theories Most of the transpersonal or spiritual theories deal with the meaningfulness of our lives or ultimate meanings.
1- Freud / 1990 2- Erikson, 1993 / Sullivan, 1968 3- Adler / 1989 4- Jung / 1953, 1997 1- Life & Death 2- Social/interpersonal relationships 3- Power 4- Search for soul E- Psychoanalytic 1- 2- 3- Atkinson & Raynor / 1974 4- Locke & Latham / 1994 1- Need for achievement 2- Fear of failure 3- Fear of success 4- Goal theory: Mastery goals Performance goals Social goals D- Achievement Motivation Theories 1- Piaget / 1972, 1990 2- Vygotsky / 1978 1- Stages of cognitive development. 2- Zone of proximal development C- Cognitive Developmental Theories 1- Expectancy of success + Instrumentality (see the connection between activity & reward) + Value the results. 2- Attribute success/failure to factors that are: internal/external/under control/out of control 3- Act to resolve conflict or discrepancies. 1- Vroom / 1964 2- Heider, 1958 / Weiner, 1974 3- Festinger / 1957 1- Expectancy-value 2- Attribution theory 3- Cognitive dissonance B- Cognitive Theories => intrinsic motivation Cognitivists explain motivation in terms of person's active search for meaning and satisfaction in life. Thus motivation is internal. 1- Stimulus, response, association (involuntary) 2- Stimulus, response, reward = reinforcement 3- Modeling ( imitation ) + Vicarious learning 1- Pavlov 2- Skinner 3- Bandura 1- Classical conditioning 2- Operant conditioning 3- Observational/social learning A- Behavioral Theories => extrinsic motivation Behaviorists explain motivation in terms of external stimuli and reinforcement. The physical environment and actions of the teacher are of prime importance. Components Theorist/Year Theory Name Theories of Motivation Summary
1- Judging one's own ability 2- Establishing goals and developing a plan to attain those goals. 1- 2- Bandura / 1986, 1997 1- Self-efficacy 2- Self-regulation G- Social Cognition 1- Self-actualization, esteem, belongingness, safety, physiological. We are not motivated by any higher-level needs until our lower-level ones have been satisfied. 2- Growth, relatedness, existence needs. Alderfer showed how people regress if their higher order needs are not met. 3- Intrinsic Vs. Extrinsic motivation- A person must be able to initiate and regulate, through personal choice, the effort expended to complete a task in order for the task to be intrinsically rewarding. 1- Maslow / 1954 2- Alderfer, 1972 3- Deci & Ryan, 1985 1- Hierarchy of Needs 2- Hierarchy of Motivational Needs 3- Self-determination F- Humanistic Theories Humanists stress the need for personal growth. They place a great deal of emphasis on the total person, along with the related news of personal freedom, choice and self-determination.
7- Models of Motivation A- Gardner & Lambert (1959, 1972): Socio-Educational Model After conducting a study that lasted more than ten years, they concluded that the learner's attitude toward the target language and the culture of the target-language-speaking community play a crucial role in language learning motivation. They introduced the notions of instrumental and integrative motivation. In the context of language learning, instrumental motivation refers to the learner's desire to learn a language for utilitarian purposes (such as school/university requirement, employment or travel), whereas integrative motivation refers to the desire to learn a language to integrate successfully into the target language community. McDonough (1981)noted that there are two types of integrative motivation: “ Assimilative motivation ”, strong motivation to “belong” to the target group (give up one's own culture to assimilate into the target culture), and “ Affiliative motivation ”, weak motivation and a desire for wider social contact with target language speakers. Researchers challenged the social psychological approach claiming that it does not include the cognitive aspects of learning motivation (Oxford & Shearin, 1994; Dornyei, 1994), it is not practical and does not benefit L2 learning since it is too broad to help L2 educators generate practical guidelines (Dornyei, 1990).
B- Vroom (1964) : Expectancy Value Theories: Learners' motivation to acquire a second language is determined by:
Valence (perception of degree of attractiveness of goals/ its value)
Expectancy (perception of the probability of attaining the goals)
Ability (appraisal of their ability to achieve the goals).
Instrumentality (connection of success and reward)
Questions the learner asks him/herself:
Should I expend the energy or not? (effort)
Does the outcome have a value? (valence)
Are my actions likely to lead to success? (expectancy)
Can I reach success? (ability)
Will the outcome yield other positive results? (instrumentality)
C- Schumann (1978, 1986):
Acculturation Model- Schumann examined the effects of personal variables such as relative status, attitude, integration, amount of time in the culture, size of the learning group, and cohesiveness of the group on adult language learning.
Schumann suggested three strategies taken by adult learners:
Assimilation: total adoption of the target culture
Rejection of target culture: preservation of the home culture (culture shock)
Acculturation: learning to function in the new culture while maintaining one's own identity (adaptability).
He suggests that the degree of acculturation determines the level of second language aquisition. When an individual chooses to acculturate and experiences success, the motivation to learn the L2 increases. (Oxford & Shearin, 1994) In the EFLunlike the ESL classroom, the situation is slightly different, in that the need for assimilation or acculturation is practically non-existent, especially at beginning levels and in languages such as French or German.
D- Gardner (1985): .Gardner explored four other motivational orientations:
(a) reason for learning,
(b) desire to attain the learning goal,
(c) positive attitude toward the learning situation, and
(d) effortful behavior.
Gardner (1985) describes core second language learning motivation as a construct composed of three characteristics:
the attitudes towards learning a language (affect),
the desire to learn the language (want) and
motivational intensity (effort).
According to Gardner, a highly motivated individual will
enjoy learning the language, and
want to learn the language,
strive to learn the language.
"An integratively oriented learner would likely have a stronger desire to learn the language, have more positive attitudes towards the learning situation, and be more likely to expend more effort in learning the language (Gardner, 1985).
The Gardnerian theory of SLA motivation is based on the definition of motivation as "the extent to which the individual works or strives to learn the language because of a desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in this activity" (Gardner, 1985).
E- Deci & Ryan (1985): Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory: it is based on the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and the basic human need for autonomy. It proposes that a person must be able to initiate and regulate, through personal choice, the effort expended to complete a task in order for the task to be intrinsically rewarding.
Intrinsic motivation: the performance of a task for its own sake. It values rewards gained through the process of task completion, regardless of any external rewards.
Extrinsic motivation: the pursuit of some reward external to the completion of the task, such as good grades. It is believed to undermine intrinsic motivation; individuals will often lose their intrinsic interest in a task if the task is seen as a means to an end.
<=> Extrinsic or Intrinsic Motivation, depending on whether the stimulus for the behavior originated outside or inside the individual.
F- Dornyei (1990): He postulated a motivational construct consisting of:
an Instrumental Motivational Subsystem
an Integrative Motivational Subsystem
Need for Achievement
Attribution about past failures.
"Instrumental motivation might be more important than integrative motivation for foreign language learners."
G- Crookes & Schmidt (1991): They identified four areas of SL motivation:
the micro level,
the classroom level,
the syllabus level, and
a level involving factors from outside the classroom.
The micro level involves the cognitive processing of L2 input. At the micro level learner motivation is evidenced by the amount of attention given to the input. The classroom level includes the techniques and activities employed in the classroom. The syllabus level refers to the choice of content presented and can influence motivation by the level of curiosity and interest aroused in the students. Finally, factors from outside the classroom involve informal interaction in the L2 and long term factors.
Crookes & Schmidt (1991) also suggested that motivation to learn a language has both internal and external features:
Structure of Motivation Mentioned in "Tapestry of Language Learning" p. 52 External / Behavioral factors 1- Decision to choose, pay attention to, and engage in L2 learning. 2- Persistence 3- High activity level Internal / Attitudinal factors 1- Interest in L2 (based on attitudes, experience, background knowledge) 2- Relevance (perception that personal needs --achievement, affiliation, power-- are being met by learning the L2. 3- Expectancy of success or failure. 4- Outcomes (extrinsic or intrinsic rewards felt by the learner.) .
H- Oxford and Shearin (1994): They analyzed a total of 12 motivational theories or models, including those from socio-psychology, cognitive development, and socio-cultural psychology, and identified six factors that impact motivation in language learning: * attitudes (i.e., sentiments toward the learning community and the target language) * beliefs about self (i.e., expectancies about one's attitudes to succeed, self-efficacy, and anxiety) * goals (perceived clarity and relevance of learning goals as reasons for learning) * involvement (i.e., extent to which the learner actively and consciously participates in the language learning process) * environmental support (i.e., extent of teacher and peer support, and the integration of cultural and outside-of-class support into learning experience)
personal attributes (i.e., aptitude, age, sex, and previous language learning experience).
I- Dornyei (1994): . His taxonomy of motivation is comprised of three levels:
the Language Level,
the Learner Level, and
the Learning Situation Level.
The Language level is the most general level which focuses on "orientations and motives related to various aspects of the L2". The motives and orientations at this level determine the language studied and the most basic learning goals.
integrative motivational subsystem
instrumental motivational subsystem
The Learner level involves the influence of individual traits of language learners. Motivation is influenced at the Learner Level by the learner's
The Learner Level is concerned with internal, affective characteristics of the learner related to expectancy. .
Motivation at the Learning Situation Level is influenced by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic motives that are
course specific (interest, relevance, expectancy, satisfaction),
teacher specific (affiliative motive --please teacher, authority type --controlling vs. autonomy supporting, modelling, task presentation, feedback),
group specific (goal-orientedness, reward system, group cohesiveness, classroom goal structure -- cooperative, competitive, individualistic.
- Wen (1997): He incorporated expectancy-value theories and identified four motivational factors:
motivation of instrumentality
expected learning strategies and efforts
passivity towards requirements.
K- Dornyei (1998): .He suggests seven main motivational dimensions:
1. the affective/integrative dimension:
intrinsic motives/attitudes towards L2
2. the instrumental/pragmatic dimension;
3. the macro-context-related dimension (multi-cultural/ intergroup / ethnolinguistic relations);
4. the self-concept-related dimension (generalised/ trait-like personality factors);
success/failure-related (attributional) factor;
need for achievement;
5. the goal-related dimension;
6. the educational context-related dimension (learning/ classroom/ school environment);
7. the significant others-related dimension (parents, family, friends).
Models of Motivation Summary Instrumental Motivational Integrative Motivational Need for Achievement Attribution about past failures. Motivational construct F- Dornyei (1990) Intrinsic & Extrinsic motivation Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory E- Deci & Ryan (1985) (a) reason for learning, (b) desire to attain the learning goal, (c) positive attitude toward the learning situation, and (d) effortful behavior. Four other motivational orientations D- Gardner (1985) Assimilation: total adoption Rejection of target culture Acculturation: learning to function in the new culture while maintaining one's own identity. Acculturation Model (for adults) C- Schumann (1978/1986) Effort Valence Expectancy Ability Instrumentality Expectancy Value Theories: B- Vroom (1964) Instrumental and Integrative motivation + Assimilative & Affiliative Socio-Educational Model A- Gardner/Lambert (1959/1972) Components Model Name Theorist/Year
1. affective/integrative 2. instrumental/pragmatic 3. macro-context-related 4. self-concept-related 5. goal-related 6. educational context-related 7. significant others-related Seven main motivational dimensions K- Dornyei (1998) Motivation of instrumentality Intrinsic motivation Expected learning strategies and efforts Passivity towards requirements. Incorporated expectancy-value theories J- Wen (1997) Language Level, Learner Level, and Learning Situation Level. Taxonomy of motivation I- Dornyei (1994) Attitudes Beliefs about self Goals Involvement Environmental support Personal attributes Six factors that impact motivation in language learning H- Oxford & Shearin (1994) 1- Micro level, Classroom level, Syllabus level, and Outside the classroom level. 2- Internal factors (interest, relevance, expectancy, outcomes) & External factors (decision, persistence, activity level) 1- Four areas of SL motivation 2- Structure of Motivation G- Crookes & Schmidt (1991)
8- Factors that Affect Motivation . "Motivation to learn is a competence acquired through general experience but stimulated most directly through modeling , communication of expectations , and direct instruction or socialization by significant others (especially parents and teachers)." (Brophy, 1987) "To a very large degree, students expect to learn if their teachers expect them to learn." (Stipek, 1988) Several factors affect students' motivation to learn a second language. . . First foreign language The more academically sophisticated the student's native language knowledge and abilities, the easier it will be for that student to learn a second language, then the more motivated s/he will be. Native language proficiency Judging own ability and competence. How capable of success they think they are. Self-efficacy / Competence How much the learner expects to succeed. Expectancy How the learner views this language and its speakers. Attitude How interested the learner is in learning this language. Interest (and curiosity) How much the learner needs to study this language. Need Why the learner is studying the language. Goals . Religion Girls are known to acquire languages faster than boys. Hence, their motivation would be higher. Gender cf. Piaget, Maslow, Alderfer, Erikson, Vygotsky, ... Age Internal Factors
Students need to have positive and realistic role models who demonstrate the value of being proficient in more than one language. Role models Teenagers tend to be heavily influenced by their peer groups. In second language learning, peer pressure often undermines the goals set by parents and teachers. Peer pressure often reduces the desire of the student to work toward native pronunciation, because the sounds of the target language may be regarded as strange. For learners of English as a second language, speaking like a native speaker may unconsciously be regarded as a sign of no longer belonging to their native-language peer group. In working with secondary school students, it is important to keep these peer influences in mind and to foster a positive image for proficiency in a second language. Social Identity (Peer groups) Relevance Attractiveness Challenge Relaxed, positive atmosphere (low affective filter) Course content & Classroom atmosphere Encouragement · Expectations · Feedback · Scaffolding · Task presentation · Teaching strategies & techniques · Rewards Teachers External Factors
In order for the students to be motivated, the learning environment needs to be free from axiety; the student should not feel threatened or intimidated. In order for him/her to speak, s/he needs to feel s/he will be heard and that what s/he is saying is worth hearing. Learning environment Support from home is very important for students' motivation to learn a second language. If parents value both the native language and English, communicate with their children in whichever language is most comfortable, and show support for and interest in their children's progress, the children will definitely be more motivated to learn the second language. Home support
9- Instruments for Motivation Assessment: The "Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB)- Gardner, 1985 Motivational intensity questionnaire (Gardner, 1985) To measure intensity of motivation. The Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) (Keller, 1987). It requires students to rate 36 ARCS-related statements in relation to the instructional materials they have just used. Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) (Oxford, 1989) To measure language learning strategies. Motivational Delivery Checklist (Keller and Keller, 1989) A 47-item ARCS-based instrument for evaluating the motivational characteristics of an instructor's classroom delivery. Motivational element questionnaire (Schmidt et al., 1996) To measure intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Motivation Scale (Wen, 1997) The Website Motivational Analysis Checklist (WebMAC) (Small, 1997) It is an instrument used for designing and assessing the motivational quality of World Wide Web sites.
10- Implications & Strategies for L2 Learners' Motivation:
Check Matching Exercise
The greatest motivational act one person can do for another is to listen.--Roy E. Moody
Dornyei (1994) suggests
developing students' self-efficacy,
decreasing their anxiety,
promoting motivation-enhancing attributions,
encouraging students to set attainable sub-goals, and
increasing the attractiveness of course content.
Dornyei (1998:131) suggests "Ten Commandments for Motivating Language Learners”
Set a personal example with your own behavior.
Create a pleasant, relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.
Present the task properly.
Develop a good relationship with the learners.
Increase the learner's linguistic self-confidence.
Make the language classes interesting.
Promote learner autonomy.
Personalize the learning process.
Increase the learners' goal-orientedness.
Familiarize learners with the target language culture.
Oxford & Shearin (1996:139) also offer Practical Suggestions for Teachers:
1. Teachers can identify why students are studying the new language.
Teachers can find out actual motivations (motivation survey).
Information on motivation can be passed on to the next class in a portfolio.
Teachers can determine which parts of L2 learning are especially valuable for the students.
2. Teachers can help shape students' beliefs about success and failure in L2 learning.
Students can learn to have realistic but challenging goals.
Teachers can learn to accept diversity in the way students establish and meet their goals, based on differences in learning styles .
3. Teachers can help students improve motivation by showing that L2 learning can be an exciting mental challenge, a career enhancer, a vehicle to cultural awareness and friendship and a key to world peace.
4. Teachers can make the L2 classroom a welcoming, positive place where psychological needs are met and where language anxiety is kept to a minimum.
5. Teachers can urge students to develop their own intrinsic rewards through positive self-talk, guided self-evaluation, and mastery of specific goals, rather than comparison with other students. Teachers can thus promote a sense of greater self-efficacy, increasing motivation to continue learning the L2.
There are a variety of specific actions that teachers can take to increase motivation on classroom tasks. In general, these fall into the two categories discussed above: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. (Huitt, 2001) Some teaching strategies that can be used to foster motivation and provide better transfer opportunities of language skills include the following: (Ngeow, Karen Yeok-Hwa, 1998) * Encourage learners to take ownership in learning. Have learners take ownership of the learning assignment by letting them identify and decide for themselves relevant learning goals. This will motivate them to apply what they have learned to attain these learning goals. * Promote intentional cognition or mindfulness to learning in various contexts. Learners must be able to practice language in multiple contexts in order to bridge domains and foster active abstraction of concepts learned (Bransford, et al. 1990). This will help learners recognize the relevance and transferability of different learning skills or knowledge. * Increase authenticity of learning tasks and goals. Learners should recognize a real need to accomplish learning goals that are relevant and holistic (rather than task-specific). This prepares them
Provide clear expectations
Give corrective feedback
Provide valuable rewards
Make rewards available
Explain or show why learning a particular content or skill is important
Create and/or maintain curiosity
Provide a variety of activities and sensory stimulations
Provide games and simulations
Set goals for learning
Relate learning to student needs
Help student develop plan of action
for the complexities of real-world tasks that require them to use language skills and knowledge that have to be continually transferred. "The best way to create interest in a subject is to render it worth knowing, which means to make the knowledge gained usable in one's thinking beyond the situation in which learning has occurred." Bruner (1960, p.31) Some effective suggestions for improving the affective climate of the SL learning environment: By Paula Kristmanson
Encourage and support students at all times but especially when they are struggling or lacking confidence in certain areas.
Be energetic and enthusiastic about what you are teaching and on those days when you do not have that energy, provide activities that require the learners to put forth the majority of the energy.
Create an atmosphere in which students are not afraid to make mistakes and are encouraged to take risks.
Avoid tension-causing strategies such as surprise quizzes, overly competitive activities, putting students in front of their peers with no warning or chance for preparation, and correcting errors in a negative, accusatory fashion.
Allow students opportunities to talk about themselves, their interests, and their culture.
Through preplanned and spontaneous activities, provide opportunities for interaction in the target language in and outside the language learning environment.
Encourage goal setting and a sense of dedication and continuous commitment to the language learning task through meaningful, relevant and authentic language learning activities.
Encourage learners to seek out opportunities in their lives that will help in the learning of the target language.
Create, through the presentation of attainable goals and reasonable challenges, a learning environment with a definite potential for success.
Recognize the "little successes", improvements and progress of all students both individually and with the entire group.
Students: Walking your talk is a great way to motivate yourself. No one likes to live a lie. Be honest with yourself, and you will find the motivation to do what you advise others to do. --Vince Poscente (Invinceable Principles) YOU CAN BE WHATEVER YOU WANT TO BE by Donna Levine There is inside you all of the potential to be whatever you want to be all of the energy to do whatever you want to do. Imagine yourself as you would like to be, doing what you want to do, and each day, take one step towards your dream. And though at times it may seem too difficult to continue, hold on to your dream. One morning you will awake to find that you are the person you dreamed of doing what you wanted to do simply because you had the courage to believe in your potential and to hold on to your dream. http://www.wow4u.com/youcan/index.html Additional sites: Keys to Motivation http://www.motivation123.com/keys.html Techniques to Help You Get Motivated Today http://www.motivation123.com/motiv-fortuneteller.html
Get Up and Go - Motivation http://www.study.com.au/magic/skills/motivate.html Motivation is the force that causes you to take action - apply the effort & commitment needed to do something. There are two important parts to motivation: People tend to be most successful when working toward positive outcomes on things they find personally fulfilling. In such cases they will do whatever it takes to get the result that they want. One of the most important tasks is to decide what you want . . . If you don't plan where you are heading, you might end up in an occupation or life style that is not very satisfying. If you haven't decided yet, identify a range of wishes for the future, and set about exploring the background of people who have achieved that lifestyle. Mapping out a plan to achieve your dreams is often called writing up a list of goals. Click here ( http://www.study.com.au/ideal/idpdf/studentp/goal_sample_page.pdf ) for an example. To gain benefits OR avoid unpleasantness What are you doing it for? For myself OR others (parents or teachers) Who are you doing it for?
Make a Treasure Map of your Goals: Make a map of the things that you wish to achieve during your life. Start by listing the key areas, then adding more detail. You will notice that each time you return to your map your vision for the future will become clearer. Use words, drawings or pictures from magazines. Start with a picture of yourself. A good strategy is to make a poster size collage for your bedroom wall to help you focus on your goals each day.) Whatever you call your preferred future direction, write it down, draw it, paint it, make a collage of your direction and work toward it. If you can find something better, simply adjust you goals and direction. Remember to link your goals to your school work. To create greater motivation for your school work take time to find as many positive connections between the subjects you are doing and possible benefits for achieving your goals.
What is motivation? http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/motivation/ Motivation is a desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy to work towards that goal. Students who are motivated have a desire to undertake their study and complete the requirements of their course. Are you a motivated student? Being a motivated student doesn’t mean you are always excited or fully committed to your study, but it does mean you will complete the tasks set for you even when assignments or practicals are difficult, or seem uninteresting.
What is 'loss of motivation'?
You might experience loss of motivation as a reluctance to undertake an assignment or project, or attend a lecture or tutorial. As a result of loss of motivation you may be thinking about withdrawing from a subject, or taking leave from university for a semester, for a year, or ‘forever’.
You may experience loss of motivation as if it were a lost object or a lost friend. You might feel:
How can motivation ‘be lost’?
The most common reasons for loss of motivation are:
a negative experience
several negative experiences
Specific contributing factors might be:
a low mark or a series of low marks
getting behind on a program of study
responsibilities, other than study, taking priority
study becoming irrelevant to short term or long term goals
a mismatch between the knowledge, beliefs or interests which a student has and the ideas with which they are coming in contact
the difficulty of subject material
If you have experienced any of the above factors how have they affected you?
Searching for motivation Just as you can ‘lose’ motivation, you can also ‘find’ motivation. The connecting link between losing motivation and finding it, is the search. The search will involve some focusing on how important the goal is that you are seeking, and some change to your behavior. It is likely to involve a number of steps. Give yourself some quality time to work through the steps in this program . Eight step plan to help you search for, and find motivation. The eight step plan for finding motivation to study can be shown as: Step 1 Give yourself time Step 2 Work with all of you Step 3 Focus on goals Step 4 Make study a priority Step 5 Feel good about yourself Step 6 Take care of your health Step 7 Visualization Step 8 Build on your knowledge
1- Give yourself time You probably have not lost motivation overnight. You will need to give yourself time to find it again. Lost objects are most easily found when you: · are calm · have some time to search · are able to concentrate on one thing at a time How can you begin to relax, give yourself time and concentrate on one thing at a time? 2- Work with the whole you Keep in mind that loss of motivation is an experience which can affect your thoughts, your feelings and your body. · You might be feeling anxious or guilty. · You might be thinking that you will never be able to complete your work on time. · You might be finding it difficult to get your body physically moving in the morning. Ask yourself the following questions, and list your answers in a copy of the Table "How am I?" · What am I feeling? · What am I thinking? · What is my physical state of health? · What are my goals about how I want my feelings, thoughts and health to be ?
3- Focus on goals
You need to know your
short term goals
long term goals and
which goals have priority.
You may have many goals and aim to achieve many of them. You may, however, have only sufficient time and energy to work towards achieving one or two of these goals. So deciding on what goals are most important to you is an important step in becoming motivated about your study.
Use the "My Goals " table to answer the following questions
What are my goals for this week?
What are my goals for this year ?
What are my goals for the next four years?
Which of these goals are achievable?
Which of these goals are most important to me?
When you have completed the "My Goals" table ask you self the question:
Where does study rate on my list of important goals?
If · study has been omitted from your list of goals or · is a low priority or · is not achievable, then you are experiencing loss of motivation to study. There may be many aspects of your life that are important to you other than study. You may, for example, · have family commitments, · want to have paid employment, · you may want to travel overseas. Any of these may be more important goals for you than study. If you have a large number of goals, or study is a low priority for you, you may choose to · make an appointment with a counselor, · talk with a friend or · see a teacher about what is happening for you in relation to study and how you can decide which goals to make priorities. Next Step: You can either · talk with a friend about your priorities or, · make an appointment to see a teacher or · make an appointment to see a counselor or
4- Make study a priority If in Step 3 you discovered that study is a priority for you right now, you will need to get yourself going.
Use the Make study a priority questionnaire to work out
your study commitments
a pattern for studying and
how to incorporate rewards
When you have answered the questionnaire you will have completed a study plan for yourself which includes goals, time management and self rewards. With a study plan you will be able to undertake study and will be well on your way in your search for motivation.
You might also like to search out how to:
manage your time and study workload avoid procrastination 5- Feel good about yourself Feeling good about yourself and recognizing your achievements may be a key factor in helping you find motivation. When we have a sense of well being and self esteem we can tackle difficult or uninteresting tasks with a positive outlook. Use the " Feeling good about yourself " questionnaire to discover positive attributes about yourself and how to use them. You might find collecting positive attributes about yourself a difficult task. You could ask a close friend or a family member about positive aspects they recognize in you. 6- Take care of your health Physical well being is also an important part of finding motivation. Studying is demanding physically as well as mentally and emotionally. Because studying requires so much sitting, reading and computer work it is important that you include exercise and healthy eating in your life.
Use the "How healthy am I?" questionnaire to assess your level of health.
Changing eating and exercise patterns is not easy.
Some experts say that small consistent changes are more effective than extreme changes to lifestyles.
Different ways of eating and different ways of including exercise seem to suit different people at different times, eg. you might find that a short burst of regular exercise in the morning by yourself suits you; you might find that you look forward to a weekly game of netball, basketball or badminton in the evening; or you might find that a yoga or tai-chi class suits you You can experiment with what suits you best.
7- Visualization: Encouraging your mind to work for you
You might find that visualizing a situation, and a context in which you have successfully achieved your goals, is an effective motivational force. You can visualize yourself studying at your desk at home, working through your study program easily and efficiently and then seeing
yourself completing your work and handing it up. You can use the Visualization exercise for students to begin. If you can picture positive situations in your head then you have an image, or a visualization, which you can use daily before or during study to visualize yourself being motivated and successful. You might want to learn more about meditation which includes practicing visualization. 8- Build on your knowledge You have now undertaken seven steps to help you in your search for motivation. Step 2 included the examination of your thoughts, feelings and your health. Step 8 will involve you in monitoring how you are, and using what you have discovered to help you in your search for motivation. You will need to use your list of answers from Step 2 as a base line to discover how undertaking the seven steps has helped you in your search for motivation. At weekly intervals, you can use the Keeping up the search for motivation checklist The checklist will help you build on your knowledge about yourself in searching for, and maintaining, your motivation to study. http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/motivation/