WHY DO
WOMEN
NEED FAT?
Will Lassek
Look
here
first
Who is the
most attractive
imaginary woman?
eg. animated films,
video games,
comics, graphic novels
Jessica Rabbit
“most attractive
imaginary
woman”
650 undergrads
of Steve Gaulin
“sexiest cartoon
character”
Cadbury contes...
What is her
most
unusual
attribute?
Jessica Rabbit

Waist/Hip
Ratio: 38%
Waist/Height
Ratio: 15%
(10 inches)
38%

68%

74%

WAIST/HIP
Playmate

undergrad
15%
10 in

36%
24 in

44%
28 in

WAIST/HEIGHT
Playmate

undergrad
WHERE DO
MEN LOOK
FIRST &
LONGEST?
Cornellisen, et al. 2009
Look
here
first

eye tracking:
WAIST is
where men look
first and most
when judging
attractiveness
Why should we care what men
find attractive?
Look
here
first
Men should admire qualities
that help women have
children that survive
HOW IS WOMEN’S
WAIST FAT
CONNECTED
TO HAVING
CHILDREN?
BMI

Waist & BMI (Body Mass Index)
32
small waist
30
28 requires low BMI
26
correlation = 0.93
24
22 Playmates
20
undergra...
Jessica Rabbit

waist/height
15%
predicted
BMI:
10
(from waist,
hip, height)
Average weight of young US women by BMI
150

Pounds

140
130

BMI <20
<120 pounds

120
110
100
90
16

17

18

19

20

21

...
Men prefer women with low BMI’s
Martin Tovee, et al. 1999

attractiveness
scores
Cumulative BMI % age 18-20, 1971-75

(before the obesity epidemic)

50

Percent

40
30

half of young women
had BMI’s <20
...
HOW DOES
A MOTHER’S
SMALL WAIST
& LOW BMI
AFFECT HER
CHILDREN?
OVULATORY INFERTILITY & BMI:
116,671 nurses, Rich-Edwards 2002

21

BMI<21:
HARDER
TO
GET
PREGNANT
In foraging/subsistence populations
thinner women have fewer children

Papua
New
Guinea

Andes

Brush 93

Mueller 79

Hadz...
Lower BMI, bad for infants
0

Low Birth
Weight

Preterm

1

2

<19
19-24
25+

Hospital
(infant)

Murakami 2005

3
Low BMI & fetal or infant death
England

BMI
17

23

the lower
the BMI,
the more
infant
deaths

Tennant, 2011
PUZZLE
WHY DO MEN PREFER WOMEN
WITH LOWER FERTILITY
& LESS HEALTHY INFANTS?
AND (OR)
WHY DO MOST YOUNG
WOMEN HAVE SMALL WA...
WHAT HAPPENS TO
A FIRST-TIME
AMERICAN MOTHER
EVERY 86 SECONDS?
WH, 1932 (1847) Catherine
FTA, 1932 (1929)
Evolution of pelvis in humans

pelvis changed to allow
upright walking and running
Smallest pelvic outlet dimension:
interspinous diameter ~ 9 cm

a

Interspinous
Average biparietal diameter at term: 9.5 cm
human

chimpanzee

humans have
much less of
brain growth
before birth,
but head is
still too big
Almost half of babies from “normal”
vaginal deliveries have bleeding in brain

46%

Rooks, 2008
LARGER HEAD
LEADS TO BLOCKED LABOR
AND DEATH IN CHILDBIRTH

Spain, ~1100 AD
HOW COMMON WAS
DEATH IN CHILDBIRTH
BEFORE
C-SECTIONS?
WHICH
SEX
LIVES
LONGER?
Average age at death,
US 1999-2010

60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76

men
women
60

Percent surviving to age 65,
US 1999-2010

65

70

men
women

75

80
26

Average adult age at death:
30,000 BC to 1799 AD

28

30

32

34

36

men
women
~3000 skeletons examined by Larry Ange...
Sweden, 1800-1899
Hogberg, 1985

1 in 14 mothers
died in childbirth
Maternal deaths in 2000, WHO

many mothers
Sierra Leone
still die in Afghanistan
childbirth Malawi
Sierra Leone 1/50

Ango...
First C-sections by birth
US, 1990

25

most risk of
blocked labor
with first birth

% C-sections

20
15
10
5
0
1

2

3

B...
Every 86 seconds a first-time
American mother has a C-section
WHAT IS THE
BENEFIT OF A
SMALLER WAIST
& LOWER BMI
IN A FIRST-TIME
MOTHER?
Head size cm

Lower BMI, smaller newborn
34.8
st
head for 1 birth
34.6
34.4
34.2
34.0
33.8
33.6
33.4
10-14

15-19

20-24

...
Percent C-sections

Lower BMI, fewer C-sections
st
40
for 1 birth
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

less blocked babies
12 14 16 18 2...
High blood pressure during
pregnancy can also be bad

preeclampsia/eclampsia
More high blood pressure with
first pregnancy
Percent

4
3
2
1
0
1

2

3
4
5
Pregnancy

6

7
Percent preeclampsia

BMI & high blood pressure
st
in 1 time mothers
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4

lower BMI,
less risk

...
WHAT ARE THE
BENEFITS OF A
SMALLER WAIST
& LOWER BMI
IN A FIRST-TIME
MOTHER? (2)
1. LESS RISK OF
MOTHER & CHILD
DYING IN
CHILDBIRTH
2. LESS HIGH
BLOOD PRESSURE
WHAT HAPPENS TO
WOMEN’S WAIST FAT
(AND WEIGHT)
AFTER
HAVING A CHILD?
Waist, inches

Minimum waist (inches) in women
33 with children, US 1988-94
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25

NP
15 15 20 25 30 35 ...
Average weight in American women
150before
Weight, pounds

145

obesity epidemic
1959-61

140
135
130
125
120

as add 25-3...
Average BMI in European women
20

Age 17-18

All Adults

21

BMI
22 23 24

122 pounds

150 pounds

25

26
WHY IS IT BENEFICIAL
TO HAVE MORE
WAIST FAT AFTER
HAVING A CHILD?
Bigger waist, bigger babies
0

Adjusted Odds Ratio

1

2

3

LBW

Preterm

<19
19-24
25+

Hospital
(infant)

Murakami 2005
Pelvic width, cm

Pelvic width and births, NHANES III
30.5
30.0
29.5
29.0
28.5
28.0
27.5
27.0

birth canal expands
with ea...
LESS HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
2nd CHILD WITH SAME FATHER
Insulin

Bigger waist, more insulin resistance
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30

more insulin resistance =
more sugar for ...
Triglycerides

Bigger waist, more triglycerides
170
160
more fat in
150
mother’s blood =
140
130
bigger baby
120
110
100
9...
BMI in women 15+ in 190 countries

2/3rds are 25+
“overweight”

Percent

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

20 21 22 23 24 ...
WHERE WOMEN
DON’T ADD WAIST FAT,
CHILDREN SUFFER
(CONTROLLING FOR INCOME)
Low Birth Weight %

Low birth weight & average BMI
20 in women (income controlled)
15

10

5
<22

22

23

24

25

26

Fema...
Deaths per 1000 births

Newborn death rate & average BMI
in women (income controlled)
50
40
30
20
10
0
<23 23 24 25 26 27 ...
Child death rate & average BMI
in women (income controlled)
Deaths per 1000 births

125
100

75
50
25
<23 23

24

25 26 27...
SO, WHY
DOES A
WOMAN
NEED
WAIST FAT?
WAIST FAT
DETERMINES
THE SIZE OF
HER
CHILDREN
WHAT
ABOUT
FAT in the
HIPS
& LEGS?
Jessica Rabbit
HIP/HEIGHT
= 53%
(36 in)
53%

53%

53%

Hip/height
BMI <20

Playmate
undergrad
Men’s ranking of desirability of
women’s body areas
Rank Score 1-5
Chest
1
4.13

Buttocks

2

4.09

Legs

3

4.04

Hips

4...
Almost all cultures value
fat in women’s legs & hips

Brown & Konner, 1987
What % of weight is fat?

Ambelosi baboon
What % of weight is fat?

bear ready to hibernate
What % of
weight is fat?
typical
undergrad
height: 64”
weight: 132 lb
BMI: 22.2

fat: 32%
(42 lb)
WHY DO WOMEN
NEED
SO MUCH FAT?
2/3rds of fat is
in hips & legs
(white = fat)
LOWER BODY FAT
IS LOCKED AWAY
UNTIL LATE IN
PREGNANCY
Mothers eat less in late pregnancy
2600& while nursing (calories/day)
30%
of fetal
growth

2400
2200
2000
1800
0

1-6

7
8...
AS EAT LESS,
LOWER BODY FAT
IS MOBILIZED IN
LATE PREGNANCY
& WHILE NURSING

~1 ounce/day
WHAT IS IN
ONE OUNCE OF
LOWER-BODY
FAT?
Maternal energy cost of nursing: cals/kg
Prentice 1988

rat/pig
rabbit
sheep
guinea pig
beef cow

2% FAT

baboon
human

30...
WHAT IMPORTANT
ORGAN IN
A NEW BABY
GROWS THE MOST
& ADDS
THE MOST FAT?
Brain triples in size in 1st year

Brain weight, g

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
Fat = 52% dry weight of brain

Fat

Protein
Nerve cells are mostly membranes
made of fat with embedded proteins
Nerve cell membranes would
cover 5 football fields
DHA = 1/3 of membrane fat
rd

DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID
DHA
DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)
omega-3
22 carbons
6 double bonds

omega-3 fats must come from diet
DHA is active in every part of nerve cell
makes
synapse work
grows
axon

transmits
signal
makes & grows dendrites

preserv...
Children of mothers with more DHA
while pregnant have higher verbal IQ’s
% higher IQ

85
80
75
70
65
60

low
medium
high
M...
More DHA in mother’s milk: higher
PISA math score in 28 countries
540

Math Score

520
500
480
460
440
420
1

2

3

Milk D...
WHERE DOES
MILK DHA
COME FROM?
Where does milk DHA come from?

CURRENT
DIET

BODY FAT
80%
Fidler 2000
DHA mainly from stored fat
80% of 120 mg
MILK DHA
= 96 mg*
ONE OUNCE
OF FAT =
96 mg* DHA
*120 mg DHA/day

* European mothe...
SO, WHY DO WOMEN
NEED SO MUCH
LOWER-BODY
FAT?
LOWER-BODY
FAT PROVIDES
ESSENTIAL FATS
NEEDED BY BRAIN
WHY ARE
OUR
NEWBORN
BABIES
SO FAT?
TYPICAL NEWBORN
HAS 2 POUNDS OF FAT
WITH
1500 MILLIGRAMS OF
DHA
(1.6%)
HOW CAN WOMEN
STORE MORE DHA WHEN
DHA % IN FAT IS LOW
BECAUSE OF
LOW DHA FROM DIET?
Percent DHA in body fat
Imaichi 65, Leaf 95
Japan

US

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2
Female obesity %

DHA in mother’s milk &
female obesity in 43 countries
30
25

USA?
Japan?
paleolithic?

20
15
10
5
0
1

2...
BMI

Waist/Height & BMI (Body Mass Index)
32
small waist
30
28 requires low BMI
26
correlation = 0.93
24
22
undergrads
20 ...
2%

1%
Low birth weight %

Lower BMI mothers have more
9
low birth weight babies
8
7
6
5
10 to 14

15 to 19
BMI

20 to 29
AHS13 Will Lassek MD -- Why Women Need Fat: Three Evolutionary Puzzles
AHS13 Will Lassek MD -- Why Women Need Fat: Three Evolutionary Puzzles
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AHS13 Will Lassek MD -- Why Women Need Fat: Three Evolutionary Puzzles

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Dr. Lassek's talk may be viewed here:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gJhT_ANNy4E

Abstract: One puzzle is why human males have such a strong preference for women with hourglass figures and low weights that can compromise fertility. The second is why slender young women typically have about one third of their weight in body fat, more than bears starting to hibernate, and why human infants are also very fat. Finally, why do women typically gain another twenty pounds or more during their reproductive years? The answer may lie in the roles that fat plays in providing essential fatty acids needed for the growth of a very large brain and in regulating overall fetal growth.

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  • AHS13 Will Lassek MD -- Why Women Need Fat: Three Evolutionary Puzzles

    1. 1. WHY DO WOMEN NEED FAT? Will Lassek
    2. 2. Look here first
    3. 3. Who is the most attractive imaginary woman? eg. animated films, video games, comics, graphic novels
    4. 4. Jessica Rabbit “most attractive imaginary woman” 650 undergrads of Steve Gaulin “sexiest cartoon character” Cadbury contest
    5. 5. What is her most unusual attribute?
    6. 6. Jessica Rabbit Waist/Hip Ratio: 38% Waist/Height Ratio: 15% (10 inches)
    7. 7. 38% 68% 74% WAIST/HIP Playmate undergrad
    8. 8. 15% 10 in 36% 24 in 44% 28 in WAIST/HEIGHT Playmate undergrad
    9. 9. WHERE DO MEN LOOK FIRST & LONGEST?
    10. 10. Cornellisen, et al. 2009 Look here first eye tracking: WAIST is where men look first and most when judging attractiveness
    11. 11. Why should we care what men find attractive? Look here first
    12. 12. Men should admire qualities that help women have children that survive
    13. 13. HOW IS WOMEN’S WAIST FAT CONNECTED TO HAVING CHILDREN?
    14. 14. BMI Waist & BMI (Body Mass Index) 32 small waist 30 28 requires low BMI 26 correlation = 0.93 24 22 Playmates 20 undergrads 18 16 14 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Jessica’s BMI? Waist, inches
    15. 15. Jessica Rabbit waist/height 15% predicted BMI: 10 (from waist, hip, height)
    16. 16. Average weight of young US women by BMI 150 Pounds 140 130 BMI <20 <120 pounds 120 110 100 90 16 17 18 19 20 21 BMI 22 23 24 25
    17. 17. Men prefer women with low BMI’s Martin Tovee, et al. 1999 attractiveness scores
    18. 18. Cumulative BMI % age 18-20, 1971-75 (before the obesity epidemic) 50 Percent 40 30 half of young women had BMI’s <20 20 10 0 14 15 16 17 BMI 18 19
    19. 19. HOW DOES A MOTHER’S SMALL WAIST & LOW BMI AFFECT HER CHILDREN?
    20. 20. OVULATORY INFERTILITY & BMI: 116,671 nurses, Rich-Edwards 2002 21 BMI<21: HARDER TO GET PREGNANT
    21. 21. In foraging/subsistence populations thinner women have fewer children Papua New Guinea Andes Brush 93 Mueller 79 Hadza Marlowe 04
    22. 22. Lower BMI, bad for infants 0 Low Birth Weight Preterm 1 2 <19 19-24 25+ Hospital (infant) Murakami 2005 3
    23. 23. Low BMI & fetal or infant death England BMI 17 23 the lower the BMI, the more infant deaths Tennant, 2011
    24. 24. PUZZLE WHY DO MEN PREFER WOMEN WITH LOWER FERTILITY & LESS HEALTHY INFANTS? AND (OR) WHY DO MOST YOUNG WOMEN HAVE SMALL WAISTS & LOW BMI’S?
    25. 25. WHAT HAPPENS TO A FIRST-TIME AMERICAN MOTHER EVERY 86 SECONDS?
    26. 26. WH, 1932 (1847) Catherine
    27. 27. FTA, 1932 (1929)
    28. 28. Evolution of pelvis in humans pelvis changed to allow upright walking and running
    29. 29. Smallest pelvic outlet dimension: interspinous diameter ~ 9 cm a Interspinous
    30. 30. Average biparietal diameter at term: 9.5 cm
    31. 31. human chimpanzee humans have much less of brain growth before birth, but head is still too big
    32. 32. Almost half of babies from “normal” vaginal deliveries have bleeding in brain 46% Rooks, 2008
    33. 33. LARGER HEAD LEADS TO BLOCKED LABOR AND DEATH IN CHILDBIRTH Spain, ~1100 AD
    34. 34. HOW COMMON WAS DEATH IN CHILDBIRTH BEFORE C-SECTIONS?
    35. 35. WHICH SEX LIVES LONGER?
    36. 36. Average age at death, US 1999-2010 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 men women
    37. 37. 60 Percent surviving to age 65, US 1999-2010 65 70 men women 75 80
    38. 38. 26 Average adult age at death: 30,000 BC to 1799 AD 28 30 32 34 36 men women ~3000 skeletons examined by Larry Angel, 1984
    39. 39. Sweden, 1800-1899 Hogberg, 1985 1 in 14 mothers died in childbirth
    40. 40. Maternal deaths in 2000, WHO many mothers Sierra Leone still die in Afghanistan childbirth Malawi Sierra Leone 1/50 Angola Niger Tanzania Rwanda Mali 2.0% 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.2
    41. 41. First C-sections by birth US, 1990 25 most risk of blocked labor with first birth % C-sections 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 Birth 4 5 6
    42. 42. Every 86 seconds a first-time American mother has a C-section
    43. 43. WHAT IS THE BENEFIT OF A SMALLER WAIST & LOWER BMI IN A FIRST-TIME MOTHER?
    44. 44. Head size cm Lower BMI, smaller newborn 34.8 st head for 1 birth 34.6 34.4 34.2 34.0 33.8 33.6 33.4 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 BMI before pregnancy 35-39
    45. 45. Percent C-sections Lower BMI, fewer C-sections st 40 for 1 birth 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 less blocked babies 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 BMI before pregnancy
    46. 46. High blood pressure during pregnancy can also be bad preeclampsia/eclampsia
    47. 47. More high blood pressure with first pregnancy Percent 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Pregnancy 6 7
    48. 48. Percent preeclampsia BMI & high blood pressure st in 1 time mothers 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 lower BMI, less risk 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
    49. 49. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF A SMALLER WAIST & LOWER BMI IN A FIRST-TIME MOTHER? (2)
    50. 50. 1. LESS RISK OF MOTHER & CHILD DYING IN CHILDBIRTH 2. LESS HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
    51. 51. WHAT HAPPENS TO WOMEN’S WAIST FAT (AND WEIGHT) AFTER HAVING A CHILD?
    52. 52. Waist, inches Minimum waist (inches) in women 33 with children, US 1988-94 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 NP 15 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Age Group
    53. 53. Average weight in American women 150before Weight, pounds 145 obesity epidemic 1959-61 140 135 130 125 120 as add 25-30 pounds, more new fat in waist 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 Age
    54. 54. Average BMI in European women 20 Age 17-18 All Adults 21 BMI 22 23 24 122 pounds 150 pounds 25 26
    55. 55. WHY IS IT BENEFICIAL TO HAVE MORE WAIST FAT AFTER HAVING A CHILD?
    56. 56. Bigger waist, bigger babies 0 Adjusted Odds Ratio 1 2 3 LBW Preterm <19 19-24 25+ Hospital (infant) Murakami 2005
    57. 57. Pelvic width, cm Pelvic width and births, NHANES III 30.5 30.0 29.5 29.0 28.5 28.0 27.5 27.0 birth canal expands with each birth, so less blocked labor 0 1 2 3 4 Births 5 6
    58. 58. LESS HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE 2nd CHILD WITH SAME FATHER
    59. 59. Insulin Bigger waist, more insulin resistance 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 more insulin resistance = more sugar for baby = bigger baby 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 Waist/Height x 100
    60. 60. Triglycerides Bigger waist, more triglycerides 170 160 more fat in 150 mother’s blood = 140 130 bigger baby 120 110 100 90 80 70 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 Waist/height x 100
    61. 61. BMI in women 15+ in 190 countries 2/3rds are 25+ “overweight” Percent 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31+ Cumulative BMI in women 15+
    62. 62. WHERE WOMEN DON’T ADD WAIST FAT, CHILDREN SUFFER (CONTROLLING FOR INCOME)
    63. 63. Low Birth Weight % Low birth weight & average BMI 20 in women (income controlled) 15 10 5 <22 22 23 24 25 26 Female BMI 27 28 29+
    64. 64. Deaths per 1000 births Newborn death rate & average BMI in women (income controlled) 50 40 30 20 10 0 <23 23 24 25 26 27 28 29+ Female BMI
    65. 65. Child death rate & average BMI in women (income controlled) Deaths per 1000 births 125 100 75 50 25 <23 23 24 25 26 27 Female BMI 28 29+
    66. 66. SO, WHY DOES A WOMAN NEED WAIST FAT?
    67. 67. WAIST FAT DETERMINES THE SIZE OF HER CHILDREN
    68. 68. WHAT ABOUT FAT in the HIPS & LEGS?
    69. 69. Jessica Rabbit HIP/HEIGHT = 53% (36 in)
    70. 70. 53% 53% 53% Hip/height BMI <20 Playmate undergrad
    71. 71. Men’s ranking of desirability of women’s body areas Rank Score 1-5 Chest 1 4.13 Buttocks 2 4.09 Legs 3 4.04 Hips 4 3.98 Montoya, 2006
    72. 72. Almost all cultures value fat in women’s legs & hips Brown & Konner, 1987
    73. 73. What % of weight is fat? Ambelosi baboon
    74. 74. What % of weight is fat? bear ready to hibernate
    75. 75. What % of weight is fat? typical undergrad
    76. 76. height: 64” weight: 132 lb BMI: 22.2 fat: 32% (42 lb)
    77. 77. WHY DO WOMEN NEED SO MUCH FAT?
    78. 78. 2/3rds of fat is in hips & legs (white = fat)
    79. 79. LOWER BODY FAT IS LOCKED AWAY UNTIL LATE IN PREGNANCY
    80. 80. Mothers eat less in late pregnancy 2600& while nursing (calories/day) 30% of fetal growth 2400 2200 2000 1800 0 1-6 7 8 9 nurse Months of pregnancy COST
    81. 81. AS EAT LESS, LOWER BODY FAT IS MOBILIZED IN LATE PREGNANCY & WHILE NURSING ~1 ounce/day
    82. 82. WHAT IS IN ONE OUNCE OF LOWER-BODY FAT?
    83. 83. Maternal energy cost of nursing: cals/kg Prentice 1988 rat/pig rabbit sheep guinea pig beef cow 2% FAT baboon human 300 calories/day 0 50 100 150 200 250
    84. 84. WHAT IMPORTANT ORGAN IN A NEW BABY GROWS THE MOST & ADDS THE MOST FAT?
    85. 85. Brain triples in size in 1st year Brain weight, g 900 800 700 600 500 400 300
    86. 86. Fat = 52% dry weight of brain Fat Protein
    87. 87. Nerve cells are mostly membranes made of fat with embedded proteins
    88. 88. Nerve cell membranes would cover 5 football fields
    89. 89. DHA = 1/3 of membrane fat rd DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID DHA
    90. 90. DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) omega-3 22 carbons 6 double bonds omega-3 fats must come from diet
    91. 91. DHA is active in every part of nerve cell makes synapse work grows axon transmits signal makes & grows dendrites preserves Calderon 07
    92. 92. Children of mothers with more DHA while pregnant have higher verbal IQ’s % higher IQ 85 80 75 70 65 60 low medium high Mother's dietary DHA Hibbeln, 07
    93. 93. More DHA in mother’s milk: higher PISA math score in 28 countries 540 Math Score 520 500 480 460 440 420 1 2 3 Milk DHA index 4+
    94. 94. WHERE DOES MILK DHA COME FROM?
    95. 95. Where does milk DHA come from? CURRENT DIET BODY FAT 80% Fidler 2000
    96. 96. DHA mainly from stored fat 80% of 120 mg MILK DHA = 96 mg* ONE OUNCE OF FAT = 96 mg* DHA *120 mg DHA/day * European mothers
    97. 97. SO, WHY DO WOMEN NEED SO MUCH LOWER-BODY FAT?
    98. 98. LOWER-BODY FAT PROVIDES ESSENTIAL FATS NEEDED BY BRAIN
    99. 99. WHY ARE OUR NEWBORN BABIES SO FAT?
    100. 100. TYPICAL NEWBORN HAS 2 POUNDS OF FAT WITH 1500 MILLIGRAMS OF DHA (1.6%)
    101. 101. HOW CAN WOMEN STORE MORE DHA WHEN DHA % IN FAT IS LOW BECAUSE OF LOW DHA FROM DIET?
    102. 102. Percent DHA in body fat Imaichi 65, Leaf 95 Japan US 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
    103. 103. Female obesity % DHA in mother’s milk & female obesity in 43 countries 30 25 USA? Japan? paleolithic? 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 Milk DHA index 5 6+
    104. 104. BMI Waist/Height & BMI (Body Mass Index) 32 small waist 30 28 requires low BMI 26 correlation = 0.93 24 22 undergrads 20 Playmates 18 16 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 Jessica? Waist/Height x 100
    105. 105. 2% 1%
    106. 106. Low birth weight % Lower BMI mothers have more 9 low birth weight babies 8 7 6 5 10 to 14 15 to 19 BMI 20 to 29
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