How does the fat get there?
•Vitamin D (?)
Cohen et al 2011
Models of Fatty Liver Disease
Earliest research focused on alcoholic fatty liver
Diets require large amounts of dietary fat to
Lieberet al 2007
Lieber et al 2007
But what about humans?
1986- French and Nanji
Cirrhosis positively correlated with dietary
Cirrhosis negatively associated with dietary
saturated fats and cholesterol
1989- “Beef Fat Prevents Alcoholic Liver Disease
in the Rat”
“The correlation between the degree of
histological abnormality and the linoleic
acid content of the diet strongly implicates
linoleic acid as an essential factor in the
development of ALD.”
Nanjiet al 1989
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver
Diets high in corn oil cause fatty liver.
Replacing corn oil with medium chain fats reverses the
Roniset al 2013
What’s going on…
Fats for fuel vs. fats for function
“Essential” ≠ good fuel
What’s the problem: fuel vs. function
Problems with PUFA
Increased Reactive Oxygen Species Production
High peroxidation potential
Liver-saving Saturated Fats
Easy in easy out- no “first hit”
Better Gut Integrity Lower inflammation
Fish oil- a case study in fuel vs.
Deficiency in long chain ω3s associated with Fatty
Supplementation with fish oil reversed fatty liver in
BUT experimental models using large proportions of
fish oil led to increased histopathology
Pulling it all together…
Is it the fats’ fault?
What might we do with this information?