SelectionSelection1. It Involves the series of steps by which thecandidates are screened for choosing themost suitable persons for vacant posts.2. The basic purpose of selection process isto choose the right candidate to fill thevarious positions in the organisation.
3. Selection is a negative process as itinvolves rejection of the unsuitablecandidates.4. Selection is concerned withselecting the most suitable candidatethrough various interviews and tests.5. Selection results in a contract ofservice between the employer and theselected employee.
Selection Tools1. Interview2. Psychometric tests3. Personality/Attitude Questionnaires4. Work sample tests5. Assessment Centres6. Pin the tail on the donkey
• Satan Effect – the poor opinion of the employer of an individual’sreferees is transferred to the individual.• Anchoring – the tendency to rely too heavily, or "anchor," on apast reference or on one trait or piece of information when makingdecisions (also called "insufficient adjustment").• Availability heuristic – estimating what is more likely by what ismore available in memory, which is biased toward vivid, unusual,or emotionally charged examples.• Confirmation bias – the tendency to search for or interpretinformation in a way that confirms ones preconceptions.• Self-serving bias – the tendency to claim more responsibility forsuccesses than failures. It may also manifest itself as a tendency forpeople to evaluate ambiguous information in a way beneficial totheir interests.Errors and Biases
• Framing effect – drawing different conclusions from thesame information, depending on how that information ispresented.• Recency bias – a cognitive bias that results fromdisproportionate salience of recent stimuli or observations –the tendency to weigh recent events more than earlier events.• Stereotyping – expecting a member of a group to havecertain characteristics without having actual informationabout that individual.• Halo effect – the tendency for a persons positive or negativetraits to "spill over" from one area of their personality toanother in others perceptions of them.• False memory – a form of misattribution where imaginationis mistaken for a memory.• Ingroup bias – the tendency for people to give preferentialtreatment to others they perceive to be members of their owngroups.Errors and Biases
Validity:…how well a measure actually assesses the attribute it’s beingused to assess.The choice of selection method should reflect the level,context and content of a job.Does it measure what you think it measures.This is more familiarly called Construct Validity.
Content ValidityCheck the operationalization against the relevantcontent domain for the related job.For example, a depression measure should coverthe checklist of depression symptoms.The contents of the selection method should berelevant to the job.
Criteria-Related ValidityCheck the performance of selection methodagainst some criterion.The selection method should explore what it setsout to explore.In criterion-related validity, a prediction is madeabout how the operationalization will performbased on our theory of the construct.
Face Validity“On its face" does it seems like a good translation ofthe construct.Weak Version: If you read it does it appear to askquestions directed at the concept.Strong Version: If experts in that domain assess it, theyconclude it measures that domain.Impact ValidityUsed method and its results should be accepted both bythe candidates and selectors and experience the sameimpact.
Construct ValidityThe selection method , activities and instrumentsshould test aspects of behaviour that are meaningfulin the context of the job.Reliable ValiditySelection method should consistently explore andpredict performance against the criteria it is designedto examine.
Factors influencing ValidityThe behaviour and role of the assessors.The number of the assessors.ObtrusivenessThe degree of involvement.
Possible StepsRecord Induction Analysis & DecisionMedicalSecond InterviewReference ChecksPsychometric & WS testsInitial interviewApplication form / CV
Definition:“An interview is a formal conversation between twoor more persons, especially arranged for the assessmentof qualifications and skills of the applicant.”
One-to-one Interview“One selector interviews one candidate”
AdvantagesInterviewee feels comfortableInterviewer can get detailed information aboutapplicant. No significant time delay between questions andanswers. Detailed information about candidate’s feelings,perceptions etc. Pre-set questions.
DisadvantagesOnly one person has opportunity to hire bestcandidate Observing and questioning simultaneously is noteasy Candidate’s abilities can not be judged by one personChances of discrimination
Informal Interviews“These are discussions between candidateand one or more interviewers, whofeed their perception to final interview panel.” No pre-set questions. These are without proper format. Also called non-directive or unstructured.
AdvantagesIt is more like a conversation and the interviewee isrelaxed.Permits full exploration of ideas and beliefs.It helps to find person-organization fit.Discussion can be on broad range of topics.
DisadvantagesFinal decision is not clear to candidate.It requires great amount of time.It takes time for the interviewer to gain trust andbuild rapport with interviewee.The respondent is too much in control.
Panel Interviews“In this an applicant is interviewed by group ofinterviewers or multiple applicants with multipleinterviewers.”
AdvantagesLess personal interaction and more objective.More valid and job related..Assessment about candidate is more accurate.DisadvantagesMore time consuming.Different interviewer set different criteria.No in depth detail about applicant.
How Panel Interviews can beimproved?Structured InterviewsCriterion-based InterviewsFocused InterviewsBehavioral InterviewsSituational InterviewsFinal Interviews
Structured Activities“These are used to explore areas of knowledge and skillswhich are not possible in interviews.”These include:Work SamplesTestsPresentationsIn TraysCase StudiesProblemsGroup Discussions
Work Samples“Work sample’ is a method of testing ability bygiving the candidates a sample of typical work todo and evaluating their performance.”Sample should be relevant with jobSample should reflect content, level and context ofjob
Tests“Used to explore current knowledge and skills.”Examples:Job-knowledge testsHands-on performance testsSituational judgments tests
Presentations can be used in a variety of ways depending on how theyrelate to the job description and the normal working practices expectedof the post. Example for a post which is required to respond to a committee or thepublic in a very short timescale given a few facts, candidates could beasked to simply arrive early to the interview, be quickly briefed and givenhalf an hour to prepare a 5 minute presentation, and deliver it orally withno supports Presentations are frequently used as a selection tool, particularly insenior jobs. In assessing presentations, it is important to have the decision based onthe criteria against which each candidate will be marked.
In tray activities should compromise a collection of letters,memos,messages,fliers and so on. “In tray” exercises, where a candidate is given a list of tasks that therole holder might face in an average day, and asked to priorities themappropriately.Drafting a response to a letter or email, to demonstrate both attentionto detail, interpersonal/written skills, and ability to use initiative.The in tray can be rated on the bases of the written replies and notes.
As with presentations, case studies can be a valuable way of assessingcandidates knowledge of a particular subject area, and their likelyapproach to handling a particular situation. This selection method is sometimes used for candidates formanagerial posts, or for posts requiring knowledge of specificprocedures, regulations or legislation. It is used to explore candidates abilities in decision making processesi.e. Either abilities to investigate and resolve problems. Example a paper an argued case making proposals or a briefexecutive summary. The report can also be used as a basis forpresentation to an audiences.
Candidates are given a topic or a role-play exercise and are invited to discussthe topic or role-play in a group.During the discussion/role play, observers who are looking for specificattributes award marks to each candidate.This of course means that you may need four or more candidates to makethis a meaningful exercise and enough people to mark the candidates properly.The group discussion may b used as1. To develop a nucleus of leadership for community service or informaleducation.2.To identify, explore and seek solutions for problems and to develop plans ofaction.3.To change attitudes through discussion and the examination of information.
1. Group discussion permits full participation.2. It can establish consensus democratically.3. It pools the abilities, knowledge and experience of all toreach a common goal.Limitations1. Group discussion is time-consuming, particularly if thegroup includes people of widely different backgrounds.2. A bossy leader or a few members may dominate thediscussion.
Visits Social eventsVisitsIt is the place where post is based and allow candidates to meet futurecolleagues in their work place. The nature of the work site and the job also influence what can be shownduring a visit.Example A trip round an ordinary office can achieve little more thanshowing candidates. One way of giving such visits more purpose & askingcandidates to perform them in the office.Visits to laboratories, workshops & other specialists could involve detailedexplanation of equipment, machinery processes and so on.
The CSS Board was famous for its assessment of dinnertable behavior.If there is a wish to expose candidates to a social events &give them opportunity to interact with other people.The selectors need to be clear what role they & theparticipants are to play in the final decisions.
Psychometric TestsPsychometric tests include a wide array of evaluationtools that measure ones knowledge, abilities andpersonality.More and more companies are using psychometrictests when making recruitment and promotiondecisions.
Psychometric Tests A behavioral psychological section which includescompetency based interviews, personality questionnaires,and assessment centre exercises such as group exercises,role play exercises, situational judgment tests, , writtenexercises, case studies and more Improve your intellectual capacity with scientific brain gamesand tests
AdvantagesHelp ensure fully informed decisions forrecruitment and promotionHelp individuals better understand themselvesGain accurate results that cannot be ‘faked’Gain objective results and compare individualsfairly
DisadvantagesIncorrect usageToo much relianceInaccurate interpretationDiscriminatory usage
Cognitive ability testsIt explore mental skills rather than physical e.g.IntelligenceIt can explore numercy, cognitive skills, generalintelligence and different levels
People who score well are morelikely to:Develop greater job knowledgeMake effective decisionsReason and problem solvingRespond to new /complex situations
Aptitude and Ability TestsAptitude and ability tests can be classified as speedtests or power tests.In speed tests the questions are relativelystraightforward and the test is concerned with howmany questions you can answer correctly in theallotted time. Speed tests tend to be used in selectionat the administrative and clerical level. A power test on the other hand will present a smallernumber of more complex questions. Power tests tendto be used more at the professional or manageriallevel.
Ability TestsVerbal Ability Includes spelling, grammar, ability tounderstand analogies and follow detailed written instructions.Numeric Ability Includes basic arithmetic, number sequencesand simple mathematics. In management level tests you willoften be presented with charts and graphs that need to beinterpreted.Abstract reasoning ability is believed to be the best indicator offluid intelligence and your ability to learn new things quicklythese questions appear in most general aptitude tests
Ability Tests Continued Spatial Ability Measures your ability to manipulate shapes in two dimensionsor to visualize three-dimensional objects presented as two-dimensionalpictures. Mechanical reasoning questions are used to select for a wide range of jobsincluding the military (Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery), policeforces, fire services, as well as many craft, technical and engineeringoccupations. Data Checking Measure how quickly and accurately errors can be detected indata and are used to select candidates for clerical and data input jobs Work Sample Involves a sample of the work that you will be expected do.These types of test can be very broad ranging. They may involve exercisesusing a word processor or spreadsheet if the job is administrative or they mayinclude giving a presentation or in-tray exercises if the job is management orsupervisory level.
Personality QuestionnairesMeasurement of personality and assess the fit of an individuals personality to thejob and organizationCompetition for good jobs is fierce. You need to know what employers arelooking for and how your personality measures up to it. Learn how todramatically improve your score and frame your answers to get the job youwant.There are only three questions the employer really has to answer during theselection process:
ReferencesThe use of references has low predictive validity in theselection process, they do have a value, and this valueis maximized if account is taken of their weaknesses:The referee’s ability to wrote referencesThe referee’s abilities to assess candidates against thejob requirementsThe referee’s relationship with the candidateThe assessor’s abilities or tendency to read betweenthe lines
AdvantagesThe Strengths of references are:The opportunity to check the accuracy of some of thestatements made on the application formThe double check on the assessor’s reading of theindividual candidate
The Selection Decision MatrixThe final selection decision, as with any decision, canonly be made by the humans involved.The selection process, in its entirely, consists of anumber of phases each generating informationThe factual information provided by the candidatesboth in their application and as a result of theirbehaviorThe evidence experienced by the selectors what theyhave seen, heard or felt about the candidatesThe information given to assessors by others e.g. otherassessors, referees and observers
The Selection Decision MatrixInformation can be formulized via a matrix and thisfocuses selectors attention on the criteria to bematched and away from personal preferences andbiasesThe criteria from the person specification and theseparate activities in the selection processCells can be marked to indicate that a particularselection activity is expected to explore a particularskill.
The Selection Decision MatrixCriteria ApplicationFormFocusedDiscussionReference Case Study FinalinterviewAttainmentDegreeExperiencesupervisoryResearchSkillsCommunicationsDecision MakingAptitudesTeam workingResourcefulCircumstancesTOTALASSESSMENT