ISOTYPES• Greek: Isos – equal”We are different, but we are same” Amino acidic differences in constant regions ofantibodies, according to it we have:IgG(1-4)/IgA(1-2)/IgM/IgD/IgEAll people have it, but each of antigen has own specificstructure and functions, same for all humans.
ALLOTYPE• Greek: Allos – other“ We are same, but we are different “Antigenic features of antibodies that vary amongindividuals. Different alleles = different L and H chains. 𝞬 H chain contein an allotype called Gm(gamma) whichcan differ to one- or two-amino-acids.k L chains are called Inv(individual, patients name)
IDIOTYPES• Greek: Idios – own“We are same, but our difference inside of us”Antigenic determinants formed by the specific amino acidsin the hyper variable regions.+ Secondary response against cross-reacting agents-Autoimmune diseasesallergy, anaphylaxis, asthma, transfusionreactions, rheumatoid arthritis, and type I diabetes.
HUMORAL IMMUNITYHumoral means antibody- mediated immunity.Directed against:• Toxin-induced diseases• Infections(virulence due to polysaccharide capsule)• Certain viral infections• Systemic• Involves B and T lymphocytes• Specific• Has memory
THE PRIMARY RESPONSE• First contact with antigen• Long lag period (7-10 days)• First antibodies are IgM 7 day• Constant increase of antibody concentration• Followed antibodies IgG/IgA production• Elimination of alien• Decrease of antibody concentration (35 day)• !Keeping of some memory cells!
THE SECONDARY RESPONSE• Contact of B- memory cells with same or cross-reacting alient• Rapid antibody response( lag period 3-5 days)• Totally higher increase of antibodies amount• Longer period of decreasing of antibodies concentration (of IgG)
MULTIPLE ANTIGENS• When two or ore antigens are presented at the same time, organism produces antibodies to each of them.Therefor it is possible to use complex vaccines andimmunization got possible.• DPT(diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus)• MMR(measles, mumps, rubella)
FUNCTION OF ANTIBODIES• Protection against inflectional Agents• Protection against agent products• Neutralization of toxins• Neutralization of viruses• Opsonize microorganisms**making of foreign cell more susceptible(available) for phagocytosis