First Pinhole Camera AKA Camera Obscura
Alhazen (965 CE- 1040) invented the first Camera Obscura.
The Camera Obscura (dark room) defines:
“A darkened chamber in which the real image of an object is received through a
small opening or lens and focused in natural color onto a facing surface rather
than recorded on a film or plate.”
The first portable camera Obscura was invented around the 1660’s by an Irish
scientist named Robert Boyle and his assistant Robert Hooke.
Johann Zahn built the first portable drawing aid of the camera Obscura in 1685. At
that time, the only way to grasp an image was by manually tracing them.
First PhotograPhic image
• In the year of 1827, Joseph Nicephore had invented the first ‘Photographic
Image’ with the camera Obscura.
• Unfortunately, the first photograph accidentally got destroyed by getting
exposed by the daylight.
• The materials Joseph had used to take the first photo ever taken was
produced with a “ polished Pewter Plate covered with a Petroleum called
‘Bitumen of Judea, which he then dissolved in white Petroleum.
• In the year of 1727, Johann
Heinrich Schultz discovered that
Silver nitrate darkens when exposed
• Louis Daguerre, a Frenchman was
experimenting on how to actually capture
• He then realized that it would take him a
dozen years before he would be able to
reduce the exposure less than 30 minutes
and keep the image from fading away
TheBirth of Modern Photography
• Louis Daguerre was the inventor of the first practical process of photography.
• In 1839, after many years of experimenting on how to capture an image, Daguerre
developed a more convenient and effective of photography, naming it after himself, “
1. Fix the image on a sheet of silver-plate copper.
2. Polish silver plate and coat it in iodine (this creates a surface that will be sensitive to light).
3. Put plate in camera and expose it for a few minutes.
4. Once image is painted by light, Daguerre bathes the plate in solution of silver chloride.
5. This process will create an image that would last for a long time, and will not get exposed to
Negative to Positive Process
• A positive image is a normal image in color.
• A negative image is the opposite of the
• as the light color areas will appear dark and
• vise versa.
• Henry Fox Talbot and a mathematician
• invented the
• first negative from which multiple positive
• prints were made.
• Steps on how to make a negative image:
1. Sensitize paper to light with a silver salt
3. Expose paper to light
4. Once Background becomes black, and the
6. (object) gets delivered in variations of grey
A paper negative is the paper used to print the negative
With the paper negative, Talbot made contact prints,
reversing the light and shadows to create a detailed
In the year of 1841, Talbot made a perfect sample
the paper negative process and
named it a Calotype, meaning ‘beautiful picture’ in
• A Tintype is “ a photograph made by
creating a direct positive on a sheet
of iron metal that is blackened by
painting, enameling and is used as
support for a Collodion (highly
flammable solution) photographic
• The Tintype was patented by
Hamilton Smith in 1856.
• The dry plate was invented in 1879.
• The dry plate is a glass negative plate
with a dried gelatin (wobbly) emulsion.”
• Now that the dry plate was invented,
photographers no longer needed to
transport portable darkrooms.
• Photographer were also now free to hire
technicians to develop their photographs.
• The first ever hand-held camera was
created now that the dry processes could
absorb light quite rapidly.
Dry Plate Negatives and Hand-
Flexible Roll Film
• George Eastman invented the film
• with a base that was flexible, stable,
• and could be rolled.
In came photographs with colors in the
early 1940s that got sold in markets.
• In 1889, the first flexible roll films were
• These roll films were created with
• Cellulose Nitrate.
• This Cellulose Nitrate releases
• oxidants and acidic gasses and is also
• highly flammable.
• The way the first printed photographs developed
were with linen rag papers.
• Instrument makers or photographers used the Daguerreotype process to make the
• Back then, the most popular cameras were used with a sliding-box design. In front of the
box were the lens.
• There was another box a bit smaller that slid in back of the larger box.
• To focus the image, the rear box slid forward and vise versa.
Box Camera AKA Kodak
• George Eastman invented the first Kodak
• Adolf Miethe and Johannes Gaedicke invented the
flashlight powder in Germany.
• Waxy spores from club moss was used in the first
• Paul Vierkotterinvented the first
• modern flashbulb.
• In the yearof 1930, the 23rd
• September, the flashbulb became
• commercial patented by Johannes
• They named these first commercial
• flashbulbs “Vacublitz”.
• Frederick Wratten was the inventor and manufacturer of the
first ever filters.
• He also founded the first photographic supply business,
named “Wratten Filters” 1878.
• In 1912, Wratten Filters company got purchased by Eastman
• The creator of the 35mm cameras was Oskar Barnack.
• Barnack came up with the idea of “reducing the format of film negatives and then
enlarging the photographs after they had been exposed.”
• With this brilliant plan of his, using an instrument that took exposure sample for
cinema film, he converted it to the ever first 35mm camera, “The Urleica.”
• Edwin Herbert Land was the inventor of Instant Photos/ or Polaroid
• He basically developed his ‘one-step’ process by printing photographs
which created instant photography.
• In 1948, the first Polaroid camera got sold to the public.
• It was in 1986 that disposable cameras got created.
• The inventor is named Fuji.
• Knowing that these cameras could be recycled, the public suggested that
the camera should be called “ Single-use Cameras.”
• The famous Canon camera brand in today’s
society got demonstrated in 1984.