Expansion British Empire & Spread of English
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Expansion British Empire & Spread of English

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Expansion British Empire & Spread of English Expansion British Empire & Spread of English Presentation Transcript

  • THE EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE AND THE FURTHER SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Subject : History of the English Language II Student : Ana Garanto
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • Approximately from 16 th century to 20 th century
    • During the 18 th century, the expansion was bigger
    • The largest empire in history
    • Occupied a quarter of the earth’s surface
    • “ The sun never sets on the British Empire”
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • IRELAND:
    • 16 th century -> Plantations of Ireland
    • English and Scottish settled
    • Protestant vs. Catholic
    • Republic of Ireland
    • Northern Ireland
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • USA:
    • In the 16 th century there were some attempts
    • 1604 British in Northern America
    • First colonies in the East
    • Religious missionaries
    • Colonisation afterwards to the south and to the west
    • 13 colonies in the war against Britain
    • Independence
    • USA is formed by 50 states nowadays
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • THE CARIBBEAN:
    • During the 17 th century, British were established in Antigua, Barbados, Jamaica, St. Kitts, Trinidad and Tobago.
    • Tobacco and sugar plantations
    • Black slaves imported
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • CANADA:
    • British imperial control 1764 – 1867
    • 17 th century -> begins penetration of British
    • During the 18 th century -> greater immigration
    • Canada won from the French in 1763
    • Scottish colonies (1815 – 1875)
    • Queen Elizabeth II
    • Colonies in America -> the first ones outside of Europe
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • INDIA:
    • In 1600 -> East India Company founded
    • Trade
    • Consequent settlements
    • Problems with France
    • 1761 -> British colony
    • Other parts of India -> after 1858
    • Independence from UK -> 1947
    • Republic established -> 1950
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • AUSTRALIA:
    • Captain Cook’s voyages -> 1768 – 1779
    • 1788 -> first large British settlement
    • A penal colony
    • Sheep
    • Gold rush -> 1950s
    • Aborigine people -> diminished
    • Queen Elizabeth II
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • NEW ZEALAND:
    • Captain Cook’s voyages -> 1768 – 1779
    • Trade
      • Food
      • Metal tools
      • Weapons
    • Aborigine people -> diminished
    • Maoris more important nowadays
    • Queen Elizabeth II
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • SOUTH AFRICA:
    • 1795 -> Cape of Good Hope
    • British vs. Dutch
    • British went also northwards -> Zimbabwe
    • Port for merchants going to India and Australia
    • Diamonds and gold discovered
    • Problems with the Boer
    • 1803 -> Cape Town returned to Dutch
    • 1806 -> Cape Town colony again to Britain
    • Independence from UK -> 20 th century
    • 1961 -> Republic
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • WEST AND EAST AFRICA:
    • Colonies and protectorates
    • 19 th century
    • West Africa
      • Gambia, Sierra Leona, Ghana, Nigeria
      • Trade, military base purposes
      • Many slaves to America
    • East Africa
      • Kenya, Egypt, Sudan, Botswana, Uganda
      • Crops, farms
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • After 1945 -> decolonisation of the British Empire
    • Commonwealth of Nations
      • Political union
      • 1931
      • Consider the successor of the British Empire
      • Symbolic head -> Queen Elizabeth II
      • Formed by former British colonies
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE Map of the British Empire in 1921
  • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE Commonwealth nowadays
  • SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
    • English imposed in the colonies
    • Language brought by:
      • Settlers, soldiers, merchants, administrators, missionaries
    • Education and Administration
    • Official or semi-official nowadays
    • Late-Modern English -> more words than previous
    • English borrowed many words
  • SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
    • USA -> 19 th century -> English established
    • Canada -> from 1880 on -> English arrived at Pacific Coast
    • Australia -> after Gold Rush (1851)
    • New Zealand -> 20 th century
    • South Africa -> spoken by an important minority (civil servants, educators, financiers, military, trade, industry)
    • East and West Africa -> 19 th century
  • SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
    • Different dialects and regional varieties
    • Pidgins and Creole languages
    • Different accents
    • Loanwords (borrowed words from other languages)
  • SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
    • Barbecue, cannibal (Caribbean)
    • Bungalow, pyjamas, shampoo, bangle, bandana, cashmere, jungle, mandarin, nirvana (India)
    • Hickory, moccasin, moose, sequoia, toboggan, totem (American Indian languages)
    • Banana, Boer, gorilla, voodoo, zebra (Africa – directly from native languages or through Dutch and Portuguese)
    • Boomerang, kangaroo (Australia)
  • SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE English-speaking world (Dark Blue = English spoken natively // Light Blue = Other places where English is official
  • CONCLUSION
    • British Empire -> powerful and important
    • Former colonies still in contact
    • Some territories still under the rule of UK
    • The British Empire -> great influence for the world
    • English language expanded at the same time than British Empire
    • English still official or, at least, used nowadays
    • Different regional dialects
    • Language changes (loanwords)
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • Fisiak, J. An Outline History of English. Poznan: Kantor Wydawniczy Saww, 1995.
    • Gelderen, Elly van. A History of the English Language. John Benjamins Publishing Company: Amsterdam, 2006.
    • Johnson, Robert. British Imperialism. Palgrave Macmillan: New York, 2003.
    • Internet sources:
      • http://english-fans.tgim1.edusite.ru/p16aa1.html
      • http://www.anglik.net/englishlanguagehistory.htm
      • http://www.white-history.com/hwr46.htm
      • http://www.britishempire.co.uk/
      • http://www.ozedweb.com/history/oz_british_empire_growth.htm
      • http://www.ozedweb.com/history/oz_british_empire_growth.htm
      • Wikipedia: “Commonwealth”, “British Empire”, “English-speaking world”