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Expansion British Empire & Spread of English
 

Expansion British Empire & Spread of English

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    Expansion British Empire & Spread of English Expansion British Empire & Spread of English Presentation Transcript

    • THE EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE AND THE FURTHER SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Subject : History of the English Language II Student : Ana Garanto
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
      • Approximately from 16 th century to 20 th century
      • During the 18 th century, the expansion was bigger
      • The largest empire in history
      • Occupied a quarter of the earth’s surface
      • “ The sun never sets on the British Empire”
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
      • IRELAND:
      • 16 th century -> Plantations of Ireland
      • English and Scottish settled
      • Protestant vs. Catholic
      • Republic of Ireland
      • Northern Ireland
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
      • USA:
      • In the 16 th century there were some attempts
      • 1604 British in Northern America
      • First colonies in the East
      • Religious missionaries
      • Colonisation afterwards to the south and to the west
      • 13 colonies in the war against Britain
      • Independence
      • USA is formed by 50 states nowadays
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
      • THE CARIBBEAN:
      • During the 17 th century, British were established in Antigua, Barbados, Jamaica, St. Kitts, Trinidad and Tobago.
      • Tobacco and sugar plantations
      • Black slaves imported
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
      • CANADA:
      • British imperial control 1764 – 1867
      • 17 th century -> begins penetration of British
      • During the 18 th century -> greater immigration
      • Canada won from the French in 1763
      • Scottish colonies (1815 – 1875)
      • Queen Elizabeth II
      • Colonies in America -> the first ones outside of Europe
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
      • INDIA:
      • In 1600 -> East India Company founded
      • Trade
      • Consequent settlements
      • Problems with France
      • 1761 -> British colony
      • Other parts of India -> after 1858
      • Independence from UK -> 1947
      • Republic established -> 1950
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
      • AUSTRALIA:
      • Captain Cook’s voyages -> 1768 – 1779
      • 1788 -> first large British settlement
      • A penal colony
      • Sheep
      • Gold rush -> 1950s
      • Aborigine people -> diminished
      • Queen Elizabeth II
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
      • NEW ZEALAND:
      • Captain Cook’s voyages -> 1768 – 1779
      • Trade
        • Food
        • Metal tools
        • Weapons
      • Aborigine people -> diminished
      • Maoris more important nowadays
      • Queen Elizabeth II
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
      • SOUTH AFRICA:
      • 1795 -> Cape of Good Hope
      • British vs. Dutch
      • British went also northwards -> Zimbabwe
      • Port for merchants going to India and Australia
      • Diamonds and gold discovered
      • Problems with the Boer
      • 1803 -> Cape Town returned to Dutch
      • 1806 -> Cape Town colony again to Britain
      • Independence from UK -> 20 th century
      • 1961 -> Republic
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
      • WEST AND EAST AFRICA:
      • Colonies and protectorates
      • 19 th century
      • West Africa
        • Gambia, Sierra Leona, Ghana, Nigeria
        • Trade, military base purposes
        • Many slaves to America
      • East Africa
        • Kenya, Egypt, Sudan, Botswana, Uganda
        • Crops, farms
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
      • After 1945 -> decolonisation of the British Empire
      • Commonwealth of Nations
        • Political union
        • 1931
        • Consider the successor of the British Empire
        • Symbolic head -> Queen Elizabeth II
        • Formed by former British colonies
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE Map of the British Empire in 1921
    • EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE Commonwealth nowadays
    • SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
      • English imposed in the colonies
      • Language brought by:
        • Settlers, soldiers, merchants, administrators, missionaries
      • Education and Administration
      • Official or semi-official nowadays
      • Late-Modern English -> more words than previous
      • English borrowed many words
    • SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
      • USA -> 19 th century -> English established
      • Canada -> from 1880 on -> English arrived at Pacific Coast
      • Australia -> after Gold Rush (1851)
      • New Zealand -> 20 th century
      • South Africa -> spoken by an important minority (civil servants, educators, financiers, military, trade, industry)
      • East and West Africa -> 19 th century
    • SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
      • Different dialects and regional varieties
      • Pidgins and Creole languages
      • Different accents
      • Loanwords (borrowed words from other languages)
    • SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
      • Barbecue, cannibal (Caribbean)
      • Bungalow, pyjamas, shampoo, bangle, bandana, cashmere, jungle, mandarin, nirvana (India)
      • Hickory, moccasin, moose, sequoia, toboggan, totem (American Indian languages)
      • Banana, Boer, gorilla, voodoo, zebra (Africa – directly from native languages or through Dutch and Portuguese)
      • Boomerang, kangaroo (Australia)
    • SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE English-speaking world (Dark Blue = English spoken natively // Light Blue = Other places where English is official
    • CONCLUSION
      • British Empire -> powerful and important
      • Former colonies still in contact
      • Some territories still under the rule of UK
      • The British Empire -> great influence for the world
      • English language expanded at the same time than British Empire
      • English still official or, at least, used nowadays
      • Different regional dialects
      • Language changes (loanwords)
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY
      • Fisiak, J. An Outline History of English. Poznan: Kantor Wydawniczy Saww, 1995.
      • Gelderen, Elly van. A History of the English Language. John Benjamins Publishing Company: Amsterdam, 2006.
      • Johnson, Robert. British Imperialism. Palgrave Macmillan: New York, 2003.
      • Internet sources:
        • http://english-fans.tgim1.edusite.ru/p16aa1.html
        • http://www.anglik.net/englishlanguagehistory.htm
        • http://www.white-history.com/hwr46.htm
        • http://www.britishempire.co.uk/
        • http://www.ozedweb.com/history/oz_british_empire_growth.htm
        • http://www.ozedweb.com/history/oz_british_empire_growth.htm
        • Wikipedia: “Commonwealth”, “British Empire”, “English-speaking world”