Report on Euthanasia


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Just sharing. We reported this when we were first year in college, 3rd term.

Report on Euthanasia

  1. 1. EUTHANASIA Submitted by: Gabutan, Karl Angelo Raymundo, Mark Surigao, Anale – Vega, Charmine Hazel E. Submitted to: Mr. Beni Alfred Estepa March 22, 2012 RECONSE TABLE OF CONTENTSPage 1 of 14
  2. 2. I. Case/Issue……………………………………………………………………....3 II. The Body: Euthanasia……………………………………………………................4 A. Nature…………………………………………………………………………….4-5 B. Arguments…………………………………………………………………………6 C. Countries that Legalized Euthanasia……………………………………….7-8 D. Statistics 1. Graph 1………………………………………………………………………..9 III. Official Catholic Church Teachings…………………………………………..10-11 IV. Conclusion A. Response to the Teaching/s of the Church………………………………..12 B. Moral Judgment (on the Case/issue)………………………………………..12 C. Synthesis: Reflection/Insights…………………………………………...12-13 V. List of References…………………………………………………………………..13Page 2 of 14
  3. 3. I. CASE/ISSUE:CanadaWinnipeg Free Press - PRINT EDITIONNo regrets for killing daughter: LatimerBy: Staff WriterRobert Latimer, the Saskatchewan man sentenced to life for killing his severely disableddaughter in 1993, said he would do so again if he had to, in his first interview since beingreleased from prison.In the CBC interview, Latimer, who now lives in Victoria where he abides by strict parole rules,slammed what he said is an "inflexible and malicious" justice system that showed "a realeagerness to do as much damage to me, especially, as they possibly could."The mercy killing of his 12-year-old daughter, Tracy, launched a debate over euthanasia. Tracysuffered severe pain from cerebral palsy and could not walk, talk or feed herself. Latimerdecided to end her suffering by pumping exhaust from his truck into the cab, asphyxiating Tracy.His original jury trial convicted him of second-degree murder and sentenced him to 10 years inprison. A subsequent appeal had the sentence lessened to two years less a day, but a finalappeal to the Supreme Court upheld the original sentence.Latimer, 58, was granted full parole in December after serving nine years of his sentence, andthree years after he told a parole hearing he still believed killing Tracy was the right thing to do."People think its a hard question, but its not," Latimer said when asked if he would go throughwith the mercy killing again if he had to. "It was the right thing to do. Shed had enough."His only regret, Latimer said, was that spending nearly a decade in prison took him away fromsharing time with his other children on his farm.Latimer said he would like a retrial, with "a jury to decide (his culpability), not a bunch ofshysters."Page 3 of 14
  4. 4. II. THE BODY: Euthanasia A. NATURE Euthanasia is the intentional killing of a person, for compassionate motives, whether thekilling is by a direct action, such as a lethal injection, or by failing to perform an action necessaryto maintain life. For euthanasia to occur there must be an intention to kill.It comes from the Greek language: “eu” means good and “thanatos” means death. The meaningof the word has evolved from “good death”. It now refers to the act of ending another person‟slife, at their request, in order to minimize suffering. The word Euthanasia comes from the Greek language: ―eu‖ means good and―thanatos‖ means death. The meaning of the word has evolved from ―good death‖. It nowrefers to the act of ending another person‟s life, at their request, in order to minimize suffering. 1. Two Forms a. Passive Euthanasia: Hastening the death of a person by removing life support equipment (e.g. a respirator), or stopping medical procedures, medications etc., or stopping food and water and allowing the person to dehydrate or starve to death. These procedures are performed on terminally ill, suffering persons so that natural death will occur sooner. It is also done on persons in a Persistent Vegetative State - individuals with massive brain damage who are in a coma from which they will not recover. b. Active Euthanasia: Causing the death of a person through a direct action. The term „Assisted Suicide‟ is vaguely related to Euthanasia. It usually refers to a situation in which information and/or the means of committing suicide (e.g. drugs, carbon monoxide gas) are given to a person so that they can easily terminate their own life without further assistance. The term “voluntary passive euthanasia” (VPE) is becoming commonly used. One writer suggests the use of the verb “to kevork”. This is derived from the named of Dr. Kevorkian, a Michigan doctor who has promoted VPE and assisted at the deaths of dozens of patients.Page 4 of 14
  5. 5. 2. Classifications of Euthanasia: a. VOLUNTARY: (assisted suicide) When the patient brings about his or her own death with the assistance of a physician, the term assisted suicide is often used instead. b. NON-VOLUNTARY: (mercy killing) when the explicit consent of the individual concerned is unavailable. c. INVOLUNTARY: It is conducted against the will of the patient. B. ARGUMENTS  Euthanasia would not only be for people who are "terminally ill"  Euthanasia can become a means of health care cost containment  Euthanasia will become non-voluntary  Euthanasia is a rejection of the importance and value of human life 1. Euthanasia would not only be for people who are "terminally ill."  Even before, euthanasia was argued by many debaters. The term “terminal” refers to any disease that curtails life even for a day (Jack Kevorkian, 1992). An article in the journal,  Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior described assisted suicide guidelines for those with a hopeless condition. "Hopeless condition" was defined to include terminal illness, severe physical or psychological pain, physical or mental debilitation or deterioration, or a quality of life that is no longer acceptable to the individual. That means just about anybody who has a suicidal impulse. 2. Euthanasia can become a means of health care cost containment  "...physician-assisted suicide, if it became widespread, could become a profit-enhancing tool for big HMOs.”Page 5 of 14
  6. 6.  "...drugs used in assisted suicide cost only about $40, but that it could take $40,000 to treat a patient properly so that they dont want the "choice" of assisted suicide.." (Wesley J. Smith, senior fellow at the Discovery Institute). 3. Euthanasia will become non-voluntary  They say Emotional and Psychological pressures could become overpowering for depressed or dependent people. If the choice of euthanasia is considered as good as a decision to receive care, many people will feel guilty for not choosing death. Financial considerations, added to the concern about "being a burden," could serve as powerful forces that would lead a person to "choose" euthanasia or assisted suicide. 4. Euthanasia is a rejection of the importance and value of human life  People who support euthanasia often say that it is already considered permissible to take human life under some circumstances such as self defense - but they miss the point that when one kills for self defense they are saving innocent life - either their own or someone elses. With euthanasia no ones life is being saved - life is only taken.  History has taught us the dangers of euthanasia and that is why there are only two countries in the world today where it is legal. That is why almost all societies - even non-religious ones - for thousands of years have made euthanasia a crime. It is remarkable that euthanasia advocates today think they know better than the billions of people throughout history who have outlawed euthanasia - what makes the 50 year old euthanasia supporters in 2005 so wise that they think they can discard the accumulated wisdom of almost all societies of all time and open the door to the killing of innocent people? Have things changed? If they have, they are changes that should logically reduce the call for euthanasia - pain control medicines and procedure are far better than they have ever been any time in history.Page 6 of 14
  7. 7. C. COUNTRIES THAT LEGALIZED EUTHANASIA 1. Active Euthanasia Belgian — legalized euthanasia in late September 2002 Netherlands — in 2002, the Netherlands passed a law legalizing euthanasia Luxembourg — The countrys parliament passed a bill legalizing euthanasia on 20 February 2008 2. Assisted suicide to the countries of: Switzerland US (Washington, Oregon & Montana) 3. Law of the Philippines Euthanasia is not legalized in the Philippines. But there are people who wanted to legalize it. Here is a proposed project of some representatives. In the Proposed Law Legalizing Euthanasia To be known as the Magna Carta of Patients Rights is House Bill No. 564 introduced by Representatives Raoul B. del Mar, Oscar R. Rodriguez, Hilarion J. Ramiro, Jr., Robert Ace S. Barbers, Ma. Catalina Loreto-Go, Julita Lorenzo-Villareal, Gerardo S. Espina and Gorgonio P. Unde. The bill seeks to declare the rights of patients and prescribing penalties for violations thereof. In general, the bill has laudable motives to declare as the policy of the State to insure and protect the rights of patients to decent, humane and quality health care. "Rights to (self-determination) REFUSE DIAGNOSTIC AND MEDICAL TREATMENT "The patient has the right to refuse diagnostic and MEDICAL treatment procedures, provided, that a) he is of age TWENTY ONE and (of sound mind) MENTALLY COMPETENT; b) he is informed of the medical consequences of his refusal; c) he releases those involved in his care from any obligation relative to the consequences of his decisions; and d) his refusal will not jeopardize public health and safety. An adult with a sound mind may execute an advance directive for physicians not to put him on prolonged life support if, in the future, his condition is such that there is a little or no hope of reasonable recovery. The qualifications listed as a, b, and c of the precedingPage 7 of 14
  8. 8. paragraph shall e considered as satisfied if a patient whose condition makes him unable to express his will executed an advance directive." The said provision will lead to "euthanasia" or the termination of the patients life. A similar bill, House Bill No. 8148, was filed in the House of Representatives last year authorizing the patient to terminate his life upon his will or with the assistance of a physician. With the opposition from several quarters including the CHR, the bill was not acted upon by the House of Representatives. The aforesaid provision also involves the moral obligation of the attending physician to administer proper medical treatment. The bill allows the physician to violate the Hypocratic Oath taken by all persons who are admitted to the medical profession and swear to protect the life of their patients. The provision makes the physician criminally liable under Article 253 of the Revised Penal Code for giving assistance to suicide. Section 4(8) of the bill also allows the patient to terminate his life even if it is contrary to his religious belief. This provision destroys and degrades the sacredness of religion and the basic rights of religious freedom. The Commission on Human Rights issues this Advisory for all concerned of the grave consequence of Section 4 (7 & 8) of the bill as morally unacceptable and violates the dignity of the human person. Quezon City, 22 August 2000Page 8 of 14
  9. 9. D. Statistics Graph 1. Countries that legalized EuthanasiaPage 9 of 14
  10. 10. III. OFFICIAL CATHOLIC CHURCH TEACHINGS:First point:  Killing an innocent is a crime against the 5th commandment “Thou shall not kill”. This commandment forbids the killing of the innocent, not the killing of the guilty, which can be sometimes ordered by the state for the common good. This is clear in the Old testament where Moses also gave laws to kill the guilty, and in the doctrine of the Church (the doctrine of St. Thomas Aquinas for example). Euthanasia is a crime against the same commandment as abortion.Second point: About suffering and use of sedatives  We must know that heroism is possible and we have examples of priests, religious, sisters, lay persons who refused sedatives and analgesics and offered their sufferings. Most of the time, the sufferings can also be an obstacle to spiritual life and can lead to despair and even rebellion against God. Refusing the sedative may be presumptuous. Sedatives are obviously permitted.  Life is sacred. Each person has basic dignity because he or she is a child of God made in God‟s image. No one has an absolute right over his or her life. We belong to God and to each other.  We must take all ordinary means to preserve life. Individuals and society must do all that is reasonably necessary to preserve and safeguard God‟s gift of human life. However, we are not obligated to use extraordinary means to prolong life when there appears to be no hope for the individual. (However, we may use extraordinary means if we wish to do so.)Page 10 of 14
  11. 11.  Gerald Ford, SJ, describes ordinary means and extraordinary this way: a. Ordinary means: “not only normal food, drink, and rest but all medicines, treatments, and operations which offer a reasonable hope of benefit and which can be obtained and used without excessive pain or other inconvenience”; b. Extraordinary means: “all medicines, treatments, and operations, which cannot be obtained without excessive expense, pain, or other inconvenience, or which, if used, would not offer a reasonable hope of benefit.”1EXTREME FUNCTION:  “Is any man sick among you? Let him bring in the priests of the Church and let them pray over him, anointing him with the oil in the name of the Lord. And the prayer of faith shall save the sick man. And the Lord shall raise him up, and if he be in sin, they shall be forgiven him” (James 5: 14-15).  The catechism of St. Pius X teaches that “extreme unction is a sacrament instituted by Our Lord for the spiritual as well as the temporal comfort of the sick in danger of death.” This sacrament is invalid if given to persons who are only old but are not in danger of death, as alas it is practiced today in many places.  This sacrament, as the Catechism of St. Pius X says: increases sanctifying grace; remits venial sins, and also mortal sins which the sick person, if contrite, is unable to confess; takes away weakness and sloth which remain even after pardon has been obtained; gives strength to bear the illness patiently, to withstand; aids in restoring us to health of body if it is for the good of the soul. (This is not a miracle. The sacrament strengthens the natural resistance of the organism, which can cure the sick. There are numerous examples of this occurrence but it is important that the sacrament be not given too late. The sacrament must be given as soon as the sick is in danger of death, even doubtfully.)Page 11 of 14
  12. 12. IV. CONCLUSION:A. Response to the Teaching/s of the Church As a Catholic, I believe that human life is a sacred gift from God to be cherished andrespected because every human being is created in the image and likeness of God. In heedingGods command, "Thou shall not kill", we recognize that we cannot end up our lives or the livesof others as we please. We must respect and protect the dignity of human from the moment ofconception to the moment of natural death. It can also be considered as a corruption of themedical profession where physicians take on an ethical code to serve life and never to kill.B. Moral Judgments I am doubtful to this case issue because it makes me confuse about the questions likeshould courts abide by the letter or the spirit of the law? Would a decision favorable to Latimerlegalize euthanasia, mercy killing? Would it put the disabled in danger? Would it mean the endof mandatory minimum sentences for convicted persons? For me, it became horrendouslycomplex situation. The moral judgment here is the act is wrong because he end up the sufferingof Tracy by pumping exhaust from his truck into the cab but the intention here is good becausehe could not bear to watch his daughter‟s suffering from a severe form of cerebral palsy. On theother way around, Mr. Latimer did not think of it or even being doubtful if he‟ll do that thing to hisbeloved daughter. I think it is wrong because he did not do the things right, he also don‟t askany physicians or doctors for more advices even with his family. He did not think that maybe hisdaughter will live longer because of unexpected medications or discovery about cerebral palsy‟santidote. He didn‟t consider those things before he does it.C. Synthesis: Reflection/Insights My reaction to euthanasia is one of mixed feelings. Although I support the rights ofpatients and respect their decisions to use euthanasia, I‟m not sure that the patient is clearlythinking at that time (whether because of pain or illness) and really wants their life to be over.Also, Im not sure if I would be able to let that person go if it was someone close to me, like mymother or father. I think that if the person had created a living will where they requestedPage 12 of 14
  13. 13. someone to end their life if they were terminally ill, I would honor their request but I dont think Icould pull the plug myself. I would also be concerned that, if it was to become legalized, wouldeuthanasia get out of hand and would we have a society where people would be killing eachother off in the name of euthanasia? I believe that would be something to think about.Page 13 of 14
  14. 14. V. LIST OF REFERENCES:Staff Writer (2011, February 18). No regrets for killing daughter: Latimer. Winnipeg Free Press -PRINT EDITION. Retrieved from regrets-for-killing-daughter-latimer-no- regrets-for-killing-daughter-latimer 116459778.htmlACIM-ASIA (1995, November 19). Euthanasia. Catholic Association of Doctors and Nurses. Retrieved from (2012). Arguments Against Euthanasia. Euthanasia.Com Retrieved from (2007, June 12).World: Morale-Euthanasia. Asia, OECD, Social, Statistic, World. Retrieved from euthanasia/Representatives Raoul B. del Mar, Oscar R. Rodriguez, Hilarion J. Ramiro, Jr., Robert Ace S. Barbers, Ma. Catalina Loreto-Go, Julita Lorenzo-Villareal, Gerardo S. Espina and Gorgonio P. Unde. (2000, August 22). On the Proposed Law Legalizing Euthanasia. Magna Carta of Patients Rights is House Bill No. 564. Retrieved from 14 of 14