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Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
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Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability

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  • Financial investment -- additive index with seven (7) components from World Bank: 1) Telecommunications revenue (as a percentage of GDP); 2) Telecommunications investment (as a percentage of revenue); 3) Research & development spending (as a percentage of GDP); 4) ICT expenditures (as a percentage of GDP); 5) Computer, communications and other services (as a percentage of service exports); 6) High-technology exports (as a percentage of manufacturing exports); and 7) Natural log of international Internet bandwidth (bits per second per person).Political freedom -- additive index with two (2) components from Freedom House: 1) Press freedom index; and 2) Civil liberties index.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Towards Universal Broadband: Understanding the Impact of Policy Initiatives on Broadband Diffusion and Affordability
      David J. Yates, Girish J. “Jeff” Gulati & Joseph W. Weiss
      Bentley University
    • 2. Motivation
      Universal broadband Internet access is an important concern for policymakers.
      No previous large-N studies of the broadband digital divide have assessed the impact of public policy initiatives that should enable and expand access to high-speed Internet technologies.
      We explore the impact of national policy initiatives on broadband diffusion and broadband affordability.
    • 3. One View of Some Developed Countries
      Source:
      United Nations Human Development Reporthttp://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/
      HDI values for seven countries are within 6% of each other.
      The development divide between these countries is small.
    • 4. The Broadband Digital Divide
      Source:
      ITU 2009 Measuring the Information Society Report
      Fixed Broadband Diffusion:Number of fixed-line broadband subscribers per 100 inhabitants
      A broadband divide exists: there is now a 39% spread.
      Can we learn from successes in Denmark, etc. ?
    • 5. What about Mobile Broadband ?
      Source:
      ITU 2009 Measuring the Information Society Report
      Fixed & Mobile Broadband:Fixed broadband is in blue
      Mobile broadband is in orange
      Mobility is another facet of the broadband digital divide.
      Can we learn from Japan & S. Korea ?
    • 6. The Broadband Technology Divide
      Source:
      OECD Broadband Portal
      http://www.oecd.org/sti/ict/broadband
      Fixed Broadband Technologies:DSL is in blue
      Cable is in orange
      Fiber & LAN are green
      And then there are other tech’s
      Technology is another facet of broadband digital divide.
      Japan & S. Korea have more advanced access technology.
    • 7. The Broadband Performance Divide
      Source:
      ITIF 2008 Broadband Rankings
      Average Download Bandwidth:Bandwidth units are megabits per second (Mbps)
      Based on OECD 2006-2007 data (see source for more details)
      Divide is partly due to Fiber & Carrier Ethernet access
      Again, can we learn from successes in Japan & S. Korea ?
    • 8. The Global Broadband Digital Divide 1
      Sources:
      United Nations & ITU 2009
      To perform a large-N study, we focus on fixed-line broadband.
    • 9. What about Differences in Cost ?
      Source:
      ITU 2009 Measuring the Information Society Report
      Fixed Broadband Cost:Fixed broadband subscription monthly cost divided by average annual per person gross national income (GNI)
      There is a 67% price gap after normalizing for pp GNI.
      Finally, some good news for Canada & USA.
    • 10. The Global Broadband Digital Divide 2
      Sources:
      United Nations & ITU 2009
      Note that the vertical axis here has a log scale.
    • 11. Research Questions
      Do national policy initiatives to promote information and communication technologies (ICTs) predict a nation’s broadband diffusion?
      Do public policy initiatives to advance information and communication technologies predict a nation’s broadband affordability?
    • 12. Research Hypothesis 1
      • National policy initiatives to promote information and communication technologies (ICTs) increase a nation’s broadband diffusion.
      • 13. Nations that (a) have an independent national telecommunications regulatory authority and (b) have competition to provide telecommunication services and (c) encourage financial investment in ICTs are the most likely to have increased broadband diffusion.
    • Research Hypothesis 2
      National policy initiatives to advance information and communication technologies (ICTs) have no impact on a nation’s broadband affordability.
      • Nations that (a) have an independent national telecommunications regulatory authority and (b) have competition to provide telecommunication services and (c) encourage financial investment in ICTs are no more or less likely to have more affordable broadband.
    • Dependent Variables and Models
      • Model 1:
      • 14. Broadband Diffusion [Subs/100]— ITU 2009
      • 15. Broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants
      • 16. Multiple regression analysis using three (3) national policy variables
      • 17. Model 2:
      • 18. Broadband Affordability [BSbV]— ITU 2009
      • 19. Monthly cost of 256 kbps broadband subscription divided by average annual per person gross national income (GNI)
      • 20. Multiple regression analysis using same three policy variables
    • Independent Variables for Both Models
      • Policy Variables (a) – (c)
      • 21. National regulatory authority (NRA) from ITU ICT Eye = { -1, 0 for non-independent, 1 for independent }
      • 22. Competition for providing telecommunication services factor score coefficient using (6) components from ITU
      • 23. Financial investment additive index with seven (7) components from World Bank
      • 24. Control Variables
      • 25. Affluence, Income inequality, Education
      • 26. Urbanization
      • 27. Democracy, Political freedom
    • Impact of a National Regulatory Authority
      Have an independent NRA
      Have a non-independent NRA
      Have no NRA
    • 28. National Regulatory Authority and Diffusion
      Have no NRA:
      Average diffusion = 5.82
      Have an NRA:
      Average diffusion = 8.84
      Fixed Broadband Diffusion
      Fixed Broadband Diffusion:Number of fixed-line broadband subscribers per 100 inhabitants
      Have an NRA
      Have no NRA
    • 29. Diffusion and Telecom Competition
    • 30. Diffusion and Financial Investment
    • 31. Policy Initiatives and Broadband Diffusion
      Partially supports Research Hypothesis 1
      Competition and financial investment have a positive impact on broadband diffusion
      Diffusion dependent variable is log-transformed: ln(Subs/100).
      Unstandardizedcoefficients. Significance: *** = 0.01, ** = 0.05.
    • 32. Affordability and Telecom Competition
    • 33. Policy Initiatives and Broadband Affordability
      Partially refutes Research Hypothesis 2
      Competition in telecommunications sector improves broadband affordability
      Affordability dependent variable is log-transformed: ln(BSbV).
      Unstandardizedcoefficients. Significance: * = 0.1.
    • 34. Impact of Policy Initiatives for both Models
      Both dependent variables are log-transformed: ln(Subs/100), ln(BSbV).
      Unstandardizedcoefficients. Significance: *** = 0.01, ** = 0.05, * = 0.1.
    • 35. Implications and Conclusions
      Nations that (b) have competition to provide telecommunication services and (c) encourage financial investment in ICTs are the most likely to have increased broadband diffusion.
      Nations that (b) have competition to provide telecommunication services are the most likely to have more affordable broadband access.
      Having an independent national regulatory authority does not appear to impact diffusion or affordability of broadband for a nation’s citizens.
    • 36. Future Work
      Ethical perspective on broadband digital divide
      Expand and refine policy variables
      For example, understand and analyze impact of national regulatory authority policies and regulations
      Consider additional outcome variables
      Alternative digital divide metrics
      Diffusion of e-government
      Adoption of e-participation

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