POSITION PA AP QUALITY ROTATION PENETRATION INSPIRATION LESIONOPACIT OPACITY Homo Heterogenous Wellill defined Zone Centralperipher Silhouet sign al Y Necrotic PATCHY HILUMMEDIASTINAL NODULE Central deviasionwided MASS COSTO-PHRENIC ANGEL Freeoblitern CAVITARY OTHERINFILTIRATION Bone soft tissuediaphragm
Solitary Pulmonary Nodule(SPN) Appearance Margin Calcification cavitation Comparison with a Size previous x-ray to >8mm <8mm Assess growth over time. Location Upperhillar zone Lowerbasesup-pleural Associated abnormalitiesLymph node enlargement Rib destruction/erosion
Cavitary lesion Air + Air-fluid level Air onlytissue Wall thickness Straight Wavy Thick Thin 1. Fungal ball. 2. Rupture hydatid cyct site 3. Necrotic tumor ruptured 4. Blood glot Hydatid Abscess Irregular Regular Peripheral Central inner wall inner wall cyst Emphesemato Cavitating Chronic us pneumatoc neoplasm abscess ele bulla
LINEAR PATTERN1) Linear (reticular) abnormality is due topathology involving: • airways, • lymphatics, • veins, • interstitium of the lung.2) Volume loss is a key finding in fibrosis.
LINEAR PATTERN LINEAR PATTERNLEFT VENTRICULAR FAILURE Perihilar and peripheral basal septal lines, changes acutely and resolves with diureticsNormal ageing Coarsening of lung markings in lower zones, no change on review of recent filmsLymphangitis Coarse nodular and linear thickening of markings, known malignancy, often associated with pleural effusion, rapid clinical deterioration of patient
LINEAR PATTERN LINEAR PATTERNAtelectasis Short thin lines, often basal, new on review of previous filmsSubsegmental Longer thicker bands, often perihilar or basal,collapse suggest recent infection or infarctionScarring Any length, persist over time unchangedFibrosis Volume loss is key, persists over time
Causes of fibrosis Mid zone lung Lower zone lung Upper zone lungtuberculosis Drug indused fibrosis sarcoidosis (most common)Chronic extrinsic allergic UIPalveolitisRadio-therapy Asbestose-related fibrosisAnkylosing spondylitisProgressive massivefibrosishistoplasmosis
Case-1• A 49-year-old white woman presents with progressive cough and dyspnea.• She denies any history of arthritis, skin lesions, or eye complaints.• On physical examination, vital signs are: – pulse 90 bpm; – temperature 98°F; – respirations 32/min; – blood pressure 119/76 mm Hg.• General exam: patient is in moderate distress, and pertinent physical findings reveal clubbing of the fingers and bilateral “Velcro” rales on lung auscultation.• ABGs on room air: pH 7.47; PCO2 32 mm Hg; PO2 60 mm Hg with further de-saturation on mild exertion
POSITION •PA CXRQUALITY •Good Technical Quality •Bilateral reticular infitration •At lower zone and left mid zoneLESION •Central trachea and mediasteinal.MEDIASTINALHilumANGELS •Hazy left angle . •NoOTHER
Case-11-Least likely to be associated with this condition isa. Positive antinuclear antigenb. Positive rheumatoid factorc. Increased erythrocyte sedimentation rated. Increased IgE2- What is the most likely diagnosis?a. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosisb. Langerhans granulomatosis/histiocytosis-X disordersc. Rheumatoid lungd. Sarcoidosis3- PFTS would be expected to showa. An obstructive patternb. A restrictive patternc. A normal patternd. A reversible obstructive pattern
Case-2• A 65-year-old woman from Honduras complains of arthralgias and difficulty getting out of a chair and doing her daily chores at home.• She has muscle aches and generalized weakness, dyspnea, and cough.• On physical• examination, vital signs are: – pulse 98 bpm; – temperature normal; – Respirations 23/min – bilateral crackles on lung exam.• Neuro exam reveals proximal muscular weakness with no sensory deficit.• CPK and aldolase are increased:• sedimentation rate is 120 mm/min.• PFT: restrictive pattern.
POSITION •PA CXRQUALITY •Poor Technical Quality •Bilateral reticular infitration •Diffuse bilateral lung especially leftLESION lower zone. •Central trachea and mediasteinal.MEDIASTINALHilumANGELS •Free . •Right hemi-diaphragm elevatedOTHER
Case-21. What is the most likely diagnosis?a. Paraneoplastic syndromeb. Polymyositisc. Sjgren syndromed. Scleroderma2. There is an increased association of oneof the following with this conditiona. Carcinoma of the pancreasb. Diabetes mellitusc. Diabetes insipidusd. Alzheimer’s disease
Case-3• A 48-year-old female nurse is seen with complaints of cough.• She has been treated for “bronchitis” without much improvement.• On exam, she is afebrile and has crackles in the upper zones of the lung field.• PPD is negative and sputum for AFB is negative.
POSITION •PA CXRQUALITY •Good Technical Quality •Bilateral reticular infitrationLESION •Diffuse bilateral lung especially middle,upper zone. •Central trachea and mediasteinal.MEDIASTINALHilum •Bilateral hilar enlargementparathracealANGELS •Disappear. •NoOTHER
Case-3• 1. The most likely diagnosis is:• a. Tuberculosis• b. Blastomycosis• c. Sarcoidosis• d. Silicosis• 2. All of the following findings may be seen in this patient except• a. Uveitis• b. Skin lesion• c. Bony cysts• d. Hypocalcemia
Case-4• A 56-year-old black male non-smoker is seen with a history of dyspnea• on walking two blocks and chronic chest congestion and cough.• He has been followed for progressive shortness of breath after his CABG.• Recently, he was ill with a flulike illness, but he denies any fever or chills presently.• Past history: reveals a GI clinic follow-up for inflammatory bowel disease for• which he has been on chronic steroid therapy off and on.• On physical examination, vital signs are: • pulse 110 bpm; • temperature normal; • respirations24/min; • blood pressure 120/78 mm Hg.• General exam: patient appears frail but in no distress.• Pertinent findings: • coarse rhonchi and scattered expiratory wheeze with squeaks. • Heart exam reveals normal S1-S2 with no gallop. • There is no hepatomegaly or pedal edema.
Case-4• Laboratory data: • Hb 11 g; Hct 33%; • WBCs 15.0/μL; differential normal.• PFTs/spirometry: • FVC 3.43 L (78% of predicted); • FEV1: 2.15 L (63% of predicted); • FEV1/FVC% 72%; • TLC 5.34 L (69% of predicted); • DLCO 14 cc/min/mm Hg (57% of predicted).• Echocardiogram shows an: • ejection fraction of 55%. • no focal dyskinesia.
POSITION •PA CXRQUALITY •Poor Technical Quality •Bilateral reticular infitration •Diffuse bilateral lung especiallyLESION peripherial lower right zone. •Central trachea and mediasteinal.MEDIASTINALHilumANGELS •Free . •NoOTHER
Case-4• 1. What is the most likely diagnosis?• a. Congestive heart failure• b. COPD• c. Nonspecific pneumonitis• d. Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP)• 2. There may be an increased risk of one of the following during therapy in this patient:• a. Pulmonary embolism• b. Staphylococcal infection• c. Mycobacterial infection• d. HIV infection
Case-5• A 50-year-old woman is admitted with progressive shortness of breath.• She was well until about 2 mo ago, when she noted that she was getting tired and fatigued easily.• She gives a history of working as a domestic worker and “cleaning lady” for many years.• Recently, she was working for a company that did maintenance work on boats in a marina area.• She now has cough, shortness of breath, and low-grade fever with malaise.• This has continued despite symptomatic treatment.
Case-5• On exam she is found to be in: • mild to moderate distress • with harsh vesicular breath sounds, • Diffuse rhonchi • bilateral basilar crackles on lung exam, more on the right.• Routine labs are normal,• PPD is 5 mm.• sputum is negative for fungal.• AFB smear with cultures pending.
Case-5• 1. The most likely diagnosis is• a. Silicosis• b. Asbestosis• c. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis• d. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection• 2. Associated with this condition is• a. Increased lung volumes• b. Decreased diffusion• c. Peripheral eosinophilia• d. Inorganic dust exposure