Certain connective tissues like “collagen” and the cartilage which is the best source of gelatin. That makes the stock flavorful
Bouillon – in french cuisine, is a simply “broth”, made by simmering a mirepoix and aromatic herbs (boquet garni), with either beef, vel or poultry. Fumet – is a concentrated stock, particularly one made from fish and mushroom, used to add flavor or to less intensely flavored stock Consomme- is a clear soup made from richly flavored stock that has been clarified usually a fining process thru the use of egg protein (egg white) Court bouillon – a flavored liquid for poaching and quick cooking foods. Traditional uses include poaching fish and sea food Glace – stock that is reduced until it coats the back of the spoon, making it so concentrated. Demi Glace – is a rich brown sauce use as a base for many sauces Remoulage – “rewetting” stock made from bones that already been used once. Discard the mirepoix and herbs after draining. Add fresh mirepoix.
Blanching – to get rid of some impurities that can cause cloudiness. Steps: rinse bones in cold water, to wash away the blood. Impurities dissolve easily in cold water. Hot water retards extraction. Bring water to bloil, as the water heat, impurities solidify and rise to the surface. Drain the bones and now ready for stock pot. Browning – put the bones in an oven about 375F for 1 hr. to brown Sweating Bones or Shells . Bones or shell are used in fumets. The proteins present in fish bones and shellfish can take on an unacceptable flavor if allowed to cook to long. Sweating is a procedure that starts flavor release quickly. The stock can e cooked in less than 45 minutes, with full extraction of body and flavor. 1. Heat a small amount of oil or clarified butter in a rondeau. 2. Add the bones or shells and mirepoix. 3. Cook over moderate heat, stirring occasionally, until the flesh on the bones turns opaque, or the shells have a bright color, and the moisture is released from the mirepoix.
Standard portion : Appetizer – 6-8 oz. (200 to 250 ml) Main course – 10-12 oz (300-350 ml)
Beurre maine – (burr mahnyay) mixture of equal parts of soft raw butter, flour worked together to form a smooth paste. It is used for quick thickening at the end of cooking to finish a sauce. White wash – a thin mixture of flour and cold water. Not recommended. How to make liason : Beat together eggyolk and cream in stainless. 2-3 parts cream: 1 part eggyolk Slowly add a little hot liquid to the liaison beating constantly. This is known as “tempering” Off the heat, add the warm, diluted liaison to the rest of the sauce. Stirring well as you pour in Return the sauce to low heat to warm it gently, but do not heat higher than 180F or it will curdle. Hold for service above 140F
Guidelines in preparing Holladaise sauce: Combine eggyolks and reduction in a stainless steel bowl. Whip over hot water bath. Continue to whip over hot water until thick and light. Very slowly whip in the butter. Set the bowl in a sauce pan lined with a kitchen towel to hold it steadly. The finished sauce should be thick but pourable.
Stocks, soups & sauces (revised)
Stocks, Soups, and Sauces 1
Stocks Are often called the chef’s building blocks because they form the base for many soups and stocks. 2
A STOCK IS… A flavorful liquid made by gently simmering bones and/or vegetables in a liquid to extract their flavor, aroma, color, body and nutrients. 3
The Four Essential Parts of a Stock Are Mirepoix Aromatics Liquid Major Flavoring Ingredient 4
Ingredients:1) Bones – major ing. Chicken stock – chx bones White stock – beef, beal, pork bones Brown stock – beef,veal browned in an oven. Fish stock – fish bones and trimmings from fillet fumet – often used for flavorful fish stock, esp. made with wine. 5
2. Mirepoix –(meer-pwah) aromatic veg. , 2 nd most impt. Contributors. Carrots, onion, celery. Chopped coarsely.3. Acid prod. – Acid help dissolve connective tissue. (Lemon, vinegar, tomato products)4. Scraps & left overs.5. Seasoning & spices – “aromatics”. Salt is impt. Ing.Sachet – herbs & spices usually tied in a cheesecloth 6
Bouquet garni – assortment of fresh herbs, tied in a bundle with string. (thyme, parsely stems, bay leaves, cloves,garlic)Ingredients proportion:Bones – 50%Mirepoix – 10%Water – 100% 7
Types of Stock White Stock Brown Stock Fumet Court Bouillon Glace Remouillage Bouillon 8
TYPES OF STOCK:Bouillon – in french cuisine, is a simply “broth”,made by simmering a mirepoix and aromatic herbs(boquet garni), with either beef, vel or poultry.Fumet – is a concentrated stock, particularly onemade from fish and mushroom, used to add flavoror to less intensely flavored stockConsomme- is a clear soup made from richlyflavored stock that has been clarified usually afining process thru the use of egg protein (eggwhite)
Court bouillon – a flavored liquid for poachingand quick cooking foods. Traditional usesinclude poaching fish and sea foodGlace – stock that is reduced until it coats theback of the spoon, making it so concentrated.Demi Glace – is a rich brown sauce use as abase for many saucesRemoulage – “rewetting” stock made frombones that already been used once. Discard themirepoix and herbs after draining. Add freshmirepoix.
Bones For Stock Are Prepared By: Blanchi ng Brownin g Sweatin g 11
Blanching – to get rid of some impurities that cancause cloudiness. Steps: rinse bones in coldwater, to wash away the blood. Impurities dissolveeasily in cold water. Hot water retards extraction.Bring water to bloil, as the water heat, impuritiessolidify and rise to the surface. Drain the bonesand now ready for stock pot.Browning – put the bones in an oven about 375Ffor 1 hr. to brownSweating Bones or Shells. Bones or shell areused in fumets. The proteins present in fish bonesand shellfish can take on an unacceptable flavor ifallowed to cook to long.
Sweating is a procedure that starts flavor releasequickly. The stock can e cooked in less than 45minutes, with full extraction of body and flavor.1. Heat a small amount of oil or clarified butter ina rondeau.2. Add the bones or shells and mirepoix.3. Cook over moderate heat, stirring occasionally,until the flesh on the bones turns opaque, or theshells have a bright color, and the moisture isreleased from the mirepoix
What Four QualitiesAre Stocks Evaluated On?1. Flavor2. Color3. Aroma4. Clarity 14
Cooling and StoringStock Put the stockpot in the ice-bath and stir often. When cool, place in the refrigerator. Break down the large amounts of stock into smaller amounts. Place stock in small containers in the refrigerator. Stir occasionally 15
Preparing Soups Any good soup is made with the best ingredients available. Clear Soups & Thick Soups are the two basic types 16
Helpful Hints For Cream And Purée Soups: If a cream soup becomes too thick, add water or stock until the correct consistency is achieved. Never use heavy cream- it can hide the flavor of the main ingredient. If the soup has a sour or “off” flavor, or has curdled, discard it. Cream soups have a brief storage time once the cream has been added. To store cream soups 17
Classifications of soup1. Clear soups – are all based on clear, unthickend broth or stock. a. broth or bouillon – clear soups without solid ingr. b. Vegetable soup – clear, seasoned stock with veg,meat, and starches. c. Consomme’ – rich, flavorful stock or broth that has been clarified by adding eggwhite. 18
2) Thick soup – are opaque rather than transparent. a. Cream soup – soups are thicken with roux, beurre maine, liaison or other thickening agents. b. Purees’ naturally thickened by pureeing of the ingredients. Until they are smooth and creamy as cream soup. c. Bisques – thickened soup made from shellfish with cream 19
d. Chowder – hearty soups made from fish and shellfish and or veg. Usually contain milk and potatoes.e. Potage – term associated with thick, hearty soups.3. Specialty & National Soup – native soups from the other countries.4. Vegetarian soups and Low fat soup – veg. based soup. No meat 20
Which Soups Are ClearAnd Which Soups Are Thick? Consom Clear mé Soup Bisque Thick Broth Soup Cream Clear Purée Soup Thick Soup 21
From Which Country Does Each Specialty Soup Originate? Borscht Russia Gazpacho Spain Gumbo Louisiana Minestrone Italy Vichyssoise France 23
Cooling And Finishing Techniques Remove surface fat from soup before service. Blot with strips of un- waxed brown butcher paper to eliminate unwanted fat. Soups should be garnished just before service. 24
Sauces- A flavorful liquid, usually to thickened, used to season, flavor and enhance the food Add moisture and richness to food Introduce complementary and contrasting flavors Enhance the appearance of food Add texture to the dish 25
Structure of Sauces:1. Liquid ( base of the most sauces) - white stock – veloute sauce - crown stock – brown sauce, espagnole (ess pahn yohl). - Milk – bechamel - tomato plus stock – tamato sauce - Clarified butter - hollandaise 26
2. Thickening Agents : a. Starches – flour, corn starch, arrowroot, maize, bread crumbs, rice flour. b.Roux = mixture of equal parts of fat and flour. c. Flour – Bread flour less starch. d. Eggyolk e. Liaison – a mix. Of eggyolk and cream, used to enrich and lightly thickened the sauce f. Reduction 27
Beurre maine – (burr mahnyay) mixture of equal parts of soft raw butter, flour worked together to form a smooth paste. It is used for quick thickening at the end of cooking to finish a sauce.White wash – a thin mixture of flour and cold water. Not recommended.How to make liason :Beat together eggyolk and cream in stainless. 2-3 parts cream: 1 part eggyolkSlowly add a little hot liquid to the liaison beating constantly. This is known as “tempering”Off the heat, add the warm, diluted liaison to the rest of the sauce. Stirring well as you pour inReturn the sauce to low heat to warm it gently, but do not heat higher than 180F or it will curdle.Hold for service above 140F
The Five Grand SaucesBéchamelVelouteEspagnole (Brown)TomatoHollandaiseBernaise 29
Bechamel – classic standard white sauce. Simply milk and roux. Veloute – bases of many variations. Made of roux and stock. Espanogle – “brown sauce” , more complicated than bechamel and veloute. It accompany red meats. Extra flavor is added like the mirepoix Tomato sauce - pureed tomato sauce is the main ingr. (coulis) (koo-lee), puree of veg. of fruits 30
Hollandiase – considered an egg thickener sauce, but the egg is not thickened by coagulation. It works by emulsification Bearnaise – Major ingredient is not a stock or milk but butter 31
How Do Miscellaneous Sauces Function? They Function in much the same way that grand sauces do. They add flavor, moisture, texture, and color to the dish. They also allow chefs to change the menu items by providing a lower-fat alternative to the usually heavy grand or derivative sauces. 33
ThickenersAre added to sauces to give them additional richness and body 34
Examples ofThickeners: Beurre manié Liaison Slurry Roux White roux Blond roux Brown roux 35
To Pair the Correct Sauce with a MealThe sauce should be suitable for the style of service.The sauce should be suitable for the main ingredient’s cooking technique.The sauce’s flavor must be appropriate for the flavor of the food it is accompanying. 36