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Personality development lecture compilation (97 2003)

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  • 1. Personality DevelopmentLecture Compilation 1
  • 2. CHAPTER 1 Personality and its Components:Personality – as the sum total of qualities and characteristics of a person as shown in her mannerof walking, talking, dressing, attitudes, interest and ways of reacting to other people. It refers to all the factors within the person that influence characteristic ways of behaving, thinking,and feeling. It is your image to others 1. Physical – this includes the mode of dressing, manner of walking, posture, body build, health, complexion and facial expression. 2. Intellectual – How a person talks and what she talks about. 3. Social – Good manners, and etiquette are included in this aspect. To do the right thing at the right time, to get along well with others. 4. Emotional – this component includes a person’s likes and dislikes whether she is outgoing or shy, calm or nervous, temperamental or cool. 5. 5. Value System – Includes a person’s attitudes, values, beliefs and philosophy in life. This aspect is referred to as CHARACTER. It is shown in the way we judge our action and the actions of others are right or wrong.ACTIVITY:Bring a mirror 1. In their notebooks, they need to asses themselves based on their physical ( skin, hair, teeth, nails, clothes, shoes, accessory, body build, facial expression. 2. Intellectual (study habits, reading skills and comprehension, English and Tagalog communication skills, focus on studying, goals in the future as a professional) 3. Social (how often do they smile, how they communicate to others – do they prefer listening or talking? 4. Emotional – how they manage problems and concerns. Kinds of activities they want to do (staying at home, going out with friends, or engaging in sports activities) 5. Experiences – What was their childhood like? Their memories on their childhood. I. PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES: 1. Heredity – This comes from the person’s genes and chromosomes which he inherits from his forefathers and parents. 2. Environment – This consist of family, school, church, neighbourhood, social groups with whom a person interacts from the beginning. 3. Experiences – Consist of everything that we do or get in touch with, everywhere we got in short, everything that we are exposed to (physical, emotional, social) experiences. 2
  • 3. II. Techniques in Improving Personality: 1. One must realize that improvement is needed 2. Have a strong motive or desire to improve. 3. Take an inventory or make a checklist of the strong and weak points, of what is to be improved 4. Have a step by step plan of improvement Activity: From the assessment done, list down some important things they need to improve (physical, intellectual, emotional, social)Why is Personality Development Important? • Ensure excellence in one’s chosen field. • Contribute to individual and national development • An improvement in your personality can improve your chances for success.Requirements towards the development of a fine personality: 1. Clarity of goals and purpose in life 2. Doing beyond expectations 3. Learning from failures 4. initiativeness 5. Enthusiasm 6. Character & personality 7. Self discipline 8. Positive mental attitude 9. Managing 10. Sound physical & mental health 11. Team work 12. Hard work 13. Growing in one’s knowledge and skills 14. Desiring pleasure and excitementIV. Developing a Positive AttitudePositive attitude can do wonders. It can make possible what is seemingly impossible for the others.Positive attitude is the seed out of which positive traits, which are essential for success sprout forth. It isthe positive attitude again which waters and feeds the sapling of positive traits.Activity: 1. Emotions and feelings within each of us are triggered in different ways. We think differently and therefore see things differently. We often do not imagine that other people may see something quite differently to how we see the same thing. Management and relationships, in work and outside of work too, depend heavily on our being able to understand the other persons view, and what causes it to be different to our own. 3
  • 4. To illustrate this, and to explore how mental associations can colour our worlds differently:Close your eyes and imagine the days of the weekWhat colour is each day?Write down the colour of each dayReview and compare peoples different colour associations, and - where people consciously know andare willing to share their reasons/associations - review these differences too.Note: If anyone sees all the days as the same color, or sees no colour association at all, or perhaps seesor senses a more powerful alternative association, then this is another equally worthy personalviewpoint and difference.The days of the week are a simple fixed pattern. Yet we see them in different ways.2. Bring a glass full of water and let the students interpret( It may be expressed as half full or halfempty).QUOTES: Your mind is a beautiful garden, if you do not plant and nurture sapling of beautiful flowering plants in it, it will turn into a mess of wild creepers, bushes and thorny plants. *** A balloon when released goes up not because of its colour or shape, it is what is inside that makes itgo up. The same application can be found in our lives. It is what is inside that count. The thing inside of us that makes us go up is our attitude. ***A person who has good thoughts cannot ever be ugly. You can have a wonky nose and a crookedmouth and a double chin and stick-out teeth, but if you have good thoughts they will shine out of yourface like sunbeams and you will always look lovely. *** Always look at what you have left. Never look at what you have lost. *** **A man is happy so long as he chooses to be happy `***Qualities of a Successful Person 1. Ambition 2. Commitment 3. Responsibility 4. Hard work 5. Character 6. Persistence Reference: Achievement True Success 4
  • 5. V. Self Esteem Refers to reflect a persons overall evaluation or appraisal of his or her own worth. Self-esteemencompasses beliefs Here are some characteristics of a person with High and Low Self Esteem:High Self Esteem1.Talk about ideas 16. Disciplined2. Caring attitude 17. Internally driven/self motivated3. Humility 18. Respect others4. Respect authority 19. Knows the limitation5. Courage of conviction 20. Giver6. Confidence7. Concerned about character8. Assertive9. Accept responsibility10 Optimistic11. Willing to learn12. Sensitive13. Discuss14. Believe in self worth15. Guided / MisguidedLow Self Esteem1. Talk about people2.Critical attitude3.Arrogance4. Rebel against authority5. Go along with6. Confusion7. Concerned about reputation8.Aggressive9. Blames the whole world10. Fatalistic11. Know it all12. Touchy13. Argue14. Believe in net worth15. Misguided16. Distorted sense of freedom17. Externally driven18. Lookdown on others19. Everything goes20. Taker 5
  • 6. Chapter 2 Physical Aspect Fashion Making Choices: 1. Dress conservatively – simplicity 2. Artistic expression – if you have a sense of fashion in the past, you can indulge in appropriate whimsy-mix and match*Italian and French Vogue is more aesthetically focused and American Vogue is moreconsumer-practicalFactors in forming impression: 1. Economic level – is he rich or poor? Is he working or unemployed? 2. Educational level – is he a high school or college level? Or is he a doctor? 3. Social Impression – Does he lives in the villages? Does he belong to the upper socio- economic level or lower level? 4. Level of Sophistication – party hooping type, the social register type? 5. . Family background – upper class family or lower class family 6. Success – His personal possessions like car, house, company, type of sports and activities. 7. Moral character – does he looks honest, or will take advantage? I. Assembling a Basic Wardrobe The first thing to consider when putting together a wardrobe is color. Pick two basic,neutral colors that you can build you wardrobe around. The most versitile basic colors are black, brown, grey, navy and beige. Once you have decided on colors, you can start shopping. 7 Basic Steps to Success Step 1: Know your body type None of us is perfect so know your measurements and shape. Think about arm, leg and torso length and shoulder, hip, waist and thigh shape and width. Evaluate your overall body shape. One trick we like for this is standing in front of a mirror with someone tracing your shape on the mirror with soap. Finally think about the areas you want to hide or accentuate. 6
  • 7. Step 2: Be Realistic This works for all body types. Wear clothing that fit properly. Squeezing into a smaller size does not make you smaller. It makes you look like you have gained weight and didnt buy clothing that are the right size. On the flip side, wearing baggy, bigger clothing in an attempt to hide things does not work either. You just make yourself look sloppy and larger. Dont buy what you wish you looked good in, but what really does compliment you. Step 3: Just because they make it in your size... Does not mean you should buy it and wear it. Fashion is only fashionable if you look attractive in it, not because a celebrity is wearing it or it was in all of fashion magazines. Step 4: Know Your colors Black is not everyones best friend. Colors sold in the stores in a particular season may not be yours. Regardless of which method you use to determine the right colors for you, it must be done. If you arent sure, contact an image or wardrobe consultant for some professional help. It is worth the time and money. Step 5: Build a base Your lifestyle will determine where the emphasis lies on the core elements of your wardrobe. However, here are a few suggestions on what you should have. You will need to adjust according to your life, but remember the key to any successful wardrobe is having items that can be mixed and matched with other items. Step 6: Think before you buy Unless you are buying a new base piece, dont buy an item unless you already have threethings in your wardrobe with which you can wear it. Step 7 : Budget Spend the bulk of your budget on the base pieces. Quality base pieces will last and willremain fashionable. Fill in your wardrobe with accessories with the remainder of your wardrobebudget. These items are often the trendier or more seasonable items and have a shorter shelflife in your wardrobe. And for those of you who do not have a wardrobe budget - get one. Theeasiest way to have an out of control closet or overflowing shoe bin is too just go shoppingwilly-nilly without a plan. 7
  • 8. Lines of Clothes 1. Vertical Line – The line which runs lengthwise from head to toe. 2. Horizontal Line – A line cutting across from side to side. It cuts heights and adds weight. Color Spectrum Primary colors – red, blue, yellow Secondary colors – violet (red & blue) Tertiary colors – is a color made by mixing one primary color with one secondary color, in a given color space such as RGBCOMBINATION OF COLORS 1. Monochromatic - Colors that are shade or tint variations of the same hue (color) but different shades. Ex. Ex. Brown, light brown and beige 8 
  • 9. 2. Complementary - Those colors across from each other on a color wheel. Ex. Green and red 3. Analogous Relationship Those colors located adjacent to each other on a color wheel. Example : blue, green, yellow and orange 4. Triadic Three hues equally positioned on a color wheel. Example: Purple, green and orange Color Meaning:Red Symbolizes action, confidence, courage, vitality, energy, strength, war, danger, passion, desire,love, power, determination.Pink Provides feelings of caring, tenderness, self-worth and love, acceptance. Romance Love, Friendship, femininity.Blue Stability, trust, loyalty, confidence, intelligence, faith, heaven, peace,professionalism, loyalty, reliability, honor, melancholia, boredom, coldness, Winter,depth, stability, professionalism, honor, trust - 9
  • 10. Green durability, reliability, environmental, luxurious, optimism, well-being,nature, calm, relaxation, Spring, safety, honesty, optimism, harmony, freshnessYellow attention-grabbing, comfort, liveliness, cowardliness, hunger, optimism,overwhelm, Summer, comfort, liveliness, intellect, happiness, energyPurple power, royalty, nobility, elegance, sophistication, artificial, luxury, mystery,royalty, elegance, magicOrange cheerfulness, low cost, affordability, enthusiasm, stimulation, creativity,aggressionBlack Elegance,sophistication, formality, power, strength, illegality, depression, morbidity, nighWhite Pureness, cleanliness, purity, virginity, peace, innocence, simplicity, sterility, snowYour Best Color  Your best colors are found in your body’s 6. Blue – if blue is your eye color, natural color scheme. Your skin, hair, match it. eyes, lips. The rest of your best colors If it isn’t in your eyes it is a complement, or go with, all your body complementary color to you. colors are equally flattering to wear. 7. Green – Just like blue, the green 1. Beige – your best beige is the color of color of your skin your eye is your best green. 2. Brown – your best brown is your hair 8. Yellow – most people have yellow color 3. Gray – if you have reached the gray hair in their eyes. stage of your life. Then its your best gray. 9. Black – some look good in pure 4. White or off white – your best should not black, the best shade would be a be whiter than your teeth. brown black or blue black. 5. Red – your best shade is your natural blood color. 10
  • 11. Types of Attire 1. Formal Attire This usually means the same as Black Tie. It also means a black shirt, no tie with a tux. Women wear cocktail, long dresses or dressy evening separates.Tuxedo - A tuxedo is the height of formal wear dressing for a man. Knowing when to wear one and what type to buy or rent can be a little trickier.When to Wear a Tuxedo: - When the invitation states Formal, Black Tie, Black Tie Invited or Black Tie Optional - To the opening of the opera, ballet or symphony, formal dinner party or reception. - White Tie A white tie or ultra-formal invitation requires mean wear full dress, with white tie, vest, shirt. 11
  • 12. Formal for Men (Pinoy Style) Barong Tagalog – is embroidered formal garment. It is very lightweight and worn un-tucked over an undershirt. Common wedding and formal attire for Filipino “Barong Tagalog” literally means “Tagalog Dress” Polo Barong Refers to a short- sleeved version of the barong, often made with linen, ramie or cotton. This is the least formal version of the barong, often used as office wear. Gusot Mayaman “gusot” means (“wrinkled” and “mayaman” means wealthy) . Gusot mayaman can be used for everyday office wear. 12
  • 13. Shirt Jack Barong - Barong cut in shirt-jack style usually in poly-cotton, linen-cotton and gusto mayaman fabrics. - Popularized by politicians and government officials and worn during campaigns or out-in-the field assignments.Semi-Formal or After Five • Tuxes are not required nor long dresses. An evening wedding (after 6) would still dictate dark suits for him, and a cocktail dress for her. • Daytime semi-formal events means a suit for him and an appropriate short dress or dressy or dressy suit for her. 5 Types of Formal and Semi-Formal Wear for Women Strapless Dress : The strapless dress is a red carpet staple for a good reason. It is a highlight a woman’s best features including shoulders and face, while covering problem areas like hips and tummy. 13
  • 14. • The halter dress is perfect for formal wear because it leads the eye up to your face to show off your pretty features Ballgown Nothing is as grand as the full-skirted dress or ballgown. It makes a grand entrance and is perfect for your most formal occasion. Empire Waist The empire waist silhouette elongates the body, bring focus to the bust and hides a multitude of lower-body figure problems 14
  • 15. Beaded Formal Dress • Special occasion calls for a bit of shine, and the beaded dress is the perfect way to stand out. Cocktail Attire Means short, elegant touch for your formal occasion, whether it be a wedding or prom or a special event. 15
  • 16. Business Formal Attire  The same as semi formal for men, for women it suggests that it is apt for more tailored dressy suits and dress (nothing to slinky or sexy)Tips for Professional Wardrobe for Men • Always wear black suld bocks • Shoes should be clean and shiny • Men’s hair should be clean cut, no hair color • Don’t forget to shave to look neatTips for Professional Wardrobe for Women • The clothes should be freshly washed, well pressed, well fitted and most of all appropriate, pleated long skirt is acceptable but not to “balloony”.Not to wear: - Sleevless - Mini skirts - Solid Black - Stained or spotted - Missing a button - With ruffles and ribbons Casual Attire • non-self-employed workers commonly wear casual business attire. • Jeans, t shirts, blouses, trousers, sports coat, sandals, rubber shoes 16
  • 17. HAIR STYLEHair do, haircut refers to the styling of hair, usually on the human head. The fashioning of hair can beconsidered an aspect of personal grooming, fashion, and cosmetics, although practical, cultural, andpopular considerations also influence some hairstyles.Hair Care Tips  General A healthy lifestyle will mean healthier hair for you. Excessive stress, smoking, not exercising and not eating nutritiously are not healthy for your hair.  Get enough sleep.  Hair Products (Gel, mouse, hair spary...) Avoid using hair styling products with alcohol which dries out hair.  Avoid puting hair styling products directly on your scalp, if you put it on your scalp youll clog the pores on your head.  Swimming Before entering a pool, wet your hair so your hair will soak up the initial water instead of the chlorinated water.  When swimming where a cap to protect your hair from chlorinated water, if you choose not to wear a cap make sure you shampoo and condition your hair right after you are done swimming. Drying Hot air can be damaging to your hair so when using a hair dryer use the cool setting.  Dont leave the blowdryer in one spot for more than a few seconds, keep it moving and at a good distance away from your hair.  To speed up the drying process, pat your hair dry with a towell and let the remaining moisture in your hair dry naturally.  Gently use your fingers or a pick to untangle any knots while your hair is drying. Combing/Brushing Use a brush whose bristles are made from natural animal hairs, it is softer and more flexible which means less damage will be done to your hair. Hair is most fragile when it is wet so avoid brushing or combing when its wet, or else it will cause breakage, wait until your hair is almost completely dry before brushing it.  Use brushes/combs with widely spaced bristles/teeth and smooth tips. Sharp tooth combs can damage your hair, cause split ends, and scratch your scalp.  To keep your brushes and combs clean, wash them weekly using soap or shampoo.  Comb your hair to remove any tangles before brushing it.  Begin by combing your hair gently at the ends to get any tangles out and work your way up to the base of your hair.  Always brush/comb with a downwards stroke.  Avoid using plastic brushes/combs which create static electricity 17
  • 18.  Shampooing and Conditioning Buy shampoos & conditioners that match your hair type, trial and error is the best way to find out what specific hair product is best for your hair. Shower with warm water, hot water can dry and/or irritate the scalp. It is important to wash your hair, shampooing removes dirt, dead skin cells, hair oils, any hair products you may put into your hair. When shampooing, rinse your hair out before applying any shampoo to remove any dust, dirt, and any other foreign items, then apply the shampoo onto your scalp and massage it gently with your finger tips and work your way outwards. After you are done make sure that you thouroughly rinse out your hair to remove any shampoo residue that may be left. Shampoo residue may dry your scalp/hair and or attract dirt. It is recommended that you only lather once to avoid drying your hair out, if you have oily hair, lathering again may stimulate your oil glands to create even more oil than normal. You should wash your hair as often as you feel necessary to keep it clean, but a general rule is for oily hair you should wash it every day or every other day and for dry hair only wash it 2-3 times a week. Try rotating the shampoo and conditioner periodically, your hair responds differently to different products. Use a conditioner after shampooing, itll moisturize your hair, give it extra protection, add shine, reduce static, and makes it easier to untangle. Use a leave in conditioner, itll hydrate and protect your hair. A leave in conditioner on your hair is the equivalent of moisturizer on your face. When conditioning your hair, try to spread conditioner evenly through out your hair and leave it in for a couple of minutes before rinsing out your hair. Put the conditioner in at about an inch away from the scalp, the roots of your hair contain the most oils and usually dont need the extra conditioning. Be gentle when shampooing and conditioning, dont use excessive force rubbing your hair, remember hair is most vulnerable when wet. Hairstyles for Different Face Shapes 18
  • 19. Square Face – strong broad forehead withangular jaw • A style, which is feathered at the top and soft around your ears, is an instant disguise for a square jaw. As a rule of thumb: if a stylist suggests a cut thats above your jaw line, go elsewhere. Really short cuts will exaggerate the squareness of your face shape. • If you have a square face shape you’ll want to try short-to-medium length hair, especially with wave or roundness around the face. Wispy bangs will soften your angular square face shape. Off-center parts with height at the crown look great on square face shapes. You want to soften the square look of your face with layers and wispy looks around the face. Height at the crown will elongate your symmetrical shape. If your hair is straight, you may want to consider a body wave perm, as some curl or wavy hair will achieve a nice balance to the straight features of your face shape. • If you have a square face shape you’ll want to avoid long straight hairstyles that accentuate the square jawbone. “Linear” straight bangs or center parts aren’t the best choice for a square face shape. A straightRound Face – Circular shaped. Length is approximately equal to the width the wrong thing to do for your bobbed hairstyle ending at the jaw line is square face shape. You can wear a layered bob hair style, however it If you haveend above or below the jaw line,to try hair stylesMakefullness and should a round face shape you’ll want not at the jaw. with sure in height at the crown. Off center parts help reduce the roundness of aheight at styling that you achieve some roundness to the shape and some round face shape. Short hair styles you will be on the right track. hair styles that the crown or bangs, and with a swept-back direction or are longer than chin length will look good on you if you have a round face shape. By layering the top to achieve fullness and keeping the rest of the hair cut relatively close to the face, your round face shape will appear longer and narrower. Round face shapes should avoid chin length hair with a rounded line that mirrors your round face shape. Center parts tend to accentuate roundness, so stay away from them if possible. Also avoid hair styles with short-short crops, or straight “chopped” bangs. Fullness at side of ears also accentuates the round face shape. A rounded hair cut ending at the chin will certainly add weight to your already round face shape. Because the widest part of your face is at the cheeks and ears, you need to avoid having the fullness of the cut here, as it will make your face appear wider. 19
  • 20. • Avoid Chin length hair with a rounded line that mirrors face’s circular shape. Center parts. Short-short crops, straight "chopped" bangs. Fullness at side of ears. A rounded haircut ending at the chin will certainly add weight to your face shape. Because the widest part of your face is at the cheeks and ears, you need to avoid having the fullness of the cut here as it will make your face appear wider. Oval Face - Curvilinear shape. Length is equal to one and a half times width, with forehead and jaw the same width. • Avoid Covering up your "perfect" features with heavy bangs, or too forward-directed styles. In wearing your hair style on your face, youll lose your face shape behind the hair. It may appear to add weight to your face.Heart shape Wide at the forehead and cheekbones, narrow at the jawline.Heart face shapes should avoid short, full styles that emphasize theupper face. Stay away from hair styles with too much height at thecrown. Severe, slicked back looks are too harsh for your heart faceshape too. If you are a dramatic heart face shape, the short, full hairstyles with tapered necklines, which emphasize the upper face willmake you look top heavy. Too much height at the crown will give theappearance of a longer and narrower chin. Just remember if you have adramatic heart face shape, you have great cheekbones to emphasize!Don’t miss the boat by getting a hair cut which is too top heavy. 20
  • 21. Diamond Faced Shape- is a cross between heart face shape and a dramatic oval face shape. A diamond face shape iswidest at the cheekbones, and narrow equally at the forehead and jaw line. • You can wear shorter hair styles. However, if you are a dramatic diamond face shape, you need to leave weight in the back nape area like someone with a heart face shape. This will achieve more balance between your dramatic cheekbones and more delicate chin line. • Diamond face shapes should try not to wear too much hair on your face, thereby hiding your great features. Men’s Hairstyle • Ceasar Cut Ceasar Cut is a mens hairstyle with a short, horizontally straight cut fringe. The hair is layered to around 2-5 cm (1-2 inches) all over. It is named after Julius Caesar, whose images frequently depict him wearing his hair in such a manner. 21
  • 22. Faux Hawk • Made popular in the 80’s. This is the newer version of Mowhawk hairstyle. • It does not involve haircut drastically on the side of the head. A simple slightly shorter cut on the sides and back, hair is slightly longer on top. Ease the top into a tampered point with the help of gel or wax. Then simply smooth the sides back. Butch/Buzz Cut Hairstyle • The cut is usually performed using hair clippers without a comb guard. The sides are cut closely and then the top is either shaped or cut to the same short length all over. The cut takes just a few minutes to perform. A buzz cut can make the face look more defined. The buzz cut is popular among people who want a short, low-maintenance hairstyle Crew Cut Is a type of haircut in which the hair on the top of the head is cut relatively short, graduated in length from the longest hair at the front hairline to the shortest at the back of the crown. The hair on the sides and back of the head is usually tapered short, semi-short or medium. This type of haircut is ideal for men with a nicely contoured head and small ears. 22
  • 23. Tousled Cut• The tousled cut is also a messy look and is ideal for men with curly hair. A touch of gel and quickly running your fingers through your hair can achieve this look. This style looks more kempt than the messy look Medium Layered Hair • Medium-length hair is longer than 1 to 2 inches and generally shorter than chin length. With medium-length, layers add volume and texture to thin hair. When hair products are used in medium layered hair, it can create a messy, shaggy look. Layers may be cut into the hair so that they appear to be blended, or unblended. 23
  • 24. COSMETICS• Lipstick - applies color, texture, and protection to the lips• lip gloss - give lips a glossy lustre and sometimes subtle color• lip liner -also known as lip pencil. It is intended to fill uneven areas on the outer edges of the lips after applying lipstick, therefore giving a smooth shape• lip plumper - used to make lips appear fuller. In• lip balm - substance applied topically to the lips of the mouth to relieve chapped or dry lips• Foundation - used to smooth out the face and cover spots or uneven skin coloration.• Powder, used to set the foundation, giving a matte finish, and also to conceal small fblush or blusher - cheek coloring used to bring out the color in the cheeks and make the cheekbones appear more defined. This comes in powder, cream, and liquid forms.• Mascara is used to darken, lengthen, and thicken the eyelashes .• Eye shadow is a cosmetic that is applied on the eyelids and under the eyebrows. It is commonly used to make the wearers eyes stand out or look more attractive.• eye liner and color pencils used to color and emphasize the eyelids (larger eyes give a more youthful appearance).[• Eyebrow pencils - used to color and define the brows.• Nail polish, used to color the fingernails and toenails.• Concealer - Makeup used to cover any imperfections of the skin.• laws or blemishes.• 24
  • 25. Make Up for Different Shapes of FacesOval Shaped face Oval is considered to be an ideal shape. No corrective make-up or special hair-style isrequired because it is the most balanced face. The purpose of make-up is to archive the ovalshape. Eyebrows should be shaped in a natural arch. While applying lipstick the lower lip shouldbe outlined to create fuller look and the natural line of the upper lip should be followed. Blushon or cheek colors be applied in a "C" shape and blended up to the outer corner of the eyes.Diamond Shaped Face This facial type has a narrow forehead and chin with wide cheek bones. Reduce theextreme width of the cheeks to achieve an oval shape Apply a darker shade of foundation tothe outside of cheekbones extending towards the outer corner of the eyes. A lighter shade offoundation can applied on the chin and the forehead to create an illusion of the width to theface. The Eyebrows should not be close but slightly apart from the centre and then follow thenatural arch. Lipstick should be applied in the natural form of lips.Heart Shaped face A heart shaped face has a wide for head and narrow chin. Increases the width of thechin and jawline with a lighter shade of foundation and minimize the width of the forehead byapplying a dark foundation. Eyebrows should be thick and straight following the natural arch,but with a one eye distance between the brows. Lipstick should be applied on the natural lipline. A high lighter or a white eye shadow can be applied on the forehead centre and the sidesof the sides of the cheeks to create an illusion of the width. Apply rouge on the upper cheekbase.Round ShapeA round face has an almost equal width and length proportion. Add length to the face toachieve an oval Shape. Generally, a narrow forehead goes well this face, which can be formedby using a deeper shade of the foundation on the sides. To give a slender look to the jawline, adark colour foundation can be applied on the jawline and under the cheeks. Cheeks will looknarrow if rouge and blush on are applied on the cheekbones and blended towards the templearea. Lipstick should be applied on the inside of the lip line. Eyebrows should be shaped in asweeping manner. Eyebrows and eyes should be given a longer appearance with the help of thebrow pencils. 25
  • 26. Square FaceA straight forehead and square jaw make a very strong face shape. A darker shade offoundation applied on the temples, jawline and sides of the face will tone down the widecorners of the face. A little rouge on the cheeks should blend towards the jawline to accentuatethe length of the face. Round shape eyebrows provide a soft touch to the face. Lipstick has tobe applied to create fullness in the lips to divert attention from the square jawline.Long ShapeThe face is long in the proportion to the width, usually with hollow cheeks. to reduce the lengthof the face an illusion of the width is required. Slightly thick eyebrows with a natural arch areneeded to reduce the face length. Eye make-up should be aimed to achieve a wide- eyed look.Eyeliner should be applied from the centre of the lid tilting it up to the outer corner of the eye.Lip line should be full in the appearance. Rouge and blush-on should be applied to cheeks nothigher than outer corner of the eye and not below the tip of the nose. A deeper shade offoundation can be applied across the jaw and chin and on the top of the for head to reduce thelength of the face.Pear Shape Narrow forehead, wide jawline and chin are the main characteristic of the pear shapedface. An illusion about the length of the face and adding width to the forehead are required fora pear shaped face. Eyebrows should be shaped to create a higher arch on the outer ends.Rouge application on the cheekbones should be blended towards the jawline. A deep colourfoundation should be applied on the sides to minimise the width of the jaw and to achieve aslender look. 5 Easy Steps to Applying MakeupStep 1: Foundation After cleansing, toning and moisturizing your face, apply a small amount of foundationto the tip of your index finger. Dot on your forehead, nose, cheeks and chin; then blend in anupward and outward motion without leaving a line. Be sure to apply foundation over youreyelids and blend carefully. Glance in the mirror to ensure theres no line. You can use aconcealer to cover imperfections such as blemishes and dark spots.Step 2: Translucent Powder Using a powder brush apply translucent powder in a downward motion for a smoothfinish. Translucent Powder helps eye makeup and blush to go on smoother and blend better. Italso keeps your face looking fresh and your makeup will last longer. 26
  • 27. Step 3: Eye Makeup Starting at your lash line, apply your base color first. Then apply your crease color in thecrease area. Apply your highlight color in the highlight color area, below the brow bone. Finally,blend the colors with a cotton ball or your fingertip to remove any obvious line. If the colors aretoo bright tone them down with a little translucent powder. Next, apply your mascara andfinally, dust your entire face downward with translucent powder.Step 4: Blush Your blush should be applied to the apples of your cheeks to radiate when you smile. Itshould go no closer to your nose, but directly beneath the iris of your eye; below nostril-leveland into your temple hairline. A must-have: a good blush brush thats tapered for preciseplacement.Step 5: Lipstick Define the outline of your lips with a professional lip brush or lip liner pencil that closelymatches the color of your lipstick. Then apply your lipstick and blend the liner with a lip brush.Start from the center working outwards. POSTUREWhat is good posture?Posture is the position in which you hold your body uprightagainst gravity while standing, sitting or lying down. Goodposture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit and lie inpositions where the least strain is placed on supportingmuscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearingactivities. Proper posture:  Keeps bones and joints in the correct alignment so that muscles are being used properly.  Helps decrease the abnormal wearing of joint surfaces that could result in arthritis.  Decreases the stress on the ligaments holding the joints of the spine together.  Prevents the spine from becoming fixed in abnormal positions.  Prevents fatigue because muscles are being used more efficiently, allowing the body to use less energy.  Prevents strain or overuse problems.  Prevents backache and muscular pain.  Contributes to a good appearance. 27
  • 28. Correct sitting position Sit up with your back straight and your shoulders back. Your buttocks should touch the back of your chair. All three normal back curves should be present while sitting. A small, rolled-up towel or a lumbar roll can be used to help you maintain the normal curves in your back. Heres how to find a good sitting position when youre not using a back support or lumbar roll: o Sit at the end of your chair and slouch completely. o Draw yourself up and accentuate the curve of your back as far as possible. Hold for a few seconds. o Release the position slightly (about 10 degrees). This is a good sitting posture. Distribute your body weight evenly on both hips. Bend your knees at a right angle. Keep your knees even with or slightly higher than your hips. (use a foot rest or stool if necessary). Your legs should not be crossed. Keep your feet flat on the floor. Try to avoid sitting in the same position for more than 30 minutes. At work, adjust your chair height and work station so you can sit up close to your work and tilt it up at you. Rest your elbows and arms on your chair or desk, keeping your shoulders relaxed. When sitting in a chair that rolls and pivots, dont twist at the waist while sitting. Instead, turn your whole body. When standing up from the sitting position, move to the front of the seat of your chair. Stand up by straightening your legs. Avoid bending forward at your waist. Immediately stretch your back by doing 10 standing backbends. Proper Posture While Typing 28
  • 29. Improve your Posture when WalkingFirstYou need to get a feel of how you should stand.The best way to do this is to -Imagine a cord attached to the top of your head (not your forehead) and this cord is gently pullingupwards - feel your body straighten.Try this standing still and then walking.EyesYour eyes should be focussing ahead, about 12 to 18 foot, not looking down at the ground.Try not to bend your head and look at the ground all the time.If you feel the need to look down then use your eyes. instead.ChinYour chin should not be stuck out but relaxed and parallel to the ground. This is important to rememberas it will lessen the strain on your neck and back.ShouldersYour shoulders should be relaxed and slightly back, as this opens out your chest helping those lungs totake in more air.If you let your shoulders slump forward (and have a rounded back) you are compressing your ribcageand shortening your spine.TrunkYour trunk – think of that cord gently keeping your body in a straight shape and don’t lean forward atthe waist.Your stomach should be slightly pulled in.ArmsWhen walking swing your arms to keep your balance, allow them to be naturally close to your body.Your hands should also be relaxed, not clenched or tight.If you are using a walking pole then try not to hold it too tightly or you will end up with blisters on yourhands.Legs/StrideLet your legs swing forward naturally rather than trying to force them to spring forward. Your forwardleg should be exactly in front of your body. 29
  • 30. A common fault is to take overlong strides – this will make it harder work for you and increase chancesof injury.Find your natural pace and stay with it – if you want to walk faster then just take more steps. Rememberyour body should not lean forwards or backwards as you walk.At first you might find that you have to make a determined effort to keep your posture correct.It might feel strange, but persevere and gradually you will feel yourself adopting better posture naturallyand get the maximium benefits from your walking.Enjoy your walking! GOOD EATING HABITS 1. Eat a variety of nutrient-rich foods. You need more than 40 different nutrients for good health, and no single food supplies them all. Your daily food selection should include bread and other whole-grain products; fruits; vegetables; dairy products; and meat, poultry, fish and other protein foods. How much you should eat depends on your calorie needs. Use the Food Guide Pyramid and the Nutrition Facts panel on food labels as handy references. 2. Enjoy plenty of whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Surveys show most Americans dont eat enough of these foods. Do you eat 6-11 servings from the bread, rice, cereal and pasta group, 3 of which should be whole grains? Do you eat 2-4 servings of fruit and 3-5 servings of vegetables? If you dont enjoy some of these at first, give them another chance. Look through cookbooks for tasty ways to prepare unfamiliar foods. 30
  • 31. 3. Maintain a healthy weight. The weight thats right for you depends on many factors including your sex, height, age and heredity. Excess body fat increases your chances for high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, some types of cancer and other illnesses. But being too thin can increase your risk for osteoporosis, menstrual irregularities and other health problems. If youre constantly losing and regaining weight, a registered dietitian can help you develop sensible eating habits for successful weight management. Regular exercise is also important to maintaining a healthy weight.4. Eat moderate portions. If you keep portion sizes reasonable, its easier to eat the foods you want and stay healthy. Did you know the recommended serving of cooked meat is 3 ounces, similar in size to a deck of playing cards? A medium Eat regular meals. Skipping meals can lead to out-of-control hunger, often resulting in overeating. When youre very hungry, its also tempting to forget about good nutrition. Snacking between meals can help curb hunger, but dont eat so much that your snack becomes an entire meal.5. Reduce, dont eliminate certain foods. Most people eat for pleasure as well as nutrition. If your favorite foods are high in fat, salt or sugar, the key is moderating how much of these foods you eat and how often you eat them. Identify major sources of these ingredients in your diet and make changes, if necessary. Adults who eat high-fat meats or whole-milk dairy products at every meal are probably eating too much fat. Use the Nutrition Facts panel on the food label to help balance your choices. Choosing skim or low-fat dairy products and lean cuts of meat such as flank steak and beef round can reduce fat intake significantly. If you love fried chicken, however, you dont have to give it up. Just eat it less often. When dining out, share it with a friend, ask for a take-home bag or a smaller portion.6. Balance your food choices over time. Not every food has to be "perfect." When eating a food high in fat, salt or sugar, select other foods that are low in these ingredients. If you miss out on any food group one day, make up for it the next. Your food choices over several days should fit together into a healthy pattern.7. Know your diet pitfalls. To improve your eating habits, you first have to know whats wrong with them. Write down everything you eat for three days. Then check your list according to the rest of these tips. Do you add a lot of butter, creamy sauces or salad dressings? Rather than eliminating these foods, just cut back your portions. Are you getting enough fruits and vegetables? If not, you may be missing out on vital nutrients.8. Make changes gradually. Just as there are no "superfoods" or easy answers to a healthy diet, dont expect to totally revamp your eating habits overnight. Changing too much, too fast can get in the way of success. Begin to remedy excesses or deficiencies with modest changes that can add up to positive, lifelong eating habits. For instance, if you dont like the taste of skim milk, try low-fat. Eventually you may find you like skim, too. 31
  • 32. 9. Remember, foods are not good or bad. Select foods based on your total eating patterns, not whether any individual food is "good" or "bad." Dont feel guilty if you love foods such as apple pie, potato chips, candy bars or ice cream. Eat them in moderation, and choose other foods to provide the balance and variety that are vital to good health. W – Work out E – enough sleep L – Limit sugar, salt and alcohol L – Lifestye N- Nutrition and Balanced Diet E- Education S – Stress Management S – Spirituality 32
  • 33. CHAPTER 3 INTELLECTUAL ASPECT AN ANALYSIS Techniques in Gaining Intellectual Growth Acquiring Positive Thinking 1. Act, walk, talk and think like the person you wish to become. 2. Seize successful, positive thoughts in your wits. 3. Exude an air of well-being, confidence, and purpose. 4. Deal with everyone as the most important person on earth. 5. Let others feel needed, important, and appreciated. 6. Think that everyone is best. 7. Don’t brag about your bad health. 8. Look everywhere for best new ideas. 9. Avoid pettiness. 10. Cultivate a spirit of giving. Outlining a Better Vision1. Identify your vision.2. Analyze your present life condition.3. Substitute all the little options for the one big vision.4. Modify your personal growth to your vision.5. Expose yourself to successful people.6. Frequently express your belief in your vision.7. Expect resistance to your vision.8. Eliminate negative thinkers as close friends.9. Discover every possible opportunity to fulfill your vision.10. Surpass normal expectations.11. Assist others who have a similar vision. Time Management 1.Learn to walk in blocks of time. 2. Avoid daydreaming, procrastination, and laziness. 3. Determine your priorities. 4. Maintain your priorities. 5. Act on your priorities. 33
  • 34. Aspects in the Communication Process • Speaking “Language is the Rubicon that divides man from beast”. It is the key factor that separates manfrom animal. 1. Identify what you want to say. 2. Control fear. 3. Stop talking and Listen. 4. Think before you talk. 5. Believe in your message. 6. Repeat major points. 7. Find out what your listener wants. • Listening“To make an effort to hear, to pay attention, as to warning or advice”. The hardest part one hasto achieve is the art of listening. 1.Prepare to listen. 2. Focus on the speaker. 3. Screen-out distractions. 4. Concentrate on the message. 5. Listen to tapes while you commute • Writing “keeping a journal is like having a heart to heart talk with yourself”. 1. Keep a journal. 2. Use an outline. 3. Write personal notes. 4. Write more effectively. • Reading Helps you gain more information and it will surely help you in proper speaking and writing. 1. Read. 2. Keep up with current events. 3. Read something inspirational 4. Use the internet. 5. Learn a new vocabulary each day 34
  • 35. Improving Your Communication Skill We all have people with whom we have to work to get things done. Our ability tocommunicate with clients, customers, subordinates, peers, and superiors can enhance oureffectiveness or sabotage us. Many times, our verbal skills make the difference. Here are 10ways to increase your verbal efficacy at work: Develop your voice – A high whiney voice is not perceived to be one of authority. Infact, a high soft voice can make you sound like prey to an aggressive co-worker who is out tomake his/her career at the expense of anyone else. Begin doing exercises to lower the pitch ofyour voice. Here is one to start: Sing — but do it an octave lower on all your favorite songs.Practice this and, after a period of time, your voice will begin to lower. Slow down – People will perceive you as nervous and unsure of yourself if you talk fast.However, be careful not to slow down to the point where people begin to finish your sentencesjust to help you finish. Animate your voice – Avoid a monotone. Use dynamics. Your pitch should raise andlower. Your volume should be soft and loud. Listen to your local TV news anchor; take notes. Enunciate your words – Speak clearly. Don’t mumble. If people are always saying,“huh,” to you, you are mumbling. Use appropriate volume – Use a volume that is appropriate for the setting. Speak moresoftly when you are alone and close. Speak louder when you are speaking to larger groups oracross larger spaces. Pronounce your words correctly – People will judge your competency through yourvocabulary. If you aren’t sure how to say a word, don’t use it. Use the right words – If you’re not sure of the meaning of a word, don’t use it. Start aprogram of learning a new word a day. Use it sometime in your conversations during the day. Make eye contact – I know a person who is very competent in her job. However, whenshe speaks to individuals or groups, she does so with her eyes shut. When she opens themperiodically, she stares off in a direction away from the listener. She is perceived asincompetent by those with whom she consults. One technique to help with this is toconsciously look into one of the listener’s eyes and then move to the other. Going back andforth between the two (and I hope they only have two) makes your eyes appear to sparkle.Another trick is to imagine a letter “T” on the listener’s face with the cross bar being animaginary line across the eye brows and the vertical line coming down the center of the nose.Keep your eyes scanning that “T” zone. Use gestures – Make your whole body talk. Use smaller gestures for individuals andsmall groups. The gestures should get larger as the group that one is addressing increases insize. Don’t send mixed messages – Make your words, gestures, facial expressions, tone, andmessage match. Disciplining an employee while smiling sends a mixed message and, therefore,is ineffective. If you have to deliver a negative message, make your words, facial expressions,and tone match the message. 35
  • 36. Improving English Speaking Skill • Practise where you can, when you can. Any practice is good – whether you speak to someone who is a native English speaker or not. • Its important to build your confidence. If possible, use simple English sentence structure that you know is correct, so that you can concentrate on getting your message across. • Try to experiment with the English you know. Use words and phrases you know in new situations. Native English speakers are more likely to correct you if you use the wrong word than if you use the wrong grammar. Experimenting with vocabulary is a really good way of getting feedback. • Try to respond to what people say to you. You can often get clues to what people think by looking at their body language. Respond to them in a natural way. • Try NOT to translate into and from your own language. This takes too much time and will make you more hesitant. • If you forget a word, do what native English speakers do all the time, and say things that fill the conversation. This is better than keeping completely silent. Try using um, or er, if you forget the word. • Dont speak too fast! Its important to use a natural rhythm when speaking English, but if you speak too fast it will be difficult for people to understand you. • Try to relax when you speak – youll find your mouth does most of the pronunciation work for you. When you speak English at normal speed, youll discover that many of the pronunciation skills, such as linking between words, will happen automatically.Remember, when speaking English…Try to become less hesitant and more confident.Dont be shy to speak – the more you do it, the more confident youll become.Remember to be polite – use "please" and "thank you" if you ask someone todo something for you. Improving Your Writing Skill Writing a letter (friendly or business letter) 1. The recipients name, address, contact information - in business letters, this can be referred to as the "inside address(Ms., Mrs., Mr., or Dr.) use Ms. or Dr. if you think it might apply. – The date 2. Start with a proper greeting. The most common opening is "Dear" followed by thepersons first name and a comma. For a more casual greeting, you can write "Hello (name)," or"Hey (name)," but if the letter is formal, use the recipients last name and a colon instead of a 36
  • 37. comma (e.g. "Dear Mr. Johnson:". Sometimes, if you dont know the recipients name, you canwrite "To Whom It May Concern:" If you dont know the persons gender, write out his or herfull name to avoid using “Mr.” or “Ms.” (e.g. Dear Taylor Johnson:). • Write an opening paragraph. Tailor your opening to the recipient. For example, if the letter is casual, you can begin with, "Hows it going?" Otherwise, asimple "How are you?" is fine. If it is a business letter, be direct about why you are writing theletter. Summarize your intentions and be sure to write clearly so that the reader willunderstand you. • Construct the body of the letter. This is the part that will really be unique to each letter. Most business letters should be no more than two pages long, but casual letters can be as long or as short as you want them to be. No matter who the recipient is, try not to ramble. Keep each paragraph engaging. • Use the closing paragraph to indicate the type of response you are seeking. If you would like a letter in return, you can write, "Please write when you have a chance" or, if you prefer a phone call/email, write "Call me soon." or "Email me some time". • Include a closing such as "Love always" ,"Cheers", "Sincerely", "Talk soon", or "Look forward to seeing you soon". Again, choose your closing based on the recipient and the level of formality. The closing can be aligned on the left or the right side of the page. In business letters, stick with "Regards," or "Respectfully," and sign your name underneath. Then print your name under the signature. Sample of a friendly letter 506 Country Lane North Baysville, CA 53286 July 16, 2011 Dear Susan, It feels like such a long time since the last time I saw you. I know its only been several weeks since I saw you. So far my summer has been great! I spend my all my weekends at the beach. I am getting a nice tan and you can no longer say I am paler than you. I have been playing lots of volleyball, surfing and building a nice collection of sea shells. Just this past weekend I took second place in a sandcastle building contest! On the weekdays I work. I drive an ice cream truck around and sell ice cream to the kids. It is so cool. It is a combination of the two things I love most, ice cream and kids. The pay isnt too great but I love the job so much. I hope the summers been going well for you too. Theres only a month and a half left in summer vacation and after that its back to school. Would you like to meet up some time to before school starts? 37
  • 38. Your friend, Ana Activity: Write a friendly letter to a friend. This is what you need to include in your letter: Last month you had a holiday overseas where you stayed with some friends. They just sent you some photos of your holiday. In your letter - thank them for the photos and for the holidays - Explain why you didn’t write earlier - Invite them to come and stay with you Ten Quick Tips to Improve Your Writing• Lead with your main idea. As a general rule, state the main idea of a paragraph in the first sentence-. Dont keep your readers guessing.• Vary the length of your sentences. In general, use short sentences to emphasize ideas. Use longer sentences to explain.• Put key words and ideas at the beginning or end of a sentence. Dont bury a main point in the middle of a long sentence.• Vary sentence types and structures. Vary sentence types by including occasional questions and commands. Vary sentence structures by blending simple compound, and complex sentences• Use active verbs. Dont overwork the passive voice or forms of the verb "to be" Instead, use active verbs in the active voice.• Use specific nouns and verbs. To convey your message clearly and keep your readers engaged, use concrete and specific words that show what you mean.• Cut the clutter. When revising your work, eliminate unnecessary words.• Read aloud when you revise. When revising, you may hear problems (of tone, emphasis, word choice, and syntax) that you cant see. So listen up!• Actively edit and proofread. Its easy to overlook errors when merely looking over your work. So be on the lookout for common trouble spots when studying your final draft.• Use a dictionary. When proofreading, dont trust your spellchecker it can tell you only if a word is a word, not if its the right word. 38
  • 39. How to Improve Reading Comprehension• Develop a broad background. Broaden your background knowledge by reading newspapers, magazines and books. Become interested in world events. Know the structure of paragraphs. Good writers construct paragraphs that have a beginning, middle and end. Often, the first sentence will give an overview that helps• Anticipate and predict. Really smart readers try to anticipate the author and predict future ideas and questions. Create motivation and interest. Preview material, ask questions, discuss ideas with classmates. The stronger your interest, the greater your comprehension.• Pay attention to supporting cues. Study pictures, graphs and headings. Read the first and last paragraph in a chapter, or the first sentence in each section.• Highlight, summarize and review. Just reading a book once is not enough. To develop a deeper understanding, you have to highlight, summarize and review important ideas.• Build a good vocabulary. For most educated people, this is a lifetime project. The best way to improve your vocabulary is to use a dictionary regularly. You might carry around a pocket dictionary and use it to look up new words. Or, you can keep a list of words to look up at the end of the day. Concentrate on roots, prefixes and endings. 39
  • 40. CHAPTER 4 SOCIAL ASPECT Manners, Etiquette & Politeness• Manners – Socially correct behavior Is based on kindness to and consideration for others, which results from the heart of courteous behavior. It is an indicator if a certain individual is civilized or not.• Etiquette – Conventional rules for correct behavior is a French word meaning “ticket”. A conventional rule of behavior.• Politeness – Good manner and tactful behavior. SMILE A smile can be read in any language It lights up a face and adds warmth to any meeting Smile is contagious 40
  • 41. How to Introduce People  Always introduce a young person to an older one. “Grandma, this is Wilson”, Wilson this is my grandma”  Always introduce a man to a woman. “ Sally, this is Joe” HAND SHAKE Men shake hands with each other when being introduced Men shake hands with a woman if she extend her hands Women shake hands with each other if they choose We always use a firm handshake Conversation - is an exchange of thoughts more than words.  It is a good idea to avoid controversial subjects.  It should be centered around ourselves  No one should monopolize a conversation  Learn to answer politely , don’t just say “yes or no”  Avoid subject of finances, weight, size, religion or anything that might be sensitive.  If someone asked a personal question, feel free to say “ I’d rather not talk about that”  Compliments not only uplift the person, they lift conversation…as long as they are 41 sincere.
  • 42. TELEPHONE MANNER Calling On the Phone Courtesy is as important in speaking over the phone as in talking to people face to face. Phone calls generally should not be made before 7:00 in the morning or after 9:30/10:00 at night. Try to avoid mealtimes. A person should always be certain of the number he is dialing to avoid disturbing someone unnecessarily. If you do reach a wrong number, it is important to say "Im sorry, I dialed the wrong number." before hanging up. After someone answers the phone, the caller should give his or her name before asking for the person desireThe person at the other end of the phone cannot see your facial expressions or gestures and theimpression he receives depends on what she hears. The telephone carries your voice at its naturalvolume and pitch. Try not to shout but speak clearly and distinctly.ANSWERING THE PHONE The correct way to answer a telephone is "Hello." "Yes" is abrupt and a bit harsh, but "This is theDoes house" is a bit vague and "Mrs. Doe speaking" is. . . . well, lets just put it this way, "Hello" is themost proper way to answer the telephone. When the telephone in the home is answered by someone other than the head of the houseand someone says, "May I speak to Mrs. Brown, please?" he or she should say, "Just a moment, please."If Mrs. Brown is unable to come to the phone, the correct reply is "Mrs. Brown cant come to the phonenow. May I have your name, and she will call you back as soon as possible?" If you must put the telephone down during the conversation, do it gently, and when you hangup, do it gently. DO NOT SLAM THE RECEIVER DOWN. The person at the other end may still have thephone close to his ear, and then a sudden sharp bang can be hurtful as well as rude.Common Telephone Courtesy Hints (1) Make sure of the correct number so as not to risk disturbing strangers. (2) Make sure that your conversations with busy people are as brief as possible. (3) When calling friends who do not recognize your voice, announce yourself right away. (4) Time your calls so as not to interfere with the work schedule of those you call. (5) Make business calls well before the close of the office hours. (6) After dialing a wrong number simply say, "Sorry, wrong number." 42
  • 43. (7) When the number you are calling is not answered quickly, wait long enough for someone to put aside what he or she is doing. It is very annoying to have been disturbed just to pick up the telephone and find the caller has hung up. Dining Etiquette Table manners play an important part in making a favorable impression. They are visible signals of the state of our manners and therefore are essential to professional success. The point of etiquette rules is to make you feel comfortable - not uncomfortable. Making Restaurant Reservations: Restaurant reservations are like any other appointment. If you make a reservation, stick to it. Callahead if you’re going to be more than 15 minutes late, and cancel as far in advance as possible if your planschange so that someone else can get a table. Some restaurants take credit card numbers to holdreservations and charge no-show fees. How to use napkins: In a restaurant: As soon as you are seated, remove the napkin from your place setting, unfold it, andput it in your lap. Do not shake it open. At some very formal restaurants, the waiter may do this for thediners, but it is not inappropriate to place your own napkin in your lap, even when this is the case. The napkin rests on the lap till the end of the meal. Dont clean the cutlery or wipe your face withthe napkin. NEVER use it to wipe your nose! If you excuse yourself from the table, loosely fold the napkin and place it to the left or right of yourplate. Do not refold your napkin or wad it up on the table either. Never place your napkin on your chair. At the end of the meal, leave the napkin semi-folded at the left side of the place setting. It shouldnot be crumpled or twisted; nor should it be folded. The napkin must also not be left on the chair. At a private dinner party: The meal begins when the host or hostess unfolds his or her napkin. This is your signal to do the same. Place your napkin on your lap, completely unfolded if it is a small luncheon napkin or in half, lengthwise, if it is a large dinner napkin. Do not shake it open. The napkin rests on the lap till the end of the meal. The host will signal the end of the meal by placing his or her napkin on the table. Once the meal is over, you too should place your napkin neatly on the table to the left of your dinner plate. (Do not refold your napkin, but dont wad it up, either. 43
  • 44. When to start eating: In a restaurant:Wait until all are served at your table before beginning to eat.At a private dinner party:When your host or hostess picks up their fork to eat, then you may eat. Do not start before this unlessthe host or hostess insists that you start eating. How to Use the Silverware & Dinnerware Eat to your left, drink to your right. Any food dish to the left is yours, and any glass to the right is yours. Starting with the knife, fork, or spoon that is farthest from your plate, work your way in, using one utensil for each course. The salad fork is on your outermost left, followed by your dinner fork. Your soup spoon is on your outermost right, followed by your beverage spoon, salad knife and dinner knife. Your dessert spoon and fork are above your plate or brought out with dessert. If you remember the rule to work from the outside in, youll be fine.American Style: Knife in right hand, fork in left hand holding food. After a few bite-sized pieces of foodare cut, place knife on edge of plate with blades facing in. Eat food by switching fork to right hand(unless you are left handed). A left hand, arm or elbow on the table is bad manners.Continental/European Style: Knife in right hand, fork in left hand. Eat food with fork still in left hand.The difference is that you dont switch hands-you eat with your fork in your left hand, with the prongscurving downward. Both utensils are kept in your hands with the tines pointed down throughout theentire eating process. If you take a drink, you do not just put your knife down, you put both utensilsdown into the resting position: cross the fork over the knife. Once used, your utensils, including the handles, must not touch the table again. Always rest forks,knives, and spoons on the side of your plate. For more formal dinners, from course to course, your tableware will be taken away and replacedas needed. To signal that your are done with the course, rest your fork, tines up, and knife blade in, with thehandles resting at five oclock an tips pointing to ten oclock on your plate. 44
  • 45. CHAPTER 5 CUSTOMER MANAGEMENT A customer is.... The most important person to come into my organization **** Whether in person, on the phone or by e-mail or mail **** Someone with whom I will learn patience, although he is not always patient with me *** Someone who is sometimes a challenge I embrace the challenge and I am glad When I turn a frown into a smileA Customer Could Be Upset Because... - She has expectations that have not been met. - He was already upset at someone or something else (his boss, his spouse, his kids, a co-worker, other business). - Shes tired, stressed, or frustrated. - He feels like a victim-not much power in his life in general. - She feels that no one will listen to her unless she yells and makes a ruckus. - He will use any excuse to prove he is right, whether he is or not. - She walks around with a chip on her shoulder-nothing is right in her life. - You or someone in your organization promised him something that was not delivered - You or someone in your organization was indifferent, rude, or discourteous to her. - He was told one thing by one staff member and something else by another. - She acted on something told her by a staff member and it was wrong. - He feels you or someone else in your organization had an unpleasant attitude toward him. - She doesnt feel she was listened to. - Prejudices-he may not like your hair, clothes, makeup, etc. - She feels she can manipulate you to get what she wants if she makes a lot of noise. - Hes suspicious of your organization and thinks your organization or you are dishonest. - She made a wrong assumption about what your organization would do for her. - He was told he has no right to be angry. - She was given a smart or flip reply. - He is embarrassed at doing something incorrectly. - Her integrity or honesty has been questioned. - You or someone in your organization argued with him. - You dont have enough job training to handle their situation quickly and accurately. 45
  • 46. - Upset people have little patience. Annoyances that a person usually tolerates become intolerable when that individual is upset. You cant control another persons behavior. But you can change your behavior to avoid causing annoyance. UPSET CUSTOMERS DO NOT COME BACK • 20% caused by employee actions • 40% is caused by corporate products • 40% are caused by customer mistakes or incorrect expectations16 TIPS ON CALMING UPSET CUSTOMERS 1. Dont take upset customers ravings personally. Dont get emotionally hooked. 2. Make it a game or challenge to see how many upset customers you can turn around. See if you can get him to be reasonable. 3. Look for the "gifts" upset customers offer you. These gifts are what they can teach you about dealing with ugly human behaviour. 4. Understand that obnoxious customers are often embarrassed because they made a mistake and want to blame it on you. 5. . Respond by being reasonable, firm, pleasant, mature, and professional to show them that youre going to do what you think is right no matter how obnoxious they get. 6. Dont give away the store to shut her up. 7. Remind yourself that this abusive person must really have problems if this is how he treats others. He doesnt respect himself so he doesnt show respect for others 8. Listen fully--dont interrupt. If you do, it will escalate her anger. Take notes; looking up often to maintain eye contact. 9. Have a respectful tone, even though you dont respect his behaviour. Have a calm but concerned voice tone. 10. Remove the upset customer from the main customer area, if possible. 11.Let him cool off when on the phone by saying that you need to research the situation and possible solutions, and ask if you may call him back. Then do so at the appointed time. He probably will have calmed down by the time you call him back. 12. Talk about what you can do, not what you cant do. Put it positively. Dont talk about the "policy." This will anger her more. 13. Use the "broken record" technique, firmly, yet politely, repeating what you can do for him. 14. Ignore her impoliteness and cursing. 15. An important concept to remember is that you wont please all people. You should do the best you can 16. Upset customers can be unnerving. But with the right attitude and techniques, many of these people can be turned into satisfied, loyal customers. Its not always easy, but its worth it. 46
  • 47. CHAPTER 6 5 ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY It is important to be aware that the personality tests used in the recruitment and selection process are theintellectual property of the companies that produce them. As a result, they may use different terminology to describe theaspects of personality that they set out to measure. This usually for reasons of copyright and to differentiate themselves in amarket in which there are a large number of products that do more or less the same thing in more or less the same way.The personality traits used in the 5 factor model are Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism andExtraversionExtraversion is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. Extraverts enjoy being with people, are full ofenergy, and often experience positive emotions. They tend to be enthusiastic, action-oriented, individuals who are likely tosay "Yes!" or "Lets go!" to opportunities for excitement. In groups they like to talk, assert themselves, and draw attention tothemselves.Introverts lack the exuberance, energy, and activity levels of extraverts. They tend to be quiet, low-key, deliberate, anddisengaged from the social world. Their lack of social involvement should not be interpreted as shyness or depression; theintrovert simply needs less stimulation than an extravert and prefers to be alone. The independence and reserve of theintrovert is sometimes mistaken as unfriendliness or arrogance. In reality, an introvert who scores high on the agreeablenessdimension will not seek others out but will be quite pleasant when approached.AgreeablenessAgreeableness reflects individual differences in concern with cooperation and social harmony. Agreeable individuals valuegetting along with others. They are therefore considerate, friendly, generous, helpful, and willing to compromise theirinterests with others. Agreeable people also have an optimistic view of human nature. They believe people are basicallyhonest, decent, and trustworthy.Disagreeable individuals place self-interest above getting along with others. They are generally unconcerned with otherswell-being, and therefore are unlikely to extend themselves for other people. Sometimes their skepticism about othersmotives causes them to be suspicious, unfriendly, and uncooperative.Agreeableness is obviously advantageous for attaining and maintaining popularity. Agreeable people are better liked thandisagreeable people. On the other hand, agreeableness is not useful in situations that require tough or absolute objectivedecisions. Disagreeable people can make excellent scientists, critics, or soldiers.ConscientiousnessConscientiousness concerns the way in which we control, regulate, and direct our impulses. Impulses are not inherently bad;occasionally time constraints require a snap decision, and acting on our first impulse can be an effective response. Also, intimes of play rather than work, acting spontaneously and impulsively can be fun. Impulsive individuals can be seen by othersas colorful, fun-to-be-with, and zany.Impulsive behavior, even when not seriously destructive, diminishes a persons effectiveness in significant ways. Actingimpulsively disallows contemplating alternative courses of action, some of which would have been wiser than the impulsivechoice. Impulsivity also sidetracks people during projects that require organized sequences of steps or stages.Accomplishments of an impulsive person are therefore small, scattered, and inconsistent.A hallmark of intelligence, what potentially separates human beings from earlier life forms, is the ability to think about futureconsequences before acting on an impulse. Intelligent activity involves contemplation of long-range goals, organizing andplanning routes to these goals, and persisting toward ones goals in the face of short-lived impulses to the contrary. The ideathat intelligence involves impulse control is nicely captured by the term prudence, an alternative label for theConscientiousness domain. Prudent means both wise and cautious. Persons who score high on the Conscientiousnessscale are, in fact, perceived by others as intelligent.NeuroticismThose who score high on Neuroticism may experience primarily one specific negative feeling such as anxiety, anger, ordepression, but are likely to experience several of these emotions. People high in neuroticism are emotionally reactive. Theyrespond emotionally to events that would not affect most people, and their reactions tend to be more intense than normal.They are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening, and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. Theirnegative emotional reactions tend to persist for unusually long periods of time, which means they are often in a bad mood. 47
  • 48. At the other end of the scale, individuals who score low in neuroticism are less easily upset and are less emotionallyreactive. They tend to be calm, emotionally stable, and free from persistent negative feelings. Freedom from negativefeelings does not mean that low scorers experience a lot of positive feelings; frequency of positive emotions is a componentof the Extraversion domain.Openness to experience.Openness to Experience describes a dimension of cognitive style that distinguishes imaginative, creative people from down-to-earth, conventional people. Open people are intellectually curious, appreciative of art, and sensitive to beauty. They tendto be, compared to closed people, more aware of their feelings. They tend to think and act in individualistic andnonconforming ways. Intellectuals typically score high on Openness to Experience; consequently, this factor has also beencalled Culture or Intellect. Nonetheless, Intellect is probably best regarded as one aspect of openness to experience. Scoreson Openness to Experience are only modestly related to years of education and scores on standard intelligent tests.Another characteristic of the open cognitive style is a facility for thinking in symbols and abstractions far removed fromconcrete experience. Depending on the individuals specific intellectual abilities, this symbolic cognition may take the form ofmathematical, logical, or geometric thinking, artistic and metaphorical use of language, music composition or performance,or one of the many visual or performing arts. People with low scores on openness to experience tend to have narrow,common interests. They prefer the plain, straightforward, and obvious over the complex, ambiguous, and subtle. They mayregard the arts and sciences with suspicion, regarding these endeavors as abstruse or of no practical use. Closed peopleprefer familiarity over novelty; they are conservative and resistant to change.Openness is often presented as healthier or more mature by psychologists, who are often themselves open to experience.However, open and closed styles of thinking are useful in different environments. The intellectual style of the open personmay serve a professor well, but research has shown that closed thinking is related to superior job performance in policework, sales, and a number of service occupations. Personality Trait Facets Extraversion Friendliness Gregariousness Assertiveness Activity Level Excitement-Seeking Cheerfulness Agreeableness Trust Morality Altruism Cooperation Modesty Sympathy Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy Orderliness Dutifulness Achievement-Striving Self-Discipline Cautiousness Neuroticism Anxiety Anger Depression Self-Consciousness Immoderation Vulnerability Openness to experience Imagination Artistic Interests Emotionality Adventurousness Intellect Liberalism 48
  • 49. Extraversion Facets Friendliness. Friendly people genuinely like other people and openly demonstrate positive feelings toward others. They make friends quickly and it is easy for them to form close, intimate relationships. Low scorers on Friendliness are not necessarily cold and hostile, but they do not reach out to others and are perceived as distant and reserved. Gregariousness. Gregarious people find the company of others pleasantly stimulating and rewarding. They enjoy the excitement of crowds. Low scorers tend to feel overwhelmed by, and therefore actively avoid, large crowds. They do not necessarily dislike being with people sometimes, but their need for privacy and time to themselves is much greater than for individuals who score high on this scale. Assertiveness. High scorers Assertiveness like to speak out, take charge, and direct the activities of others. They tend to be leaders in groups. Low scorers tend not to talk much and let others control the activities of groups. Activity Level. Active individuals lead fast-paced, busy lives. They move about quickly, energetically, and vigorously, and they are involved in many activities. People who score low on this scale follow a slower and more leisurely, relaxed pace. Excitement-Seeking. High scorers on this scale are easily bored without high levels of stimulation. They love bright lights and hustle and bustle. They are likely to take risks and seek thrills. Low scorers are overwhelmed by noise and commotion and are adverse to thrill-seeking. Cheerfulness. This scale measures positive mood and feelings, not negative emotions (which are a part of the Neuroticism domain). Persons who score high on this scale typically experience a range of positive feelings, including happiness, enthusiasm, optimism, and joy. Low scorers are not as prone to such energetic, high spirits.Agreeableness Facets Trust. A person with high trust assumes that most people are fair, honest, and have good intentions. Persons low in trust may see others as selfish, devious, and potentially dangerous. Morality. High scorers on this scale see no need for pretence or manipulation when dealing with others and are therefore candid, frank, and sincere. Low scorers believe that a certain amount of deception in social relationships is necessary. People find it relatively easy to relate to the straightforward high-scorers on this scale. They generally find it more difficult to relate to the low-scorers on this scale. It should be made clear that low scorers are not unprincipled or immoral; they are simply more guarded and less willing to openly reveal the whole truth. Altruism. Altruistic people find helping other people genuinely rewarding. Consequently, they are generally willing to assist those who are in need. Altruistic people find that doing things for others is a form of self-fulfilment rather than self-sacrifice. Low scorers on this scale do not particularly like helping those in need. Requests for help feel like an imposition rather than an opportunity for self-fulfilment. Cooperation. Individuals who score high on this scale dislike confrontations. They are perfectly willing to compromise or to deny their own needs in order to get along with others. Those who score low on this scale are more likely to intimidate others to get their way. Modesty. High scorers on this scale do not like to claim that they are better than other people. In some cases this attitude may derive from low self-confidence or self-esteem. Nonetheless, some people with high self-esteem find immodesty unseemly. Those who are willing to describe themselves as superior tend to be seen as disagreeably arrogant by other people. Sympathy. People who score high on this scale are tender-hearted and compassionate. They feel the pain of others vicariously and are easily moved to pity. Low scorers are not affected strongly by human suffering. They pride themselves on making objective judgments based on reason. They are more concerned with truth and impartial justice than with mercy.Conscientiousness Facets Self-Efficacy. Self-Efficacy describes confidence in ones ability to accomplish things. High scorers believe they have the intelligence (common sense), drive, and self-control necessary for achieving success. Low scorers do not feel effective, and may have a sense that they are not in control of their lives. Orderliness. Persons with high scores on orderliness are well-organized. They like to live according to routines and schedules. They keep lists and make plans. Low scorers tend to be disorganized and scattered. Dutifulness. This scale reflects the strength of a persons sense of duty and obligation. Those who score high on this scale have a strong sense of moral obligation. Low scorers find contracts, rules, and regulations overly confining. They are likely to be seen as unreliable or even irresponsible. Achievement-Striving. Individuals who score high on this scale strive hard to achieve excellence. Their drive to be recognized as successful keeps them on track toward their lofty goals. They often have a strong sense of direction in life, but extremely high scores may be too single-minded and obsessed with their work. Low scorers are content to get by with a minimal amount of work, and might be seen by others as lazy. 49
  • 50.  Self-Discipline. Self-discipline-what many people call will-power-refers to the ability to persist at difficult or unpleasant tasks until they are completed. People who possess high self-discipline are able to overcome reluctance to begin tasks and stay on track despite distractions. Those with low self-discipline procrastinate and show poor follow- through, often failing to complete tasks-even tasks they want very much to complete. Cautiousness. Cautiousness describes the disposition to think through possibilities before acting. High scorers on the Cautiousness scale take their time when making decisions. Low scorers often say or do first thing that comes to mind without deliberating alternatives and the probable consequences of those alternatives.Neuroticism Facets Anxiety. The "fight-or-flight" system of the brain of anxious individuals is too easily and too often engaged. Therefore, people who are high in anxiety often feel like something dangerous is about to happen. They may be afraid of specific situations or be just generally fearful. They feel tense, jittery, and nervous. Persons low in Anxiety are generally calm and fearless. Anger. Persons who score high in Anger feel enraged when things do not go their way. They are sensitive about being treated fairly and feel resentful and bitter when they feel they are being cheated. This scale measures the tendency to feel angry; whether or not the person expresses annoyance and hostility depends on the individuals level on Agreeableness. Low scorers do not get angry often or easily. Depression. This scale measures the tendency to feel sad, dejected, and discouraged. High scorers lack energy and have difficult initiating activities. Low scorers tend to be free from these depressive feelings. Self-Consciousness. Self-conscious individuals are sensitive about what others think of them. Their concern about rejection and ridicule cause them to feel shy and uncomfortable abound others. They are easily embarrassed and often feel ashamed. Their fears that others will criticize or make fun of them are exaggerated and unrealistic, but their awkwardness and discomfort may make these fears a self-fulfilling prophecy. Low scorers, in contrast, do not suffer from the mistaken impression that everyone is watching and judging them. They do not feel nervous in social situations. Immoderation. Immoderate individuals feel strong cravings and urges that they have difficulty resisting. They tend to be oriented toward short-term pleasures and rewards rather than long- term consequences. Low scorers do not experience strong, irresistible cravings and consequently do not find themselves tempted to overindulge. Vulnerability. High scorers on Vulnerability experience panic, confusion, and helplessness when under pressure or stress. Low scorers feel more poised, confident, and clear-thinking when stressed.Openness Facets Imagination. To imaginative individuals, the real world is often too plain and ordinary. High scorers on this scale use fantasy as a way of creating a richer, more interesting world. Low scorers are on this scale are more oriented to facts than fantasy. Artistic Interests. High scorers on this scale love beauty, both in art and in nature. They become easily involved and absorbed in artistic and natural events. They are not necessarily artistically trained or talented, although many will be. The defining features of this scale are interest in, and appreciation of natural and artificial beauty. Low scorers lack aesthetic sensitivity and interest in the arts. Emotionality. Persons high on Emotionality have good access to and awareness of their own feelings. Low scorers are less aware of their feelings and tend not to express their emotions openly. Adventurousness. High scorers on adventurousness are eager to try new activities, travel to foreign lands, and experience different things. They find familiarity and routine boring, and will take a new route home just because it is different. Low scorers tend to feel uncomfortable with change and prefer familiar routines. Intellect. Intellect and artistic interests are the two most important, central aspects of openness to experience. High scorers on Intellect love to play with ideas. They are open-minded to new and unusual ideas, and like to debate intellectual issues. They enjoy riddles, puzzles, and brain teasers. Low scorers on Intellect prefer dealing with people or things rather than ideas. They regard intellectual exercises as a waste of time. Intellect should not be equated with intelligence. Intellect is an intellectual style, not an intellectual ability, although high scorers on Intellect score slightly higher than low-Intellect individuals on standardized intelligence tests. 50
  • 51. Personality development is the over-all shine that is brought about in a person’spersonality after undergoing personality development. The over-all demeanor of a person ismore vibrant, it develops elements of many traits, that form a charming whole and there is asharpening of personality for the better. The confidence and morale that automatically gets aboost and a push with good personality development. The opportunity to be able to form ahealthy rapport with anybody of any age bracket. Having a personality developmentexperience, like the ability to hold your own, the ability to curb temperamentalism and be anout-going and well-spoke or rather, well communicative individual. Overall, the person gets a wonderful edge and a razor-sharp yet approachable as well as a warm outlook to life and people. 51
  • 52. OUR LADY OF FATIMA UNIVERSITY ANTIPOLO CAMPUS COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY & INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENTCourse Code : PD1Course Title : Personality Development 1Credit Units : 3 unitsNominal Duration: 54 hrs. (3 hrs./week)Course Description : This course covers and focus on the principles that govern the individual’s total personal packaging termed “personality”. It also provides guidance in the preparation for career life and his outside environment.Course Outline:Preliminary Coverage: Week 1 : Orientation Week 2 : Chapter 1 Personality and Its Components Meaning of Personality Components of Personality Personality Differences Techniques in Improving Personality Requirements towards the development of a fine personality Developing a Positive Attitude Qualities of a Successful Person Self Esteem Week 3 : Chapter 2 The Physical Aspect of Personality Factors Informing Impression Basic Wardrobe Color Spectrum & Combination of Colors Color Meaning Types of Attire Week 4 : Hair Style Hair Care Tips Make Up Week 5 : Good Posture Healthy Eating Habits Week 6 : Preliminary Examination 52
  • 53. Midterm CoverageWeek 7-8 : Intellectual Aspect of Personality Techniques in Gaining Intellectual Growth Aspects in Communication Process Improving Communication Skill Improving English Communication Skill Improving Writing Skill Improving Reading ComprehensionWeek 9-10 : Social Aspect of Personality Manners, Etiquette, Politeness Smile Introducing People Handshake Telephone Manner Conversation Restaurant & Dining EtiquetteWeek 11 Midterm ExaminationFinal Coverage Customer Relation & ManagementWeek 12-13 Reasons Why Customers Get Upset Calming Upset Customers 5 Aspects of PersonalityWeek 14-15 Seminars & Activities 53

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