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Classification of Hotels According to Quality RankingOne Star Hotels Small and independently owned, with a family atmosphere.Limited range of facilities and meals. Lunch, for example, may not be served.May not have en suite bath/shower rooms. Maintenance, cleanliness and of an acceptable standard.
Two Star Hotels Small to medium sizedWiih an en-suite bath/shower room.Reception and other staffIncludes food and drinksFacilities include TV. And telephone
3 star hotelsGreater quality and range of facilities than at the lower star classifications.Reception and the other public rooms will be more spacious Restaurant will normally also cater for non- residents.With fully en suite bath and shower roomshair dryer, direct dial telephone, toiletries in the bathroom.
4 star hotels Degree of luxury as well as quality in the furnishings, decor and equipmentBedrooms are more spacious ,coordinated furnishings and decor.The en-suite bathrooms 24-hour room service, laundry and dry-cleaning.The restaurant has serious approach to its cuisine.
5 star hotels Spacious and luxurious accommodation ,best international standards. Interior design shows comfort and elegance. Services should be formal. Staff will be knowledgeable, helpful, well versed in all aspects of customer care, combining efficiency with courtesy.
Classification of Hotels Location Service City center hotels Casino Resort hotels Convention Airport hotels Freeway hotels
Classification of Hotels According to Sizea. Small hotels : up too 100 roomsb. Medium hotels : 100 – 200 roomsc. Medium – Large : 200-500 roomsd. Large hotels : over 500 rooms
Main Functions of Rooms Division1. Financial responsibility of the dept.2. Employee satisfaction3. Guest satisfaction4. Guest service5. Guest relations6. Security7. Gift shop
Department of Rooms Division1. Front Office2. Reservation3. Housekeeping4. Concierge5. Guest services6. Bell services7. Valet
The Guest Cycle
The Front Office
Duties of Front Office • Receive reservations for accommodation from clients, either in person or by telephone, fax or email • Take guests details and allocate their rooms • Talk to transport carriers (e.g. airlines, bus companies, rental car agencies) to make travel arrangements for guests and to find lost luggage
provide tourist information to guests make reservations for sightseeing tours, restaurants, the cinema and live entertainment deal with enquiries and requests from guests take messages for guests calculate guests bills and issue receipts upon payment arrange accommodation for guests travelling to other destinations perform cashier duties, cash travellers cheques and exchange foreign currency
place guests possessions in a safe if requested coordinate the cleaning of guests personal laundry, shoe shining and room service deliveries follow in-house procedures to help ensure the security of guests and employees perform general secretarial duties, such as preparing correspondence and attending to a switch board. In a small or medium-sized hotel, all of the above duties may be carried out by one person.
Night Auditor Closes the books on a daily basis Posts charges Balances guest accounts Completes daily report
Room Occupancy PercentageROP = Rooms Occupied Rooms AvailableExample : If the hotel has 850 rooms and 622 are occupiedROP = 622 = 73% 850
Activity Your hotel has 275 rooms. Last night 198 were occupied. What was the occupancy percentage
Average Daily Rate:Ave. Daily Rate = Rooms Revenue Rooms SoldIf rooms revenue is 75,884Total no. Of rooms 622ADR = 75,884 = 114.63 662
Sources of Reservations1. Telephone (fax, letter, cable)2. Corporate3. Travel Agents4. Internet5. Meeting planners6. Tour operators7. Referral from another company8. Airport representatives9. Walk in
Types of Reservation1. Confirmed reservation – reservation made with sufficient time for a confirmation slip to be returned by a client by mail or fax.2. Guaranteed reservation – client pays for the first night prior to his/her arrival.3. Regular reservation / Non-guaranteed – not paid in advance and the room is held until a specified time on the date of arrival.
Telephone Exchange (PABX) In house communications Guest communications (pagers & radios) Voice mail Faxes Messages Emergency center
GUEST SERVICES/UNIFORMED SERVICES DOORMAN Greet guests Assist in opening/closing automobile doors Remove luggage from trunk Hailing taxis Keeping hotel entrance clear of vehicles
BELLMAN Handles guest’s luggage Escort guest to their room Provide information on hotel amenities and services
Activity: Go to a hotel’s website (at least 3 hotels )and find the price of booking a room for a date of your choice. Compare their prices. Your hotel has 275 rooms. Last night 198 were occupied. What was the occupancy percentage
FOOD & BEVERAGE OPERATION
Departments of Food & Beverage
Skills need by a Food & Bev.Director Exceeding guests’ expectations in food and beverage offerings and services Leadership Identifying trends Finding and keeping outstanding employees Training Motivation Budgeting Cost control Finding profit from all outlets Having a detailed working knowledge of the FOH operations
F&B Organization Chart
Kitchen EXECUTIVE CHEF A hotel kitchen is under the charge of the executive chef, he is in charge for the efficient and effective operations of the kitchen food production.
Controlling costFood cost is the actual peso value of thefood used by an operation during a certainperiod. It includes the expense incurred whenfood is consumed for any reason. Food costincludes the cost of food sold, given away,wasted or even stolen.
Calculating Food Cost and Food CostPercentage1. Book MethodGross Food Cost = (Cost of direct issues + storeroom issues)Net food Cost = (Gross Food cost – credits to food cost)Food Cost Percentage = (Net Food Cost ÷ *Net Food Sales) x 100*Net Food Sales = (Gross sales – Tax – Service Charge)
Where in: Cost of direct issues- cost of goods that were delivered within the day or within the costing period and endorsed directly to the kitchen right after the receiving transaction. This data can be taken from the receiving summary of the receiving clerk. Cost of store issues- refer to the cost of goods that were stored in the storeroom and later issued to the kitchen out of their requisitions. The data can also be gathered from the records of requisition and issuance. Gross food cost- the total cost of all direct issues and store issues.
Credits- refer to consumption that were taken from the goods purchased but did not generate sales. For example, food eaten by officers as part of officers’ meal or food served to employees as part of their meal privilege. Net food cost- cost of goods after the credits are deducted from the gross food cost Net food sales- is the net income derived by deducting allowable taxes and service charge from the gross sales Food cost percentage- is the ratio of net food cost over net food sales.
Labor CostLabor Cost Percentage = Labor Cost Food SalesExample :Food sale is 1,000 and the labor cost is 2.50Labor Cost % = 2.50 = 25% 1,000
Controlling Labor Cost Cross-Train Your Staff Conduct Frequent Staff Audits and Reviews
Bars Cycle of beverages:
Duties of a Bar Manager Supervising the ordering process and storage of wine Preparing a wine list Overseeing a staff Maintaining cost control Assisting guest with their wine selections Proper service of wine Knowledge of beers and liquors
Kinds of Bar Lobby bar
Catering & Banquet Bar
Night Club Bar
Bar efficiency is measure by the pour/cost percentage. Food and Bev. Director expect a pour cost control of between 16-24 percent. Operations with lower pour cost control have more efficient control system.
Portion Size Control- Portion size control is the standardization of beverages in order to control both quantity of liquor and quality of the drink. It is vital to create a method for pouring exact portions because you are often dealing with numerous bartenders and possibly high turnover. The point here is consistency. Meeting customer expectation may even be more important for good profit than setting your drink prices correctly. Another advantage of consistency is accurate control of the amount of liquor poured. If you control the quantity of liquor, you also control costs. In this way, you can maintain your cost-to- sales-ratio and protect your profit. to achieve all of this, standardize three elements of each drink: size, recipe and
Another advantage of consistency is accurate control of the amount of liquor poured. If you control the quantity of liquor, you also control costs. In this way, you can maintain your cost-to-sales-ratio and protect your profit. to achieve all of this, standardize three elements of each drink: size, recipe and glass.
Beverage Cost ControlPour cost percentage – is obtained by dividing the cost of depleted inventory by sales over a period of time.Portion Size Control- is the standardization of beverages in order to control both quantity of liquor and quality of the drink.
3 Common Methods of Measuring liquor Automated pouring device- using an automated pouring device, the major ingredients are measured and dispensed through a handgun or specialized pourer. These shut-off at pre-established amounts per drink. Using jigger- the bar staff pours drinks using an established jigger size and to fill them only to the line on the jigger. Free-pour- this is a subjective form of measurement that involves turning the bottle, with a pourer in place, and pouring upside down at full force. The bartender counts in his head to pour an ounce.
Other beverage controls Monitoring the stock of each beverage item at all times using a bin card. A typical bin card shows the brand name, bottle size, quantity on hand, and bin or inventory code, number. The minimum or maximum stock levels may also be recorded on the cards, as this information makes it easier to determine purchasing needs. The card is then affixed to appropriate shelf. Bin cards note each entry and exit of a product. They are also very useful in a perpetual inventory system.
Common Problems: Pilferages Over charging Under pour Over pour
Serve Safe Alcohol If a guest becomes intoxicated and is still served alcohol or a minor is served alcohol and is involve in a accident, then the server of the beverage, the bar person, and the manager may be liable for the injuries sustained by the person who was harmed
Stewarding Dept. Functions of the Chief Steward: - Cleanliness of the back of the house. - Maintaining clean glass wares, china and cutlery - Maintaining strict inventory control and monthly stock check. - Maintenance of dishwashing machines. - Inventory of chemical stock - Sanitation of kitchen, banquet aisles storerooms, walk-in freezers, and all equipment - Forcasting labor and cleaning supplies
Catering Department Catering includes a variety of occasions when people may eat at varying times, it has a broader scope than banquet. Banquets refers to the group of people who eat at one time and in one place
2 Divisions of Catering On-premise – the event is catered in the hotel Off-premise - the event is catered away from the hotel
Duties of Catering Director Sell conventions, banquets and functions Lead a team of employees. Set individual and department sales and cost budgets Set service standards Ensure the catering department is properly maintained. Be extremely creative and knowledgeable about food and wine service
Duties of Catering Coordinator He handles and control the “bible” or function diary . He/she must see that the contracts are correctly prepared and checked
Catering Services Manager Responsible the service of all functions Supervising the catering house persons in setting up the room. Cooperations with the banquet chef to check menus and service arrangements. Check the cleint’s satisifaction on room set-up, food and beverage service. Making out client bills immediately after the function. Calculating and distributing the gratuity and service charge for the service personnel.
Client list of Catering Trade show Fraternal market Exhibitions Various companies Groups Association Military Education Religious groups
Most Frequent Catering Events Meetings Conventions Dinners Luncheons Weddings
Room Set Ups
Typical Room Set-ups Theater Style Rows of chairs are placeswith a center group of chairof chairs and two aisle
Classroom StyleTables usually slim (18 inch ones).Usually takes about three times as much space as theater style and takes more time and labor to set up and break down
Horsehoe Style Frequently used when interaction is sought among the delegates such as training sessions and workshops.
Dinner Style Generally catered at round tables of eight or ten persons for large parties.
Catering Event Order Known as “banquet event order” Is prepared/completed for each functions to inform not only the client and the hotel personnel about essential information
Room Service/In Room Dining
Trends in Lodging Food & BevOperations The use of branded restaurants instead of hotel operating their own restaurants. More casual restaurants and beverage Theme restaurants Beverage outlets are converted into a sports themed bar. Uses of the latest technology More low fat-low carb menu items
Assignment Visit a hotel restaurant in your area. Make a note of how busy the establishment is. Does it satisfied with the appropriate number of employees Contact a bar manager in your area. Discuss with him/her how to monitor pilferage and overpouring