HRMPS 13 - Chapter 2


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  • In the hotel context, the word ‘accommodation’ means a place to stay, and especially a place in which to sleep, that is, a “lodging place”. In addition to a room in which to sleep, furniture - and particularly a bed - will be provided, as will wash/bathing facilities and toilet facilities. Some hotels provide accommodation for long-staying guests, sometimes called “permanent residents”. But the majority of hotels provide accommodation for relatively short-staying and temporary residents, and a very large proportion of such people are ‘travellers’. By “travellers” we mean those who are away from their “homes” - the places where they normally reside. With the exception of commercial travellers and others whose occupations require them to be constantly “on the move”, most people live the greater part of the year at home. In the course of their daily lives most people leave their homes quite often for one reason or another: to go shopping, to go to work, to attend educational and/or training classes, to visit friends and relations, to engage in sporting activities or for recreation, and so on; the reasons can be many and varied. But, in general, they return to their homes at night. However, more and more people are spending part of the year “ away from home” - on business, on holidays/vacations, or for other reasons - and many of them stay in hotels whilst they are away from home. Many travellers require more from hotels than accommodation alone; they have other needs or wants to be provided for. We therefore see that the primary function of hotels is: To provide accommodation for those away from home, and to supply such people with at least their basic needs
  • People might become involved in or with the hotel industry for many different reasons, and in different ways. Some people might secure employment in a hotel, perhaps starting in a fairly junior position and gradually gaining promotion as practical experience is gained and as theoretical knowledge is acquired from on-the-job training and/or the study of a Program such as this one; eventually managerial positions might be reached. Other people might decide - as individuals or as groups (e.g. in partnerships) - to start, or to take over the running of, a small hotel; commonly this is done by a husband and wife “team”, frequently one or both of the "partners" having had some prior hotel experience. Whether a person is working - or plans to work - in a hotel as its owner- manager, as part of a team or partnership, or as a “paid manager” (and these roles can vary at different stages in one’s career) it is essential that he or she never forgets that a hotel is a business. In effect, he or she is involved in business management; and the aim of any business is to produce rewards or “returns” for its owner(s) in the form of profits. And in order to secure such gains, the resources of a hotel - its buildings, equipment and staff, must all be wisely used, and every effort must be made to satisfy guests: the ‘paying customers’ of a hotel business. The foregoing apply whether a particular hotel is small or very large. Of course there are many variations, but the basic principles remain the same. In a small hotel its manager might, of necessity, perform a variety of jobs; a larger hotel will be “departmentalised” so that most of its managerial staff perform specialised work, whilst its general manager may be remote from the actual day to day running of the business. Despite those differences, their common aims MUST be: 􀀯 to satisfy their guests, and 􀀯 to run profitable businesses, and the second cannot be achieved unless the first is regularly achieved. 􀀯 Satisfied guests of a hotel might: (a) return to that hotel for further stays, and/or (b) recommend that hotel to other potential guests. In either case the income or revenue of the hotel will increase, and that in turn is likely to increase its profitability as a business. 􀀯 Dissatisfied guests of a hotel might: (a) decline to return to that hotel for further stays, and/or (b) not only not recommend that hotel to other potential guests, but perhaps even dissuade other people from staying at that hotel. In either case the income or revenue of the hotel will be less than it should be, and that in turn is likely to decrease its profitability as a business - and perhaps even result in it making a loss. You can therefore see how essential it is that a hotel's guests are satisfied with their stays at it. In this Program we examine together the many and varied amenities and services which hotels need to provide in the best and most efficient ways in order to ensure ‘guest satisfaction’.
  • City center – are usually located in large cities usually along business districts. Ex. Shangri-la, Manila Pavilion Resort hotels – usually seen in areas of great scenic beauty with outstanding recreational facilities Ex. Fort Ilocandia, Boracay Regency Airport – near the airport to cater the flying market, usually the business travellers Ex. Heritage Hotel Manila Freeway hotels – usually located in isolated areas where there is no competition where in they could charge higher rates
  • Rooms Division is the name of the department within a hotel that includes housekeeping, concierge, porters, and sometimes front and back office as well.
  • The front office is considered the hub or nerve of the hotel. It is the department that makes a first impression on the guest and one that the guest relies on throughout his/her stay for information and service. A front desk must be able to work under pressure. Constant interruptions to the actual work of the front desk occur and employees are always on stage, it is necessary to maintain composure even during of apparent panic.
  • The term “reservation” refers to an arrangement by which lodging operators hold accomodation for guest who will be arriving at some later part.
  • The Telephone Exchange Section of the vital part of the smooth running of the hotel. This underlines the importance of prompt and courteous attention to all calls and calm under pressure. It operates 24 hrs/day (having 3 shifts)
  • The “Guest Service” consist of door attendants, bell persons and concierge. People in these positions usually receive gratitudes or tips from guest for their services
  • A hotel concierge position requires a passion for and an understanding of travel and the travel industry. While a degree in hospitality or other related field is often preferred and sometimes required, an in-depth knowledge of the hotel's local area is essential. The concierge position is often demanding and fast-paced, requiring excellent time management and problem-solving skills. On a daily basis the concierge will interact with guests from varied backgrounds and walks of life, and therefore an amicable personality is a must for a successful concierge--fluency in one or more foreign languages is also a plus.
  • Working as a hotel concierge means that your focus is to ensure that the needs and requests of hotel guests are met, and that each guest has a memorable stay. The hotel concierge is expected to be an expert on his local area. Guests will approach the concierge with questions, seeking suggestions, and demanding problem resolutions. Often concierges will make reservations for restaurants, spas, shows and special events. Requests from guests can range from arranging transportation or providing directions to even the most outlandish seemingly impossible outing. The concierge must make an effort to develop relationships with local business owners and VIPs in order to facilitate the fulfillment of her guests' requests.
  • Housekeeping is responsible for the cleanliness, appearance, and condition of the entire hotel. This includes the public areas. It is the largest department in terms of number of people employed.
  • Security division is responsible for maintaining security alarm system, protecting the personal property of guest and employees and the hotel
  • Food and Beverage operation can be critical to the overall success of some lodging operations. For a number of luxury establishment, the quality of food and beverage products are among their major attractions
  • In the hospitality industry, the food and beverage division is led by the director of food and beverage. He reports to the Gen. Manager. He is responsible for the efficient and effective operation of the various departments.
  • Some executive chefs are now called “kitchen managers”. Executive chef of a large hotel manages the kitchen and may not do much cooking. he delegates ordering, hiring and firing decisions. Sous chef are the ones most in control of the production, under the sous chef are the station chef, which they make their own decisions.
  • Controlling cost is an essential part of food and beverage operations, and because labor cost represent the most significant variable cost, staffing becomes an important factor of a day to day operation.
  • Operating a restaurant involves many expenses. Essentially, you incur labor costs when you have employees working for you. Labor is an operational expense in just about any restaurant, predominantly including hourly wages for staff members. Many restaurants hope to run a labor percentage below approximately 20 percent. When the costs begin to climb, anxiety levels rise as well. Still, simply paying your employees less will not solve labor cost issues. The keys to controlling labor costs are improving workplace productivity and scheduling your employees wisely.
  • Increasing productivity improves your overall operation by building employee skills and confidence. Take time to provide your staff with sufficient training and communication. -Cross-training is beneficial to both the employee and the business, since the worker will have a wider range of skills and be able to help in multiple areas of the restaurant. This allows the manager to schedule fewer workers while still being able to achieve the same production and service standards. Some suggestions for cross-training include: Train your prep cook to handle the grill Train your hostesses to work as back-up servers Train bussers to help run food to customers - Another great way to help improve productivity is to perform regular audits. Take the time to watch and assess your employees’ performances. If you find that a large portion of your employees’ work days includes inordinately long breaks or downtime, it might be wise to revise your schedule. Conducting face-to-face reviews with each member of the staff will help communicate your thoughts and concerns.
  • Hotel bars allow guest to relax while sipping on a cocktail, after a hectic day. This opportunity to socialize for business or pleasure is advantageous for both guest and the hotel.
  • Bars are run by bar managers.
  • Bar efficiency is measure by the pour/cost percentage. Food and Bev. Director expect a pour cost control of between 16-24 percent. Operations with lower pour cost control have more efficient control system. Portion Size Control- Portion size control is the standardization of beverages in order to control both quantity of liquor and quality of the drink. It is vital to create a method for pouring exact portions because you are often dealing with numerous bartenders and possibly high turnover. The point here is consistency. Meeting customer expectation may even be more important for good profit than setting your drink prices correctly. Another advantage of consistency is accurate control of the amount of liquor poured. If you control the quantity of liquor, you also control costs. In this way, you can maintain your cost-to-sales-ratio and protect your profit. to achieve all of this, standardize three elements of each drink: size, recipe and glass.
  • Check the youtube for measuring liquor
  • Check the picture of a bin card for beverage.
  • Pilferages – employees dilute the liquor with water or colored liquid, sell the additional liquor and pocket the money. Some bartenders over pour the liquor to receive more tips.
  • In some hotels, the steward’s department is responsible for keeping the kitchens clean. This generally done at night to prevent disruption of the food production operation. The chief steward’s job can be an enormous and thankless job
  • Catering department is extremely complex and demanding, it is important to be innovative at all times.
  • The term room service referred to all services to hotel guest rooms. The intention is to bring the dining experience to the room with quality food beverage service.
  • HRMPS 13 - Chapter 2

    2. 2. Scope & Sequence1. Functions of hotel2. Hotel as a business3. Classifications of hotel4. Rooms Division Operations5. Food and Beverage Operations
    3. 3. Function of hotel
    4. 4. Hotels as Business
    5. 5. Classification of Hotels According to Quality RankingOne Star Hotels Small and independently owned, with a family atmosphere.Limited range of facilities and meals. Lunch, for example, may not be served.May not have en suite bath/shower rooms. Maintenance, cleanliness and of an acceptable standard.
    6. 6. Two Star Hotels Small to medium sizedWiih an en-suite bath/shower room.Reception and other staffIncludes food and drinksFacilities include TV. And telephone
    7. 7. 3 star hotelsGreater quality and range of facilities than at the lower star classifications.Reception and the other public rooms will be more spacious Restaurant will normally also cater for non- residents.With fully en suite bath and shower roomshair dryer, direct dial telephone, toiletries in the bathroom.
    8. 8. 4 star hotels Degree of luxury as well as quality in the furnishings, decor and equipmentBedrooms are more spacious ,coordinated furnishings and decor.The en-suite bathrooms 24-hour room service, laundry and dry-cleaning.The restaurant has serious approach to its cuisine.
    9. 9. 5 star hotels Spacious and luxurious accommodation ,best international standards. Interior design shows comfort and elegance. Services should be formal. Staff will be knowledgeable, helpful, well versed in all aspects of customer care, combining efficiency with courtesy.
    10. 10. Classification of Hotels Location Service City center hotels Casino Resort hotels Convention Airport hotels Freeway hotels
    11. 11. Classification of Hotels According to Sizea. Small hotels : up too 100 roomsb. Medium hotels : 100 – 200 roomsc. Medium – Large : 200-500 roomsd. Large hotels : over 500 rooms
    12. 12. ROOMS DIVISIONOperation
    13. 13. Main Functions of Rooms Division1. Financial responsibility of the dept.2. Employee satisfaction3. Guest satisfaction4. Guest service5. Guest relations6. Security7. Gift shop
    14. 14. Department of Rooms Division1. Front Office2. Reservation3. Housekeeping4. Concierge5. Guest services6. Bell services7. Valet
    15. 15. The Guest Cycle
    16. 16. The Front Office
    17. 17. Duties of Front Office • Receive reservations for accommodation from clients, either in person or by telephone, fax or email • Take guests details and allocate their rooms • Talk to transport carriers (e.g. airlines, bus companies, rental car agencies) to make travel arrangements for guests and to find lost luggage
    18. 18.  provide tourist information to guests make reservations for sightseeing tours, restaurants, the cinema and live entertainment deal with enquiries and requests from guests take messages for guests calculate guests bills and issue receipts upon payment arrange accommodation for guests travelling to other destinations perform cashier duties, cash travellers cheques and exchange foreign currency
    19. 19.  place guests possessions in a safe if requested coordinate the cleaning of guests personal laundry, shoe shining and room service deliveries follow in-house procedures to help ensure the security of guests and employees perform general secretarial duties, such as preparing correspondence and attending to a switch board. In a small or medium-sized hotel, all of the above duties may be carried out by one person.
    20. 20. Night Auditor Closes the books on a daily basis Posts charges Balances guest accounts Completes daily report
    21. 21. Room Occupancy PercentageROP = Rooms Occupied Rooms AvailableExample : If the hotel has 850 rooms and 622 are occupiedROP = 622 = 73% 850
    22. 22. Average Daily Rate:Ave. Daily Rate = Rooms Revenue Rooms SoldIf rooms revenue is 75,884Total no. Of rooms 622ADR = 75,884 = 114.63 662
    23. 23. Sources of Reservations1. Telephone (fax, letter, cable)2. Corporate3. Travel Agents4. Internet5. Meeting planners6. Tour operators7. Referral from another company8. Airport representatives9. Walk in
    24. 24. Types of Reservation1. Confirmed reservation – reservation made with sufficient time for a confirmation slip to be returned by a client by mail or fax.2. Guaranteed reservation – client pays for the first night prior to his/her arrival.3. Regular reservation / Non-guaranteed – not paid in advance and the room is held until a specified time on the date of arrival.
    25. 25. Telephone Exchange (PABX) In house communications Guest communications (pagers & radios) Voice mail Faxes Messages Emergency center
    26. 26. GUEST SERVICES/UNIFORMED SERVICES DOORMAN  Greet guests  Assist in opening/closing automobile doors  Remove luggage from trunk  Hailing taxis  Keeping hotel entrance clear of vehicles
    27. 27. BELLMAN  Handles guest’s luggage  Escort guest to their room  Provide information on hotel amenities and services
    28. 28. Concierge
    29. 29. HOUSE KEEPING
    31. 31. Activity: Go to a hotel’s website (at least 3 hotels )and find the price of booking a room for a date of your choice. Compare their prices. Your hotel has 275 rooms. Last night 198 were occupied. What was the occupancy percentage
    33. 33. Departments of Food & Beverage
    34. 34. Skills need by a Food & Bev.Director Exceeding guests’ expectations in food and beverage offerings and services Leadership Identifying trends Finding and keeping outstanding employees Training Motivation Budgeting Cost control Finding profit from all outlets Having a detailed working knowledge of the FOH operations
    35. 35. F&B Organization Chart
    36. 36. Kitchen EXECUTIVE CHEF  A hotel kitchen is under the charge of the executive chef, he is in charge for the efficient and effective operations of the kitchen food production.
    37. 37. Controlling costFood cost is the actual peso value of thefood used by an operation during a certainperiod. It includes the expense incurred whenfood is consumed for any reason. Food costincludes the cost of food sold, given away,wasted or even stolen.
    38. 38. Calculating Food Cost and Food CostPercentage1. Book MethodGross Food Cost = (Cost of direct issues + storeroom issues)Net food Cost = (Gross Food cost – credits to food cost)Food Cost Percentage = (Net Food Cost ÷ *Net Food Sales) x 100*Net Food Sales = (Gross sales – Tax – Service Charge)
    39. 39. Where in: Cost of direct issues- cost of goods that were delivered within the day or within the costing period and endorsed directly to the kitchen right after the receiving transaction. This data can be taken from the receiving summary of the receiving clerk. Cost of store issues- refer to the cost of goods that were stored in the storeroom and later issued to the kitchen out of their requisitions. The data can also be gathered from the records of requisition and issuance. Gross food cost- the total cost of all direct issues and store issues.
    40. 40.  Credits- refer to consumption that were taken from the goods purchased but did not generate sales. For example, food eaten by officers as part of officers’ meal or food served to employees as part of their meal privilege. Net food cost- cost of goods after the credits are deducted from the gross food cost Net food sales- is the net income derived by deducting allowable taxes and service charge from the gross sales Food cost percentage- is the ratio of net food cost over net food sales.
    41. 41. Labor CostLabor Cost Percentage = Labor Cost Food SalesExample :Food sale is 1,000 and the labor cost is 2.50Labor Cost % = 2.50 = 25% 1,000
    42. 42. Controlling Labor Cost Cross-Train Your Staff Conduct Frequent Staff Audits and Reviews
    43. 43. Bars Cycle of beverages:
    44. 44. Duties of a Bar Manager Supervising the ordering process and storage of wine Preparing a wine list Overseeing a staff Maintaining cost control Assisting guest with their wine selections Proper service of wine Knowledge of beers and liquors
    45. 45. Kinds of Bar Lobby bar
    46. 46. Restaurant Bar
    47. 47. Service Bar
    48. 48. Catering & Banquet Bar
    49. 49. Pool Bar
    50. 50. Sports Bar
    51. 51. Night Club Bar
    52. 52. Beverage Cost ControlPour cost percentage – is obtained by dividing the cost of depleted inventory by sales over a period of time.Portion Size Control- is the standardization of beverages in order to control both quantity of liquor and quality of the drink.
    53. 53. 3 Common Methods of Measuring liquor Automated pouring device- using an automated pouring device, the major ingredients are measured and dispensed through a handgun or specialized pourer. These shut-off at pre-established amounts per drink. Using jigger- the bar staff pours drinks using an established jigger size and to fill them only to the line on the jigger. Free-pour- this is a subjective form of measurement that involves turning the bottle, with a pourer in place, and pouring upside down at full force. The bartender counts in his head to pour an ounce.
    54. 54. Other beverage controls Monitoring the stock of each beverage item at all times using a bin card. A typical bin card shows the brand name, bottle size, quantity on hand, and bin or inventory code, number. The minimum or maximum stock levels may also be recorded on the cards, as this information makes it easier to determine purchasing needs. The card is then affixed to appropriate shelf. Bin cards note each entry and exit of a product. They are also very useful in a perpetual inventory system.
    55. 55. Bin Card
    56. 56. Common Problems: Pilferages Over charging Under pour Over pour
    57. 57. Serve Safe Alcohol If a guest becomes intoxicated and is still served alcohol or a minor is served alcohol and is involve in a accident, then the server of the beverage, the bar person, and the manager may be liable for the injuries sustained by the person who was harmed
    58. 58. Stewarding Dept. Functions of the Chief Steward: - Cleanliness of the back of the house. - Maintaining clean glass wares, china and cutlery - Maintaining strict inventory control and monthly stock check. - Maintenance of dishwashing machines. - Inventory of chemical stock - Sanitation of kitchen, banquet aisles storerooms, walk-in freezers, and all equipment - Forcasting labor and cleaning supplies
    59. 59. Catering Department Catering includes a variety of occasions when people may eat at varying times, it has a broader scope than banquet. Banquets refers to the group of people who eat at one time and in one place
    60. 60. 2 Divisions of Catering On-premise – the event is catered in the hotel Off-premise - the event is catered away from the hotel
    61. 61. Duties of Catering Director Sell conventions, banquets and functions Lead a team of employees. Set individual and department sales and cost budgets Set service standards Ensure the catering department is properly maintained. Be extremely creative and knowledgeable about food and wine service
    62. 62. Duties of Catering Coordinator He handles and control the “bible” or function diary . He/she must see that the contracts are correctly prepared and checked
    63. 63. Catering Services Manager Responsible the service of all functions Supervising the catering house persons in setting up the room. Cooperations with the banquet chef to check menus and service arrangements. Check the cleint’s satisifaction on room set-up, food and beverage service. Making out client bills immediately after the function. Calculating and distributing the gratuity and service charge for the service personnel.
    64. 64. Client list of Catering Trade show  Fraternal market Exhibitions Various companies Groups Association Military Education Religious groups
    65. 65. Most Frequent Catering Events Meetings Conventions Dinners Luncheons Weddings
    66. 66. Typical Room Set-ups Theater StyleRows of chairs are placeswith a center group of chair of chairs and two aisle
    67. 67. Classroom StyleTables usually slim (18 inch ones).Usually takes about three times as much space as theater style and takes more time and labor to set up and break down
    68. 68. Horsehoe Style Frequently used when interaction is sought among the delegates such as training sessions and workshops.
    69. 69. Dinner Style Generally catered at round tables of eight or ten persons for large parties.
    70. 70. Catering Event Order Known as “banquet event order” Is prepared/completed for each functions to inform not only the client and the hotel personnel about essential information
    71. 71. Room Service/In Room Dining
    72. 72. Trends in Lodging Food & BevOperations The use of branded restaurants instead of hotel operating their own restaurants. More casual restaurants and beverage Theme restaurants Beverage outlets are converted into a sports themed bar. Uses of the latest technology More low fat-low carb menu items
    73. 73. Assignment Visit a hotel restaurant in your area. Make a note of how busy the establishment is. Does it satisfied with the appropriate number of employees Contact a bar manager in your area. Discuss with him/her how to monitor pilferage and overpouring