CHAPTER 1 – FOODS
FOOD - is any article whether simple, mixed or compounded, which is used as
food or drink, confectionery or condiment.
- any matter eaten by man to sustain life and nourish the body
- any substance which when taken into the body provides energy,
builds and repairs tissues and regulated bodily processes.
FOOD SCIENCE- is the study of chemical, physical & microbiological nature of
food and any transformation that food undergoes from the time it is produced to
the time it is consumed.
HISTORY OF FOOD
• Early people ate food raw. At some point, they accidentally discovered
that cooked food taste better and was easier to digest. By trial and error,
they learned to control fire and use it to prepare food.
• Eventually, these early people found they could protect themselves and
secure food more easily by living in groups. They formed tribes and
begun to hunt for food together.
• The hunters became herders when they discovered that they could
capture and domesticate animals. They also discovered that they could
plant seeds to produce large amount of food. These two advances made
the food supply much more dependable.
• As food became easily to obtain, not all people had spend their time
hunting and farming. Some were able to a craft. Other became merchants.
Trading in its simplest form began, and with came the development of
The Migration of Food
• As civilization grew and developed, people began searching for food in
• Spanish, Portuguese, English, and Dutch sailors traveled across the oceans
in search of tea, spices, and other foods.
• The explorers introduced food they carried with them in new lands.
• In the U.S. – the Spanish explorers introduced cane sugar, wheat, oranges,
and sheep. English explorers brought apple, pears, and walnuts.
• The explorers also carried foods from the land they explored, back to their
• Therefore, foods that were once native to once place are now found in
many places. This type of exchange led to increased variety of foods
throughout the world.
CRITERIAS OF FOOD QUALITY:
1. Nutritional Quality
- Nutrients are responsible for the physiological roles of food to give
energy, build and repair tissues and regulate bodily processes.
The Main Groups of Nutrients are:
- Refers not only to the completeness of the digestion and absorption
but also the general feeling and after-effect of eating.
- Eating qualities of a food as judged by the human senses.
a. Visual Perception- the mere sight of food may stimulate or dampen
the appetite. Many consumers decide to buy a product because of its
b. Odor Detection- the olfactory nerves of the nose are sensitive to
volatile substances emitted by the aromatic compounds in foods.
c. Taste Stimuli- taste buds located on the pharynx and the palate of
the oral cavity which decrease as we get older.
There are four basic tastes:
Salty (sides and tip)
Bitter (mostly at the back)
Sweet (concentrated at the tip)
Sour (mostly on the sides)
d. Tactile Sensation-mouth feel and feeling by touch
Ex. Softness of fruit as held on the palm;
Different types of sugars or flours as felt between the fingers.
e. Flavor- this sensory is a composite of odor, taste and mouth feel and
Psychological and physiological factors which differ among individuals
3. State of health
4. Food habits
5. Emotional conditions
6. Threshold vale
4. Economical Quality
- Amount of money spent for the ingredients, the amount of time,
equipment and labor utilized for cooking, serving and storing the
5. Sanitary Quality
- Prepared under sanitary condition
CHAPTER 2 – THE KITCHEN
Three Main Activity/Work centers:
1. Food preparation and storage area center
2. Cooking and serving center
3. Clean up or washing center
Main Kitchen Equipment
1. RANGE - provides necessary heat for cooking (electric, gas, kerosene,
coal or wood)
2. REFRIGERATOR – Storage for perishable goods
- Types of Individual Freezer Units
b. Chest type
3. Sink-central to all food preparation which require water
1. U-shaped kitchen – All of the appliances and cabinets are arranged in a
continuous line along the three adjoining walls.
2. L- shaped Kitchen – Appliances and cabinets forms a continuous line
along two adjoining walls.
3. Horizontal/Corridor Kitchen – Appliances and cabinets are arranged
in two non-adjoining walls.
4. Island Kitchen – in this kitchen, a counter stands alone in the center of
5. Peninsula Kitchen- is most found in large rooms. In this kitchen, a
counter extends into room, forming a peninsula
6. One-wall kitchen- all of the appliances and cabinets are along one
wall. This arrangement generally does not give adequate storage or
Work triangle distance:
Sink to Refrigerator (4 ft-7ft)
Range to Ref (4 ft- 9ft)
Sink to Range (4 ft- 6ft)
The purpose of kitchen organization is to assign or allocate tasks so that
they will be done efficiently and properly and so that all workers will know their
The Classical Brigade
- Is a manager who responsible for all aspects of food production,
including menu planning, purchasing, and planning work schedule.
- Person in charge of the kitchen
Sous Chef (soo shef)
- Directly in charge of production; assistant to the chef.
Station Chefs or Chef De Partie
- In charge of particular areas of production
A. Sauce Chef/Saucier (so see ay)- prepare sauces, stews and hot
hors d’ouvres and sautés foods for order.
B. Fish cook/Poissonier (pwa so nyay)-prepares fish dishes
C. Soup Cook/Potager (po ta zhay) – responsible for the preparation
of soups and stocks
D. Vegetable cook/Entremetier (awn truh met yay)-prepares
vegetables, soups, starches and eggs
E. Roast cook/Rotissuer (ro tee sur)-prepares roasted and braised
meats and their gravies and broils meats and other items to order.
F. Broiler cook/Grillardin (gree ar dan)-handles broiled items, may
also prepare deep fried meats and fish
G. Pantry Chef/Garde Manger (gard mawn zhay)-responsible for
colds foods, including salads and dressings, paste, cold hors
d’ouvres and buffet items.
H. Pastry chef/Patissier (pa tees syay)-prepares pastries and
I. Relief cooks/Swing cook/Tournat (toor nawn)-replaces other
J. Butcher – responsible for all raw food preparation
Demi Chef de Partie – assistant of Chef de Partie and does the job of the Chef de
Partie whenever heis not around. He assists in checking the
quantity of food done by the Commis I, II and III.
Commis I (ko mi) / 1st
Cook or Senior Cook
- Highly skilled cook in thesection. He constantly double check the job
of theCommis II and III.
Commis II / 2nd
Cook or Junior Cook
- Skilledcooand next in line to the Commis I. He supervises the job of
the Commis III.
Commis III / 3rd
Cook or Helper
- Is the lowest position in the kitchen organizational chart. He does the
basic preparation in his section and assists the Commis II I the food
CHAPTER 3 – SANITATION & SAFETY
Cleaning- removing visible dirt/soil
Sanitizing- killing disease causing bacteria
1. by heat
2. by chemicals
1. Scrape and pre-rinse- Soak to loosen food particles
4. Sanitize- place utensils in a rack and immerse in hot water for 30
5. Drain and air dry- do not towel dry, this may recontaminate the
The Role of the Uniform
The Hat or Toque
It contains the chef’s hair, preventing it from falling into the food
and catching fire. It also absorbs the sweat from the brows
The jackets and the Pants
The jacket protects the chest area from burns, splashes and spills.
Sleeves are long to cover the arms from possible burns and scalds.
The same is also true with the pants.
Apron and side Towels
The apron is worn to protect the jacket and pants from excessive
staining. Side towels are used to protect your hands when working
with hot tools and equipment.
A hard-leather shoes to protects the feet from falling knives and
scalds. Kitchen clogs also prevents the feet from straining and
To avoid perspiration
• Keep knives sharp
• Use a cutting board
• Cut away from yourself
• Don’t try to catch the falling knives
• Carry a knife properly
• Don’t put breakable items in the pot sink
• Wear your uniform
• Always assume a pot handle is hot
• Use dry pads or towels to handle hot pans
• Don’t fills pans so full that they likely spill
• Open lids away from you to let steam to escape
• Dry food before putting them in frying fat
• Warn people about hot pans
• Know where fire extinguishers are located
• Keep a supply of salt or baking soda handy to put out small fires
• Don’t leave hot fat unattended on the range
• clean up spills immediately
• keep aisles and stairs clear and unobstructed
• Don’t carry objects too big to see over
• Walk, don’t run!!
Preventing Strains and Injuries from Lifting
• Lift with the leg muscles, not the back
• Don’t run or twist the back while lifting, and make sure your
footing is secure
• Don’t be a hero. Ask help when carrying heavy object
BASIC COOKING METHOD
- Application of heat in food preparation
- Heat brings about chemical, physical and microbiological changes
Purpose of Cooking
1. To make its maximum nutritive value in palatable form (edible)
2. To develop, enhance or alter its flavor
3. To improve its digestibility
4. To increase palatability by improving its color, texture and flavor
5. To destroy pathogenic organisms and substances found in a raw food.
- Shift of heat from the source to the food
- Understanding how heat is transferred helps the cook to control the
- 3 ways of heat transfer
a. Heat moves directly from one item to something touching it. Ex
from the top of the range to a soup pot placed on it, from the pot
to the soup inside.
b. When heat moves from one part of something to an adjacent part
of the same item. Ex from pan to its handle.
• Different materials conduct heat at different speeds. Heat
moves rapidly through copper and aluminum, more slowly
in stainless steel, slower in glass and porcelain. Air is a poor
conductor of heat.
2. Convection- heat is spread by movement of air, steam or liquid.
a. Natural- hot liquids and gases rise while cooler ones sink. Thus
in a pot of liquid, there is a constant, natural circulation that
b. Mechanical- in convection ovens, fans speed the circulation of
heat. Thus heat is transferred more quickly to the food, and the
food cooks faster.
3. Radiation –energy is transferred by waves from the source to the
food. The waves are not heat energy, but are changed into heat
energy when they strike the food being cooked.
a. Infrared- in a broiler an electric element heated by a gas flame
becomes so hot that it gives off infrared radiation that cooks the
b. Microwave- the radiation generated by the oven penetrates into
the food, where it agitates the molecules of water. The friction
caused by this agitation creates heat, which cooks the food.
Cooking time is affected by 3 factors:
1. Cooking temperature- the temp. of the oven, the oil or liquid.
2. The speed of heat transfer- different cooking method transfer heat at
different rates (a convection oven cooks faster than a conventional oven,
even if both are set at the same temp. the fan in a convection oven transfer
heat more rapidly).
3. Size, temp and individual characteristics of the food- (for example, a small
beef cooks faster than a large one: frozen steak takes longer to broil than
the one at room temp. ; fish items generally cook more quickly than
1. Moist heat- cooking methods in which the heat is conducted to the food
product by water or by steam.
Poach simmer and boil-cook food in water or in a seasoned and flavored
liquid. The temp of the liquids determines the method.
a. Broil means to cook in a liquid that is bubbling rapidly and is greatly
agitated. Water boils at 212 F (100 C).Boiling is generally reserved for
certain vegetables and starches. The high temp would toughen the
meat, eggs and the rapid bubbling breaks up delicate foods.
b. Simmer – means to cook in a liquid that is bubbling very gently.
Temperature is about 185 F to 205 F (85 C to 96 C). Just below boiling
point. Most foods cooked in a liquid are simmered rather than boiled.
c. Poach- means to cook in a small amount of liquid that is hot but not
bubbling. Temperature is about 160 F to 180 F (71 C to 82 C), Poaching
is used to cook delicate foods such as fish and eggs out of the shell. It
also used to partially cook foods in order to eliminate undesirable
flavors and firm up the product final cooking.
d. Blanch- means to cook an item partially and very briefly, usually in
water, and then finish with different method. There are two ways of
blanching in water: 1. Place the item in cold water. This is to dissolve
out blood, salt or impurities from certain meats and bones. 2. Place
item in rapidly boiling water and return the water to the boil. Remove
the item and cool in cold water. This is to set the color and destroy the
harmful enzymes in vegetables or to loosen the skin of tomatoes,
peaches and other similar items for easier peeling.
Steam –means to cook food by exposing them directly to steam.
a. Steaming is done on a rack above boiling water.
b. Steaming also refers to cooking an item tightly wrapped or in a covered
pan, so that it cooks in the steam formed by its own moisture. This
method is used in cooking items en papillote, wrapped in parchment
paper or foil.
c. Steam at normal pressure is 212 F (100 C). The same as boiling water.
However it carries more heat than boiling water and cooks very rapidly.
d. A pressure steamer is a steam cooker that holds in steam under pressure.
The temp. of the steam goes higher than 212 F, because of this, pressure
steaming is an extremely rapid method of cooking and must be carefully
controlled and timed.
e. Steaming is widely used for vegetables. It cooks them rapidly, without
agitation, and minimizes the dissolving of nutrients.
Braised means to cook covered in a small amount of liquid, usually after
browning. In almost all cases, the liquid is served with the product as a sauce.
Braising is sometimes called a combination cooking method. The product is first
browned (to develop color and flavor) using dry heat before it is cooked in a
a. Braised meats are browned first using a dry-heat method such as pan-
frying. This gives a desirable appearance and flavor to the product and
b. Also refers to cooking certain vegetables slowly in a small amount of
liquid without preliminary browning.
c. Braising may be done on the range or in the oven.
2. Dry-Heat Method- cooking methods in which the heat is conducted to
without moisture, that is, by hot air, hot metal, radiation or hot fat. It is
divided into two categories: without fat and with fat.
Roast and Bake - Cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air,
usually in an oven or cooking on a spit in front of an open fire.
Roasting – meats and poultry
Baking – breads, pastries, vegetables and fish
a. Cooking uncovered is essential to roasting. Once covered, it holds in
steam thus changing it from dry-heat to moist-heat cooking.
b. Meat is roasted on the rack for better hot air circulation and to prevent
the meat from cooking in its own juices.
c. To barbecue means to cook with dry heat created by the burning of
hardwood or hot coals. Barbecuing is a roasting or grilling technique
requiring wood fire.
d. Smoke roasting is a procedure done on top of the stove in a closed
container, using wood chips to make smoke. This procedure is used for
small, tender, quick-cooking such as fish fillet, tender meat and
poultry pieces and some vegetables.
Broil – cook with radiant heat from above.
a. Broiling is a rapid, high heat cooking method that is usually used only
for tender meats, poultry, fish and few vegetables.
b. Note the following rules for broiling:
1. Turn heat on full. Regulate cooking temp. by moving the rack
nearer or away from the heat.
2. Use lower heat for larger, thicker items, and for items to be cooked
well done. Use higher heat for thinner pieces and for items to be
3. Preheat the broiler. This helps to sear the product quickly, and the
hot broiler will make the desired grill marks on the food.
4. Foods may be dipped in oil to prevent sticking and to minimize
drying. Take note that too much oil on a hot broiler may cause a
5. Turn foods over only once, to cook from both sides but to avoid
c. A low-intensity broiler called a salamander is used for browning or
melting the top of some items before service.
Grill, Griddle, and Pan-broil- dry heat cooking that uses heat from
a. Grilling is done on an open grid over a heat source, like charcoal an
electric element or gas heated element.
b. Griddling is done on a solid cooking surface called a griddle, with or
without small amount of fat to prevent sticking.
Grooved griddles – have a solid top with raised ridges. They are
designed to cook like grills, but create less smoke.
c. Pan-broiling is like griddling, except it is done in a sauté pan or skillet.
Dry Heat Methods Using Fat
Sauté – cook quickly in a small amount of fat.
a. Sauter (French , meaning to jump) refers to the action of tossing small
pieces of food in a sauté pan.
b. 2 Important principles:
1. Preheat the pan before adding the food. Otherwise, it will begin to
simmer in its own juices.
2. Do not overcrowd the pan. It lowers the temp and the food begins
c. Meats to be sautéed are often dusted with flour to prevent sticking and
achieve uniform browning.
d. After a food is sautéed, liquid (wine or stock) is often swirled in the
pan to dissolve browned bits of food sticking to the bottom. This is
called deglazing. This liquid becomes part of a sauce served with the
Panfry – cook in moderate amount of fat in a pan over medium heat
a. Similar to sautéing except it used more fat and cooking time is longer.
b. Pan-frying is done over lower heat than sautéing because of the larger
pieces being cooked.
c. Amount of fat depends on the amount of food. Less if you are cooking
eggs and more if you are frying pork chops.
d. Food must be turned at least once for even cooking.
Deep Fry – cook food submerged in hot fat
a. Quality in deep fried products is characterized by:
1. Minimum fat/oil absorption.
2. Minimum moisture loss (tender)
3. Attractive golden color
4. Crisp surface or coating
5. No off flavors imparted by the fat.
1. Fry at proper T- 350 F to 375 F (175 C to 190 C).
2. Don’t overload the baskets.
3. Use good quality fat. Best fat for frying has a high smoke point –
the temp. at which the fat begins to smoke and to break down
4. Replace about 15-20% of fat with fresh fat after each daily use.
5. Discard spent fat.
6. Avoid frying strong and mild-flavored foods in the same fat.
7. Fry as close to service as possible.
8. Protect fat from its enemies:
a. Heat- turn off when not in use
b. Oxygen – cover and try not to create when filtering
c. Water- remove excess moisture
d. Salt- never salt food over fat
e. Detergent- rinse baskets and kettle well after cleaning.
Pressure frying – deep frying in a special covered fryer that traps steam
given off by the foods being cooked and increases the pressure inside the
Microwave Cooking- refers to the use of a specific tool rather than dry-
heat or moist-heat cooking method.
• Used for heating prepared foods and for thawing either raw
or cooked items.
• Small items will not brown
• Overcooking is the most common error, watch timing
• Sliced or cooked meats are likely to dry out thus it should be
protected either by wrapping them loosely in plastic or wax
• Because microwaves act only on water molecules, foods with
high water content (ex vegetables) heat transfer than drier
foods (ex. Cooked meat)
• Foods at the edge of the plate metal and aluminum foil. A
potato wrapped in aluminum foil will not cook. Metals can
also cause damage to your microwave.
CHAPTER 5 – THE RECIPE
A recipe is a set of instructions for producing a certain dish. In order to duplicate
a desired preparation, it is necessary to have a precise record of the ingredients,
their amounts, and the way in which they are combined and cooked. This is the
purpose of a recipe.
A standardized recipe is a set of instructions describing the way a
particular establishment prepares a particular dish. In other words, it is a
customized recipe developed by an operation for the use of its own cooks, using
its own equipment, to be served to its own patrons.
Function of Standardized Recipes:
An operation’s own recipes are used to control production. They do this in
a. They control quality- Standardized recipes are very
detailed and specific. This is to ensure that the product
is the same every time is made and served, no matter
who cooks it.
b. They control quantity- First, they indicate precise
quantities for every ingredient and how they are to be
measured. Second, they indicate exact yields and
portion sizes, and how the portions are to be measured
Principles to be followed in recipe construction:
1. The recipe should be simple, easy to read and interesting to the reader.
2. The ingredients should be listed in the order they are to be used.
3. Exact measurements should be indicated.
4. Amounts should be easy to measure.
5. Descriptive terms should be placed before the ingredients if the process is
to be carried out before measurement. Ex. 2 cups flour sifted
6. If the process is carried out after measurement, the terms are placed after
7. Specify the particular type of ingredient to be used.
8. Use the generic names of the ingredients rather than brand names.
9. Short, clear sentences that give necessary information help to make
10. Use the precise term to describe a cooking process or preparation method.
11. Baking, or cooking items, temperatures, and pan sizes need to be accurate.
12. The recipe should state the yield-the number of average serving of the
Each time you use a recipe make sure that:
a. You have read the recipe carefully.
b. You understand all the terms and direction.
c. You have all the necessary ingredients.
d. You have all the correct tools/utensils for the job.
e. All the ingredients are ready for cooking
Ex. Minced the garlic, melt the chocolate
f. Pre-heat the oven (for baking, if needed)
CHAPTER 6 – MISE EN PLACE
- To be successful in the food service industry, cooks need more than the
ability to delicious, attractive, and nutritious foods. They must have a
talent for organization and efficiency.
- Good chef take pride in the thoroughness and quality of their preparation,
or mise en place (pronounced meez-on-plahss)
MISE EN PLACE – French term meaning “everything in place”.
PLANNING AND ORGANIZING PRODUCTION
Even on the simplest level, pre-preparation is the necessary. If you
prepare only one short recipe, you must first:
1. Assemble your tools.
2. Assemble your ingredients.
3. Wash, trim, cut, prepare, and measure your raw materials.
4. Prepare your equipment.
- Preheat the oven, line baking sheets, etc.
A. THE KNIFE
- Knives are the most important items in your tool kit.
- The chef’s knife or French knife is the chef’s most important and versatile
- With a sharp knife, the skilled chef can accomplish a number of tasks
more quickly and efficiently than any machine.
Using Your Knife Safely:
1. Use the correct knife for the task at hand.
2. Always cut away from yourself.
3. Always cut on a cutting board. Do not cut on glass, marble or
4. Keep knives sharp; a dull knife is more dangerous than a sharp
5. When carrying a knife, hold it point down, parallel and close to
your legs as you walk.
6. Do not attempt to catch a falling knife; step back and allow it to fall.
7. Never leave a knife in a sink of water; anyone reaching into the
sink could be injured, or pots or other utensils could dent the knife.
Handling the Knife
- A proper grip gives you maximum control over the knife.
- The proper grip increases your cutting accuracy and speed, it prevents
slipping, and it lessens the chance of an accident.
- Many chefs feel that actually grasping the blade with the thumb and
forefinger in this manner gives them greatest control.
The Guiding Hand
While one hand controls the knife, the other hands control the
product being cut. Proper positioning of the hand will do three things.
1. Hold the item being cut.
- The items is held firmly so that it will not slip
2. Guide the knife
- The knife blade slides against the finger. The position of the
hand controls the cut.
3. Protect the hand from cuts.
-Fingertips are curled under, out of the way of the blade.
BASIC CUTS AND SHAPES
- cutting food products into uniform shapes and sizes is important for two
• It ensures even cooking.
• It enhances the appearance of the product.
1. Brunoise (broon-wahz) – 1/8 in. x 1/8 in. x 1/8
2. Small dice – ¼ in. x ½ in. x ½ in.
3. Medium dice – ½ in. x ½ in. x ½ in.
4. Large dice – ¾ in. x ¾ in. x ¾ in.
5. Julienne – 1/8 in. x 1/8 in. x 2 1/3
6. Batonnet – ¼ in. x ¼ in. x 2 ½
7. French Fry – 1/3 in. square x 3 in. long
The following terms describe other cutting techniques:
1. Chop – to cut into irregularly shaped pieces.
2. Mince – to chop into very fine pieces.
3. Shred – to cut into strips, either with the course blade of a grater or with a
4. Chiffonade – refers to cutting leaves into fine shreds.
B. MEASURING INGREDIENTS
I. Dry Ingredients
A. Dry ingredients include sugar, flour, baking soda, baking powder, salt,
and spices. Measures this ingredients in dry measuring cups.
1. Spoon the ingredients into the correct measuring cup until it is
• Note: If your recipe calls for sifted flour, you should sift the
flour before spooning it into the dry measuring cup.
2. Do not shake or tap the measuring cup. Hold the measuring cup
over the ingredient container or a sheet of paper.
3. Use a straight-edged spatula to level off any excess. The ingredients
should be even with the top edge of the measuring cup.
C. Brown Sugar
1. As you spoon brown sugar into a dry measuring cup, press it down
firmly with the back of the spoon. This is called packing.
2. overfill the measuring cup, then, level it off with a straight-edged
3. The brown sugar should hold the shape of the measuring cup when
you turn it into a mixing bowl.
D. To Measures Small Amounts
1. Use measuring spoons to measure small amounts (less than ¼ cup0
of dry ingredients.
2. Dip the correct measuring spoon into the ingredient container and
bring it up heaping full.
3. Level off the top with a straight-edged spatula.
II. Liquid Ingredients
Liquid ingredients include milk, water, oil, juices, food coloring, and
extract. Measure these ingredients in liquid measuring cups. The
handle and spout on the liquid measuring cups make it easy to pour
liquid ingredients. The extra room at the top of the cup will help you
A. How to measure liquids
1. You cannot get an accurate measurement when you look through a
measuring cup at an angle, set the liquid measuring cup on a flat surface.
2. Bend down so the desired marking on the measuring cup is at eye level.
3. Slowly pour the liquid into the measuring cup until it reaches the mark for
the desired amount.
B. to measures Small Amounts
1. Use measuring spoon to measure small amount (less than ¼ cup) of liquid
2. Carefully pour the ingredients into the correction until filled to the edge.
III. Measuring Fats
Butter, margarine, shortening and peanut butter are fats used in
recipes. You can measure them in one of several ways:
1. Markings on the wrapper of stick butter or margarine can help you
measure the amount you need. A stick of butter or margarine equals 8
tablespoons or ½ cup. Use a sharp knife to cut through the wrapper at the
marking for the desired number of tablespoon.
2. You can measure shortening and peanut butter in dry measuring cups.
Use a rubber spatula to press the ingredients into the measuring cup,
make sure you eliminate any air pockets.
* you can also use the water is placement method” to measure solid fats. Fill a 2-
cup liquid measuring cup with 1 cup cold water. Then carefully spoon in the
solid fat until the water level rises by the amount you need. Make sure the fat is
not clinging to the side of the measuring cup. Drain off the water before using
CHAPTER 7 – MEAT
MEAT - is the edible portion of mammals. It contains muscle, fat, bone,
connective tissue and water.
- The major meat producing in animals are cattle, swine, and sheep.
- In the Philippines, we also have goat meat, carabao meat, horse meat and
Beef & veal – meat from cattle.
Pork – meat from hog.
Lamb & mutton – meat from sheep
Chevon – meat from goat
Carabeef – meat from carabao
Beef is the meat of domesticated mature cattle usually over 12 months
of age. It has distinctive flavor and firm texture. It is usually bright,
cherry red in color with creamy white fat. Cattle is the collective name
for all domesticated oxen. Cattle are classified as;
Bulls – male cattle, usually not raised to be eaten.
Calves – young cows or bulls prized for their meat.
Cows – female cattle after the first calving, raised principally for
milk and calf production..
Steers – male cattle castrated prior to maturity and principally
raised for beef.
It is important to know the location of bones when cutting or working
with meats. This makes meat fabrication and carving easier and aids in
identifying cuts. An entire beef carcass can range in weight from 500 to more
than 800 pounds (225-360 kg.)
Cows must calve before they begin to give milk. Veal is the meat of
calves under the age of nine months. Most veal comes from calves
slaughtered when they are 8-16 weeks old. Veal is lighter in color than
beef, has a more delicate flavor and is generally more tender. Young
veal has a firm texture, light pink in color and very little fat. As soon as
a calf starts eating solid food, the iron in the food begins to turn the
young animal’s meat red. Meat from calves slaughtered when they are
older than five months is called calf. It tends to be a deeper red, with
some marbling and external fat. A veal carcass weighs in a range of 60
to 245 pounds (27-110 kg.)
Variety Meats/ Organ Meats
Other than muscles, some animals have edible parts that are usually
inexpensive sources of vitamins and minerals.
Sweetbreads – these are the thymus glands of veal and lamb.
As animal ages; its thymus gland shrinks; therefore,
sweetbreads are not available from older cattle or sheep.
Liver, heart, kidney, and tongue of beef, veal, lamb and pork.
Tripe – the inner lining of the stomach of ruminant (cud-
i. blanket tripe - tuwalya
ii. honeycomb tripe – libro-libri or librilyo
chitterlings – cleaned intestines
other innards – include the lights (lungs), melt (spleen) and
mesentery (abdominal membrane)
Pork / beef blood
Lamb is the meat of sheep slaughtered when they are less than one
year old. Meat from sheep slaughtered after that age is called mutton. Spring
lamp in young lamb that has not been fed grass or grains. Because lamb in
slaughtered at an early age, it is quite tender and can be prepared by almost
any cooking method. A lamb carcass generally weighs between 41 to 75
pounds (20 to 35 kg.).
Hogs are bred specially to produce long loins: the loin contains the
highest-quality meat and is the most expensive cut of pork. Pork is unique in
that the ribs and loin are considered a single primal. A hog carcass generally
weighs in a range in 120 to 210 pounds (55-110 kg.).
Ham – comes from pork leg. It is usually cured and smoked.
Bacon – is smoked pork belly meat.
Selection of Meat
1. Look for good butchering
- A skilled meat cutter follows the contour of muscles and bones.
- With small cuts sliced evenly or in uniform pieces so that they cook at the
2. Cut should be trimmed of sinew (tendon), leaving enough fat to
keep the flesh moist.
3. Marbling is the key to the flavor and tenderness of meat.
• Marbling indicates tenderness in a cut of meat.
• Although more marbling means more tenderness, it also
means more total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and calories.
• Cooking can tenderize cuts with less marbling.
4. Meat should have a clear but not bright color; a grayish tinge is a
• Yellow fat signals old age and dried edges is a sign of
Market Forms of Meat:
1. Fresh Meat – this is meat immediately after slaughter, without
undergoing chilling or freezing.
2. Chilled Meat – is meat that has been cooled to a temperature just above
freezing (1-3°) within 24 hours after slaughter.
3. Frozen Meat – are meat cuts frozen to an eternal temperature of 20°C (-
4. Cured Meat – are meat products that have been treated with a curing
agent solution like salt, sodium nitrate (salitre), sugar, and spices.
5. Canned Meat – are cooked meat products and only requires to be
6. Dried Meats – dehydrated meats.
Six Stages of Doneness:
1. very rare - red, juices blood, soft, jelly-like
2. rare -raw red portion of meat is small, around is pink brown outer
surface, juices are red
3. medium rare –interior portion is rich pink. Meat is plump and firm
4. medium – modified rose, pink juices are less
5. medium well – pink color disappears, juices are clear gray, firm to touch
6. Well - gray inside and out, shrunken, little or no juice appear, brown and
Storage of Meats
1. Store fresh meat in the coldest part of the refrigerator (40°F/5°C or lower).
2. You can store pre-packed meat in the refrigerator in its original wrapper.
3. Use refrigerated fresh meats within 3-4 days. Ground meats and variety
meats are more perishable than other meats, use them within 1-2 days.
4. Freeze meats for longer storage. (0°F/18°C or colder) for maximum
o you can freeze luncheon meat, hotdog, and ham up to 2 months.
o Ground meats will keep for 3 months.
o Pork cuts for 6 months
o Lamb will keep up to 9 months.
- Beef will keep for a year.
5. To store meats in the freezer, you should rewrap them in moisture proof
and vapor proof. Label each package with the date, name and weight of
6. Refrigerator cured & smoke meats, sausages, and ready to serve meats,
unless the label says otherwise. Leave them in their original wrappers.
7. Store cooked meat in a tightly covered container in the refrigerator.
Consume within 1-2 days.
Principles of Cooking
Meat is cooked for various reasons:
1. To improve its palatability quality.
- Cooking develops flavors in meat; some methods yield more flavors than
- Changes in the fat and in the protein due to heating contribute to the
distinct flavor of cooked meat. It also brings about changes in meat
pigments, making meat more appetizing.
2. To increase tenderness-
- remember that meat consists of muscle tissue, connective tissue, fat and
bone. Connective tissue holds together fibers in the muscle tissues. The
connective tissue contains 2 proteins.
• Elastin – is very tough and elastic, and cooking cannot soften it.
• Collagen – also tough and elastic, but cooking can soften and
- Some meat cuts have more collagen than others. Meat cuts with little
collagen are tender. Cuts with a lot of collagen are less tender
Methods of Tenderizing Tough Meat Cuts:
1. Mechanical Method
Elastin can be broken down by:
2. Marinating – involves soaking meat in a solution called marinade which
contains acid, such as vinegar, lemon/calamansi juice or tomato juice that
helps tenderize meat.
3. Use of proteolytic enzymes that tenderize meats
Papain – from papaya
Bromelin – from pineapple
Ficin – from figs
- when animals are slaughtered, their muscles are soft and flabby. Within 6-
24 hours, rigor mortis sets in, causing the muscles to contract and stiffen.
- Rigor mortis dissipates within 48-72 hours under refrigerated conditions.
All meats should be allowed to rest, or age, long enough for rigor mortis
to dissipate completely.
- Meats that have not been aged long enough for rigor mortis to dissipates,
or that have been frozen during this period, are known as “green meats”.
They will be very tough and flavorless when cooked.
5. During cooking, heat coagulates the proteins in the, muscle fibers.
- cooking meats at too high temperature or for too long will make it tough
- Meats cuts cooked in liquid will fall apart. This is due to over coagulation
of the proteins.
ENGLISH & LOCAL NAMES OF MEAT CUTS
1. Head - ulo ng baka
2. Chuck - batok
3. Ribs - costillas
4. Short Loin - cadera
5. Rump - tapadera
6. Round - pierna corta
7. Hind shank - kenchi
8. Short Plate- kabilugan
9. Flank camito
10. Brisket - puntay pecho
1. Head - ulo ng baboy
2. Jowl - batok or kalamnan
3. Blade roast - costillas
4. Ham - pigi
5. Shank - bias
6. Foot - pata
7. Spareribs - tadyang
8. Picnic Shoulder - kasim
9. Side Belly - liempo
CHAPTER 8 – POULTRY
A collective terms for domesticated birds bred for eating
It is generally the least expensive and most versatile of all main
It can be cooked by almost any method, and its mild flavor goes
well with a wide variety of sauces and accompaniment.
A bird stores fat in skin, abdominal cavity and the fat pad near its
tail, so unlike red meats, it doesn’t contain the intra-muscular fat
known as MARBLING. Poultry fat is softer and has a lower
melting point than other animal fat.
As with red meats, poultry muscles that are used more often tend
to be tougher than those used less frequently.
Muscles of an older bird tend to be tougher than those a younger
The breast and wing flesh of chickens and turkeys are lighter in
color than the flesh of their thighs and legs due to higher
concentration of protein myglobin. More active muscles require
more myglobin and tend to be darker than less active ones.
MYOGLOBIN- protein than stores oxygen for the muscles tissue to use
Since chickens and turkeys generally do not fly, their breast
and wing muscles contain little myoglobin and light in color.
Dark meat contains more fat and has a longer cooking time
KINDS OF POULLTRY
It has the most popular and widely eaten poultry in the world.
It contains both light and dark meat and has relatively little fat.
CLASSIFICATION OF CHICKEN
CLASS DESCRIPTION AGE WE
a. Game Hen Young or immature
progeny of Cornish
Broil, grill, roast
b. broiler/fryer Young with soft,
c. Roaster Young with tender
meat and smooth-
breastbone is less
d. Capon Surgically castrated
male; tender meat
with soft, smooth
textured skin; bred
meat; contains a
high proportion of
light to dark meat
and a relatively
high fat content
e.Hen/stewing Mature female;
flavorful but less
tender meat; non-
Stew or braise
It contains only dark meat and large amount of fat. In order to
make the fatty skin palatable, it is important to render as much as
possible. It has a high percentage of bone and fat to meat.
DUCKLING-a dark slaughtered before its 8 weeks old
CLASSIFICATION OF DUCKS
CLASS DESCRIPTION AGE WEIGHT COOKING
a. Broiler/fryer Young bird
meat; a soft bill
8 weeks or less 1.5- 1.8 Kg Roast at high
b. Roaster Young bird
16 weeks or less 1.8-2.5 Kg Roast
c.Mature Old bird with
hard bill and
6 months or
1.8-2.5 Kg Braise
A goose contains only dark meat and has very fatty skin. It is
usually roasted at high temperature to render the fat.
Roasted goose is popular at holidays and is often served with an
acidic fruit-based sauce to offset the fattiness.
CLASSIFICATION OF GOOSE
CLASS DESCRIPTION AGE WEIGHT COOKING
a. Young Rich, tender dark
meat with large
amounts of fat;
6 months 2.5-5.5 Kg Roast at high
b.Mature Tough flesh and
Over 6 months 4.5-7 Kg Braise or stew
SQUAB- a young pigeon
Its meats are dark, tender well suited for broiling, sautéing or
roasting. It has very little fat.
CLASSIFICATION OF PIGEON
CLASS DESCRIPTION AGE WEIGHT COOKING
a. Squab Immature
dark flesh and a
4 weeks .3-.7 Kg Broil, roast or
small amount of
b.Pigeon Mature birds;
coarse skin and
Over 4 weeks .5-1 Kg Braise or stew
It is the second most popular poultry kind. It has both light and dark
meat and a relatively small amount of fat.
CLASSIFICATION OF TURKEY
CLASS DESCRIPTION AGE WEIGHT COOKING
a. Fryer/roaster Immature bird
of either sex
16 weeks or less 2-4 Kg
b.Young Tender meat
8 months or less 3.5-10 Kg Roast or stew
c.Yearling Fully matured
15 months or
4.5- 1.3 Kg Roast or stew
d.Mature Older bird;
15 months or
4.5 -13 Kg Stew ground or
PREPARATION OF POULTRY FOR COOKING
1. SLAUGHTERING & BLEEDING
Proper handling prior to slaughter is essential to prevent bruising and
injury to the bird.
Live birds are not fed 8-24 hours prior to slaughter easier removal of
entrails. This improves the flavor and tenderness of the meat.
Water may be given to live animal. LIVE WEIGHT- weight of the animal
at this stage.
Slaughtering is done with the least struggle of the fowl in order to effect
proper draining of its blood. Blood is a good source of bacterial spoilage
hence it should be drained well. Slitting the large or jugular vein in the
animal’s throat with one big stroke; using a sharp knife does the
slaughtering. The bird is then held by the feet or placed in a killing funnel
upside down to restrict the movement of the struggling bird. Bleeding
takes about 1 -3 minutes depending upon the sharpness of the knife used,
type and size of the bird and the method of slaughter
The bled birds are then scalded by dipping in hot water at about 60
degrees centigrade (140
CHAPTER 9 – FISH AND SHELLFISH
FISH are aquatic vertebrates with fins for swimming and gills for breathing. Of
more than 30,000 species known, most live in the seas and oceans: freshwater, species
are for less numerous.
SHELLFISH are aquatic invertebrates with shells or carapaces. They are found
in both fresh and salt water.
Classification of Fish and Shellfish:
• Inland fish – those obtained from lakes, ponds, river and other
inland bodies at water.
• Marine fish – those obtained from saltwater.
Fat fish – contains 5-20% of fat.
Lean fish – has less than 2% of fat.
• Round fish – swim in vertical position and have
eyes on both sides of their heads.
• Flat fish – has asymmetrical bodies, swim in
horizontal position and have both eyes on top of their heads.
Flat fishes are bottom dwellers; most are found in deep ocean
waters around the world.
2. Mollusks – are shellfish characterized by soft, unsegmented bodies with no
internal skeleton. Most have hard outer shells.
i. Univalves – single-shelled mollusks.
Ex. Abalone, snails/escargols
• Bivalves – those with 2 shells
Ex. Clams, oyster, mussels
• Cephalopods – do not have a hard outer shell, rather, they have
single thin internal shell called a pen or cuttle bone.
Ex. Squid, octopus
b. Crustaceans – have outer skeleton or shell and joined appendages.
Ex. Lobster, crabs, shrimps
Selecting Fish and Shellfish
Because fish and shellfish are highly perishable, a few hours at the wrong
temperature a couple of day in the refrigerator can turn high-quality fish or shellfish into
garbage. Is important that you be able to determine for yourself the freshness and
quality of the fish shellfish you purchase or use. Freshness should be checked before
purchasing and again before cooking.
Freshness can be determined by:
1. Smell – this is by far the easiest way to determine freshness. Fresh fish should
had slight sea smell or no odor at all. Any off-odors or ammonia odors are as
sign of aged or improperly handled fish.
2. Eyes – the eyes should be clear and full. Sunken eyes mean that the fish is drying
and is probably not fresh.
3. Gills – the gills should be intact and bright red. Brown gills are sign of age.
4. Texture – generally, the flesh of fresh fish should be firm. Mushy flesh or flesh it
does not spring back when pressed with a finger is a sign of poor quality/
5. Fins and scales – fins and scales should be moist and full without excessive
drying on outer edges. Dry fins or scales are sign of age: damaged fins or scales
may a sign of mishandling.
6. Appearance – fish cuts should be moist and glistening, without bruises or dark
spot. Edges should not be brown or dry.
7. Movement – shellfish should be purchased live and other crustaceous should be
act. Clams, mussels and oyster that are partially opened should snap shut with
tapped with a finger. Ones that do not close are dead and should not be us.
Avoid mollusks with broken shells or heavy shells that might be filled sand.
Market forms of Fish:
1. LIVE – these are fishes that can be marketed alive because they live long after
2. WHOLE OR ROUND – as caught, intact.
3. DRAWN – viscera (internal organs) is removed; most whole fish are purchased
4. DRESSED – viscera gills, fins and scales are removed.
5. PAN-DRESSED – viscera and gills are removed; fish is scaled and fins and tail
are trim. The head is usually removed, although small fish may be pan-dressed
with the head attached. Pan-dressed fish are then pan-fried.
6. BUTTERFLY – a pan-dressed fish, boned and opened flat like a book. The two
sides remain attached by the back or the belly fish.
7. FILLET – the side of a fish removed intact, boneless or semi-boneless, with or
8. STEAK – cross-section slice, with a small section of backbone attached; usually
prepare from large round fish.
9. STICKS – these are fillets or steaks cut further into portion of uniform width and
length like sticks hence the name.
10. DEBONED – a fish with the inter-muscular bones removed.
11. WHEEL OR CENTER CUT – used for swordfish or sharks, which are cut into
large boneless pieces from which steaks are the whole cut.
12. FLAKED – fish meat separated from the whole fish.
Storing Fish and Shellfish
1. Wrap fresh fish tightly in waxed paper or foil. Place in a tightly covered
container in the coldest part of the refrigerator. Use within a day or two.
2. For freezer storage, wrap in a vapor-proof material. Store in the coldest part of
3. Frozen fish should be thawed in the refrigerator; once thawed they should be
treated like fresh fish.
Principles of Cooking
Unlike most meats and poultry, nearly all fish and shellfish are inherently
lends and should be cooked just until done. Indeed, overcooking is the most common
mistake made when preparing fish and shellfish. Some recommends that all fish be
cooked 10 minutes thickness. Although this may be a good general policy, variables
such as type and the form of the fish and the exact cooking method used suggest that
one or more. The following methods of determining doneness are more appropriate for
professional food service operations:
1. Translucent flesh becomes opaque – the raw flesh of most fish and shellfish
appear somewhat translucent. As the proteins coagulate during cooking, the
flesh become opaque
2. Flesh becomes firm – the flesh of most fish and shellfish firms as it cooks.
Doneness can be tested by judging the resistance of the flesh when pressed with
a finger. Raw of undercooked fish or shellfish will be mushy and soft. As it
cooks, the flesh offers more resistance and spring back quickly.
3. Flesh separates from the bones easily – the flesh of raw fish remains firmly
attached to the bones. As the fish cooks, the flesh and bones separately easily.
4. Flesh begins to flake – fish flesh consist of short muscle fibers separated by the
connective tissue. As the fish cooks, the connective tissue breaks down and the
group of muscle fibers begins to flake, that is, separate from one another. Fish is
done where the flesh begins to flake. If the flesh easily, the fish will be overdone
Remember, fish and shellfish are subject to carryover cooking. Because they
cook quickly and at low temperatures, it is better to undercook fish and shellfish to
allow carryover cooking or residual heat to finish the cooking.
Methods of Cooking
A. Dry Heat Method
B. Moist Heat Method
English and Local names of fish and shellfish
English Name Local name
Blue-lined sturgeon labahita
Spanish mackerel tanigue
Red snapper maya-maya
Black bass apahap
Round scad galunggong
Indian sardine tamban
Short bodied mackerel hasa-hasa
Black tailed caesio dalagang bukid
Fresh water catfish hito
Sea catfish kanduli
Grey mullet banak
Banded cavalla talakitok
Black powfret pompano
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Fruits are the fleshy, juicy products of plants that are seed containing. When ripe, they
are edible without cooking. Fruits are usually taken at the end of meals as desserts.
Vegetables are plants or parts of plant such as roots, tubers, bulbs, stems, leaves, fruits
and flowers used raw or cooked, served generally with an entrée or in salads but not as
1. Berries – are small, juicy fruits with thin skins like strawberries, blueberries,
cranberries, blackberries and grapes.
2. Drupes – have an outer skin covering, a soft fleshy fruit. The fruit surrounds a
single, hard stone or pit, which contains the seed. Ex. Are cherries, peaches,
apricots and plums.
3. Pomes- have a central, seed containing core surrounded by a thick layer of flesh
such as apples, pears and pomes.
4. Citrus Fruits- have a thicker outer rind. A thin membrane separates the flesh into
tiny segments. Ex. Are oranges, tangerines, grapefruits and lemons.
5. Melons- are large, juicy fruits with thick skins and many seeds. They are in the
gourd family that includes cantaloupes, honeydew and watermelons.
6. Tropical fruits- are grown in warm countries and are somewhat exotic like
avocados, mangoes, bananas, figs, dates, guavas, papayas and pineapples.
Selecting fresh fruits
1. Ripe fruits are those that have reached top eating quality. Test fruit for ripeness
by pressing it gently to see if it gives slightly.
2. Under-ripe fruits are fruits that are full size but have not reaches peak eating
quality. They have small and poor color, flavor and texture.
3. Color and fragrance are also guides to ripeness. Most fruits loose their green
color as they ripen. For instance, bananas turn from a green color to a bright
yellow color. Pineapples and melons have a characteristic fragrance when ripe.
4. Avoid bruised, soft, damaged, or immature fruits.
5. Consider your needs. For example, saba is usually fried or boiled while lacatan
and latundan are eaten fresh.
6. But the fruits in season because they are cheaper.
Storing Fresh Fruits
Handle all fruits gently to prevent bruising. When you bring fruits home,
carefully wash and dry them. Then under ripe fruits ripen at room temperature and
refrigerate ripe fruits. You should use berries, melons, grapes and fruits with pits as
soon as possible. You can store apples, pears and citrus fruits longer.
CANNED, FROZEN AND DRIED FRRUITS
A. Canned Fruits – canned fruits can be whole, halved, sliced, or in pieces packed in
cans or jars. They come packed in juices, or in light, heavy or extra heavy syrup.
When buying canned fruits, choose cans that are free from dents, bulges and
leaks. After opening, transfer the fruit to a container, cover and store in the
B. Frozen Fruits- frozen fruits are available sweetened, unsweetened, whole and in
pieces. The most common frozen fruits are blueberries, raspberries, strawberries
and cherries. Most frozen fruits come in plastic bags or plastic-colored paper
C. Dried Fruits- Raisins, prunes, dates and apricots are the most common dried
fruits. They usually come in boxes or plastic bags. Choose dried fruits that are
fairly soft and pliable. Store unopened packages and boxes in a cool, dark, dry
place. After use, store containers in tightly covered containers.
You can serve fruits in a variety of ways. You can use them raw, or cooked fresh
or preserved. Here are some guidelines to follow in preparing fruits.
1. To prepare raw fruits for eating, wash fruits carefully under running water.
Never soak fruits in water as this may cause them to loose important nutrients.
2. Serve raw fruits whole or sliced. Some fruits tend to darken when exposed to air
such as bananas and apples. This is called ENZYMATIC BROWNING. Dip the
raw fruit in lemon, calamansi, and orange or pineapple juice to prevent
3. Some fruits require cooking to be tender, palatable and easier to digest. You can
use water or sugar syrup to cook the fruits in. Fruits should be cut into the same
time. You might also choose to bake, broil or fry fruits. Overcooking fruits will
results in a mushy texture, an off-flavor and a great loss in vitamins and
4. Fruits should be cooked in a small amount of water to prevent loss of vitamins
5. Too much sugar placed in fruits will destroy the natural flavor of fruits.
6. Serve canned fruits straight from the can, drained or served with the syrup or
juice in which they are packed.
7. Dried fruits used in cooking are usually soaked in hot water for an hour prior to
cooking. This process restores the moisture lost during drying and makes the
fruit more pliable.
1. Bulbs- garlic and onion
2. Flowers –cauliflower and broccoli
3. Fruits – tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplant, okra, peppers, pumpkins, and squash
4. Stems- asparagus, celery, bamboo shoots
5. Leaves- lettuce, cabbage, spinach, kamote tops, and dahon ng sili
6. Seeds – beans, peas and corn
7. Tubers- potatoes
8. Root- carrots, radish, turnips
Vegetable Classification according to color;
1. Green Vegetables contain the green pigment CHLOROPHYLL, like kangkong,
malungay and ampalaya.
2. Yellow Vegetables contain CAROTENE that gives that yellow or orange color,
carrots and pumpkins are such examples.
3. White Vegetable contains pigments called FLAVONES. Ex. Are radish, onions
4. Red Vegetables contain a pigment called ANTHOCYNIN like red beets, red bell
peppers and tomatoes.
When shopping for fresh vegetables, follow these guidelines:
1. But vegetables that are in season, they are cheaper. Compare pieces of a least two
sources before buying.
2. Look for good color, firmness and absence of bruises and decay.
3. Avoid wilted and over-handled vegetables.
4. Handled vegetables gently to avoid bruising.
5. Buy only what you will use in a short period of time. Fresh vegetable loose
quality very quickly.
6. Consider the cost in relation to the edible portion and the amount of waste for
7. Consider quality above all considerations..
Storing Fresh Vegetables
You should use all vegetables as soon as possible for best flavor, appearance and
nutritive value. Most vegetables can be kept inside the refrigerator for at least a few
days. Tomatoes can be store in refrigerator uncovered. Onions, garlic, potatoes
should be stored in open containers at room temperature.
CANNED, FROZEN AND DRIED VEGETABLES
A. Canned Vegetables-Canned vegetables can whole, sliced or in pieces. Most are
canned in water, a few in sauces. Choose cans are free from dents, bulges and
leaks. Store all cans in a cool dry place and after opening; store unused portion in
B. Frozen Vegetables- frozen vegetables retain the appearance and flavor of fresh
vegetables better than canned and dried vegetables. They are available in paper
cartons and plastic bags. Store packages in the coldest part of the freezer.
C. Dried Vegetables- the most commonly dried vegetables are the legumes, peas.
Beans and lentils. Choose legumes that are uniform in size, free from visible
defects and brightly colored. Store them in covered containers in a cool dry place.
1. Whether you are preparing vegetable to eat raw or cooked, carefully wash
vegetables in running water. A clean brush can be used to remove stubborn dirt
from crevices. Do not soak vegetables in water. Peel and cut vegetables just
2. Raw vegetables taste best and are most nutritious when served.
3. Properly cooked vegetables are colorful and flavorful. They also have a crisp
tender texture remaining you can pierce them with a fork but they are still
slightly firm. Overcooked or incorrectly cooked vegetables may result in
undesirable flavor, color, texture and loss of nutrients.
4. Vegetables cooked with no added water or in a small amount of water retain
5. Vegetables should be cooked in a short time except for starchy vegetables such as
kamote, gabi and potatoes.
6. Never add baking soda to retain the color of vegetables just avoid overcooking
7. You can cook vegetables by boiling, steaming, baking, frying, stir-frying and
broiling. Regardless of the cooking method, vegetables cooked in their skins
retain more nutrients. Always serve vegetables immediately after cooking.
8. Save the liquid after cooking vegetables. You can use it for gravies, soups and
9. For the best method of cooking frozen vegetables read what is stated on the
package. Canned vegetables have already been cooked and they need only to be
heated and seasoned. Dried vegetables often require soaking before you can cook
ENGLISH AND LOCAL NAMES OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
ENGLISH NAME LOCAL NAME
Water Chestnut apulid
Sweet Potato kamote
Cassava kamoteng kahoy
CHAPTER 10– RICE, OTHER GRAINS AND PASTA
Types and characteristic of Rice
1. Regular Milled White Rice – has been milled to remove the outer bran
coating. This process removes some vitamins and minerals, but it
produces a white, lighter-textured product.
a. Enriched rice – has received a coating of vitamins.
b. Short-grain and Medium-grain rice - have small, round kernels
that become sticky when cooked.
c. Long-grain rice – has long, slender grains that stay separate and
fluffy when cooked.
2. Instant Rice – this product has been precooked and dried so it can be
3. Brown Rice – this rice has had the bran layer left on, giving it an light
brown color, slightly course crunchy texture and nutty flavor. It is
available as short, medium or long grain. Brown rice takes about twice as
long to cook as white rice.
4. Specialty Rice
a. Arborio Rice – Italian short-grain that is used to make risotto
b. Jasmine Rice – long-grain white rice from Thailand and other
parts of Southeast Asia. It is fragrant and delicate.
c. Glutinous Rice – sweet-tasting, short-grain rice that becomes
quite sticky and chewy when cooked.
d. Basmati Rice – extra-long-grain rice widely used in India.
Handling and Storage of Rice
1. Washing – should be rinsed in cold water before boiling or steaming. This
removes the excess starch that makes rice sticky.
2. Storing – keep raw rice in room temperature in a dry place and a tightly sealed
container to keep out moisture and insects. White rice keep for many months.
Brown rice is more perishable.
Other Grains and Grain Products
1. Wild rice- not actually rice but is harvested from a kind of grass native to the
northern US and Canada. The grains are long, slender, hard and dark brown or
nearly black in color.
2. Barley- milled to remove the outer bran layers. It is commonly used in soups.
3. Wheat products- whole wheat grains
4. Corn products- Polenta (Italian-style ornmeal), blue corn, grits
The key to properly cooked rice is correct proportions of rice to water and
correct cooking times.
PASTA- Italian word for “paste”, a mixture of wheat flour and water and sometimes
Kinds, Characteristics and Quality Factors
1. Commercial pasta- made from dough that has been shaped and dried.
• Macaroni- refers to pasta made from flour and water. These include
spaghetti, elbow macaroni and many other shapes
• Egg pastas- contains at least 5 ½% egg solids in addition to the flour and
water. They are sold as flat noodles of various widths.
• Checking quality-best pastas are made from semolina, a high protein
flour from inner part of durum wheat kernels. Lower quality products are
made from farina, a softer flour.
• Look for good color, should be very hard, brittle and springy, and it
should snap with a clean, sharp-edge break. When cooked, it should hold
its shape well
2. Fresh egg Pasta-made from eggs and sometimes a small quantity of water
and/or oil. Use regular all-purpose or bread flour. They take less time to cook
than dried macaroni products.
Shapes and their uses- Each shape is appropriate for different kinds
of preparations because of the way different kinds of sauce cling to
them or the way their texture complement the texture of the topping
Doneness – pasta should be cooked al dente or “to the tooth”. Cooking
should be stopped when the pasta still feels firm to the bite, not soft
and mushy. To test, break off very small piece and taste it.
Procedure for Cooking Pasta
1. Use boiling, salted water (4 liters water per 500 grams pasta and 1 ½ tbsp salt)
2. Have the water boiling rapidly and drop in the pasta. Stir gently to keep it from
sticking together and to the bottom.
3. Continue to boil, stirring a few times.
4. As soon as al dente, drain immediately in a colander and rinse with cold running
water until pasta is completely cooled. Otherwise, it would continue to cook and
become too soft.
5. Toss gently with a small amount of oil to keep it from sticking.
CHAPTER 4 – KITCHEN TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT (LAB)
I. KITCHEN EQUIPMENT
A. Cooking Equipment
1. Range or stove
The range provides the necessary heat in cooking food. The
fuel used for range may be electric, gas, kerosene, coal or wood.
Ovens are enclosed spaces in which food is heted usually by
hot dry air
Kinds of ovens:
a. Conventional Ovens- These oven operates simply by
heating air in an enclose space
b. Convection Ovens- These ovens contains fans that
circulate the air and distribution the heat rapidly
throughout the interior.
c. Revolving Ovens- These large ovens, also called reel
Ovens are large chamber containing many shelves or
trays on a Ferris-wheel type attachment.
Microwave Ovens- In these ovens, special tubes generate
Microwave radiation which creates heat inside the food
Grills are used for the same cooking operations as broilers,
except the heat source is below the grid that holds the food
rather than the above it.
Griddles are flat, smooth, heated surfaces on which food is
cooked directly. Hamburgers, and other meats, eggs and
many potato items are the food most frequent cooked in
griddle. Clean griddle surface every use, so as that they will
cook at peak efficiency. Condition griddles after each
cleaning or before each use, to create a non-stick surface and
to prevent rusting. Procedure: spread a thin film of foil over
the surface and heat to 400 F. Wipe clean and repeat until
griddle has a smooth, no-stick finish
5. Deep fryers
A deep fryer has only one use- to cook foods in hot fat.
B. Processing Equipment
Mixers are important and versatile tools for many kinds of
food mixing and processing jobs both in the bakeshop and in
2. Food processor
This is used to chop and mix large quantities of food rapidly.
It can also be used for pureeing for mixing liquid.
A. Holding and Storage Equipment
1. Hot Food Holding Equipment
a. Bain Marie- is a hot-water bath. Containers of foods are
set on a rack in a shallow container of water, which is
heated by electricity, gas, or steam. The bain marie is
used more in the production area, while the steam table
is used in the service area.
b. Overhead Infrared lamps- are used in service areas to
keep plated food warm before the service staff picks it
up. They are also used for keeping large roasts warm
B. Cold Food Storage Equipment
a. Freezer- used to hold food for longer times, or to store
longer times, or store foods purchased in frozen forms
2 Types of Individual Freezer cabinets
> upright type
> chest type
II. KITCHEN UTENSILS
B. Pots and Pans and Their Uses
1. Stock pot
A large, deep, straight-sided pot for preparing stocks and
simmering large quantities of liquids. Stock pots with spigots
allow liquid to be drained off without disturbing the solid contents
or lifting the pot. Sizes: 8 to 200 quarts ( or liters)
2. Sauce pot
Round pot of medium depth. Similar to stock pots, but shallower,
making stirring or mixing easier. Used for soups, sauces, and other
liquids. Sizes: 6 to 60 quarts (or liters)
3. Sauté pan
Also called fry pan. Used for general sautéing and frying of meats,
fish, vegetables, and eggs. Sloping sides allow the cook to flip and toss
items without using a spatula, and they make it easier to get at the food
when a spatula is used. Sizes: 6 to 14 inches (160-360 mm) top diameter.
4. Double boiler
Lower section, similar to a stock pot, holds boiling water. Upper
section holds foods that must be cooked at low temperatures and
cannot be cooked over direct heat. Size of top section: 4 to 36 quarts
5. Baking pan
Rectangular pan about 2 inches deep. Used for general baking.
Comes in a variety of sizes.
6. Stainless steel bowl
Round bottom bowl. Used for mixing and whipping, for
production of hollandaise, mayonnaise, whipped cream, egg white
foams. Round construction enables whip to reach all areas. Come in
C. Measuring Devices
1. Scales. Most recipe ingredients are measured by weight, so
accurate scales are very important. Portion scales are used for
measuring ingredients as well as for portioning products for
2. Liquid measuring cup used for liquids and have lips for easy
pouring. Each size is marked off into fourth by ridges on the
3. Dry/Solid Measuring cups are available in 1-, ½-, 1/3-, and ¼-,
and ¼- cup sizes. They can be used for dry ingredients.
4. Measuring spoons are used for measuring very small volumes:
1 tablespoon, 1 teaspoon, ½ teaspoon, and ¼ teaspoon. They are
used most often for spices and seasonings. Can be used for both
liquid and dry ingredients.
5. Ladles are used for measuring and portioning liquid. The size,
in ounces, is stamped on the handle.
6. Scoops come in standard sizes and have a lever for mechanical
release. They used for portioning soft solid foods.
7. Thermometer measure temperatures. There are many kinds for
a. A meat thermometer indicates internal temperature of
meats. It is inserted before cooking and left in the
product during cooking.
b. Fat thermometer and candy thermometer test
temperatures of frying fats and sugar syrups. They read
up to 400°F
c. Special thermometer are used to test the accuracy of
oven, refrigerator, and freezer thermostat.
D. Knives, Hand tools, and Small Equipment
Knives and Their Uses
1. French knife or chef’s knife
Most frequently used knife in the kitchen, for general purpose
chopping, slicing, and dicing, and so on. Blade is wide at the
heel and tapers to a point. Blade length of 10 inches (260 mm) is
most popular for general work. Larger knives are for heavy
cutting and chopping.
2. Paring Knife
Small pointed blade 2 to 4 inches (50-100 mm) long. Used for
trimming and paring vegetables and fruits.
3. Boning Knife
Thin, pointed blade about 6 inches (160 mm) long. Used for
boning raw meats and poultry. Stiff blades are used for heavier
work. Flexible blades are used for lighter work and for filleting
4. Bread Knife
Like a knife, but with serrated edge, used for cutting breads,
cakes, and similar items.
Very heavy, broad blade. Used for cutting through bones.
6. Vegetable peeler
Short tool with a slotted, swiveling blade. Used for peeling
vegetables and fruits.
Not a knife, but an essential part of the knife kit. Used for truing
and maintaining knife edges.
C. Cutting board
Hands Tools and Small Equipment
1. Ball cutter, melon ball scoop, or parisienne knife/baler
Blade is a small, cup-shaped, half sphere. Used for cutting
fruits and vegetables into small balls.
2. Straight/metal spatula or palette knife
A long flexible blade with a rounded end. Used mostly for
spreading icing on cakes and for mixing and bowl scraping.
3. Offset spatula
Broad blade, bent to keep hand off hot surfaces. Used for
turning and lifting eggs, pancakes, and meats on griddles,
grills, sheet pans, and so on. Also used scraper to bench or
4. Spatula or scraper
Broad, flexible rubber or plastic tip on long handle. Used to scrape bowls and
pans. Also used for folding in egg foams or whipped cream.