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  • 1. CHAPTER 1 – FOODS FOOD - is any article whether simple, mixed or compounded, which is used as food or drink, confectionery or condiment. - any matter eaten by man to sustain life and nourish the body - any substance which when taken into the body provides energy, builds and repairs tissues and regulated bodily processes. FOOD SCIENCE- is the study of chemical, physical & microbiological nature of food and any transformation that food undergoes from the time it is produced to the time it is consumed. HISTORY OF FOOD • Early people ate food raw. At some point, they accidentally discovered that cooked food taste better and was easier to digest. By trial and error, they learned to control fire and use it to prepare food. • Eventually, these early people found they could protect themselves and secure food more easily by living in groups. They formed tribes and begun to hunt for food together. • The hunters became herders when they discovered that they could capture and domesticate animals. They also discovered that they could plant seeds to produce large amount of food. These two advances made the food supply much more dependable. • As food became easily to obtain, not all people had spend their time hunting and farming. Some were able to a craft. Other became merchants. Trading in its simplest form began, and with came the development of civilization. The Migration of Food • As civilization grew and developed, people began searching for food in distant places. • Spanish, Portuguese, English, and Dutch sailors traveled across the oceans in search of tea, spices, and other foods.
  • 2. • The explorers introduced food they carried with them in new lands. • In the U.S. – the Spanish explorers introduced cane sugar, wheat, oranges, and sheep. English explorers brought apple, pears, and walnuts. • The explorers also carried foods from the land they explored, back to their homelands. • Therefore, foods that were once native to once place are now found in many places. This type of exchange led to increased variety of foods throughout the world. CRITERIAS OF FOOD QUALITY: 1. Nutritional Quality - Nutrients are responsible for the physiological roles of food to give energy, build and repair tissues and regulate bodily processes. The Main Groups of Nutrients are:  Water  Protein  Fats  Carbohydrates  Minerals  Vitamins 2. Digestibility - Refers not only to the completeness of the digestion and absorption but also the general feeling and after-effect of eating. 3. Palatability - Eating qualities of a food as judged by the human senses. a. Visual Perception- the mere sight of food may stimulate or dampen the appetite. Many consumers decide to buy a product because of its eye appeal. b. Odor Detection- the olfactory nerves of the nose are sensitive to volatile substances emitted by the aromatic compounds in foods. c. Taste Stimuli- taste buds located on the pharynx and the palate of the oral cavity which decrease as we get older. There are four basic tastes:  Salty (sides and tip)  Bitter (mostly at the back)  Sweet (concentrated at the tip)
  • 3.  Sour (mostly on the sides) d. Tactile Sensation-mouth feel and feeling by touch Ex. Softness of fruit as held on the palm; Different types of sugars or flours as felt between the fingers. e. Flavor- this sensory is a composite of odor, taste and mouth feel and sound. Psychological and physiological factors which differ among individuals 1. Age 2. Allergy 3. State of health 4. Food habits 5. Emotional conditions 6. Threshold vale 4. Economical Quality - Amount of money spent for the ingredients, the amount of time, equipment and labor utilized for cooking, serving and storing the food. 5. Sanitary Quality - Prepared under sanitary condition CHAPTER 2 – THE KITCHEN Three Main Activity/Work centers: 1. Food preparation and storage area center 2. Cooking and serving center 3. Clean up or washing center Main Kitchen Equipment 1. RANGE - provides necessary heat for cooking (electric, gas, kerosene, coal or wood) 2. REFRIGERATOR – Storage for perishable goods - Types of Individual Freezer Units a. Upright b. Chest type 3. Sink-central to all food preparation which require water
  • 4. Kitchen Arrangement: 1. U-shaped kitchen – All of the appliances and cabinets are arranged in a continuous line along the three adjoining walls. 2. L- shaped Kitchen – Appliances and cabinets forms a continuous line along two adjoining walls. 3. Horizontal/Corridor Kitchen – Appliances and cabinets are arranged in two non-adjoining walls. 4. Island Kitchen – in this kitchen, a counter stands alone in the center of the room. 5. Peninsula Kitchen- is most found in large rooms. In this kitchen, a counter extends into room, forming a peninsula 6. One-wall kitchen- all of the appliances and cabinets are along one wall. This arrangement generally does not give adequate storage or counter space. Work triangle distance: Sink to Refrigerator (4 ft-7ft) Range to Ref (4 ft- 9ft) Sink to Range (4 ft- 6ft) KITCHEN ORGANIZATION The purpose of kitchen organization is to assign or allocate tasks so that they will be done efficiently and properly and so that all workers will know their responsibility. The Classical Brigade Executive Chef - Is a manager who responsible for all aspects of food production, including menu planning, purchasing, and planning work schedule. Chef - Person in charge of the kitchen Sous Chef (soo shef) - Directly in charge of production; assistant to the chef.
  • 5. Station Chefs or Chef De Partie - In charge of particular areas of production A. Sauce Chef/Saucier (so see ay)- prepare sauces, stews and hot hors d’ouvres and sautés foods for order. B. Fish cook/Poissonier (pwa so nyay)-prepares fish dishes C. Soup Cook/Potager (po ta zhay) – responsible for the preparation of soups and stocks D. Vegetable cook/Entremetier (awn truh met yay)-prepares vegetables, soups, starches and eggs E. Roast cook/Rotissuer (ro tee sur)-prepares roasted and braised meats and their gravies and broils meats and other items to order. F. Broiler cook/Grillardin (gree ar dan)-handles broiled items, may also prepare deep fried meats and fish G. Pantry Chef/Garde Manger (gard mawn zhay)-responsible for colds foods, including salads and dressings, paste, cold hors d’ouvres and buffet items. H. Pastry chef/Patissier (pa tees syay)-prepares pastries and desserts. I. Relief cooks/Swing cook/Tournat (toor nawn)-replaces other station heads. J. Butcher – responsible for all raw food preparation Demi Chef de Partie – assistant of Chef de Partie and does the job of the Chef de Partie whenever heis not around. He assists in checking the quantity of food done by the Commis I, II and III. Commis I (ko mi) / 1st Cook or Senior Cook - Highly skilled cook in thesection. He constantly double check the job of theCommis II and III. - Commis II / 2nd Cook or Junior Cook - Skilledcooand next in line to the Commis I. He supervises the job of the Commis III. Commis III / 3rd Cook or Helper - Is the lowest position in the kitchen organizational chart. He does the basic preparation in his section and assists the Commis II I the food preparation.
  • 6. CHAPTER 3 – SANITATION & SAFETY Cleaning- removing visible dirt/soil Sanitizing- killing disease causing bacteria 2 WAYS: 1. by heat 2. by chemicals MANUAL DISWASHING 1. Scrape and pre-rinse- Soak to loosen food particles 2. Wash 3. Rinse 4. Sanitize- place utensils in a rack and immerse in hot water for 30 seconds. 5. Drain and air dry- do not towel dry, this may recontaminate the utensils The Role of the Uniform  The Hat or Toque It contains the chef’s hair, preventing it from falling into the food and catching fire. It also absorbs the sweat from the brows  The jackets and the Pants The jacket protects the chest area from burns, splashes and spills. Sleeves are long to cover the arms from possible burns and scalds. The same is also true with the pants.  Apron and side Towels The apron is worn to protect the jacket and pants from excessive staining. Side towels are used to protect your hands when working with hot tools and equipment.  Shoes A hard-leather shoes to protects the feet from falling knives and scalds. Kitchen clogs also prevents the feet from straining and slipping.  Neckerchief To avoid perspiration
  • 7. Preventing Cuts • Keep knives sharp • Use a cutting board • Cut away from yourself • Don’t try to catch the falling knives • Carry a knife properly • Don’t put breakable items in the pot sink Preventing Burns • Wear your uniform • Always assume a pot handle is hot • Use dry pads or towels to handle hot pans • Don’t fills pans so full that they likely spill • Open lids away from you to let steam to escape • Dry food before putting them in frying fat • Warn people about hot pans Preventing Fires • Know where fire extinguishers are located • Keep a supply of salt or baking soda handy to put out small fires • Don’t leave hot fat unattended on the range Preventing Falls • clean up spills immediately • keep aisles and stairs clear and unobstructed • Don’t carry objects too big to see over • Walk, don’t run!! Preventing Strains and Injuries from Lifting • Lift with the leg muscles, not the back • Don’t run or twist the back while lifting, and make sure your footing is secure • Don’t be a hero. Ask help when carrying heavy object
  • 8. CHAPTER 4 BASIC COOKING METHOD Cooking - Application of heat in food preparation - Heat brings about chemical, physical and microbiological changes Purpose of Cooking 1. To make its maximum nutritive value in palatable form (edible) 2. To develop, enhance or alter its flavor 3. To improve its digestibility 4. To increase palatability by improving its color, texture and flavor 5. To destroy pathogenic organisms and substances found in a raw food. Heat Transfer - Shift of heat from the source to the food - Understanding how heat is transferred helps the cook to control the cooking process - 3 ways of heat transfer 1. Conduction a. Heat moves directly from one item to something touching it. Ex from the top of the range to a soup pot placed on it, from the pot to the soup inside. b. When heat moves from one part of something to an adjacent part of the same item. Ex from pan to its handle. • Different materials conduct heat at different speeds. Heat moves rapidly through copper and aluminum, more slowly in stainless steel, slower in glass and porcelain. Air is a poor conductor of heat. 2. Convection- heat is spread by movement of air, steam or liquid. a. Natural- hot liquids and gases rise while cooler ones sink. Thus in a pot of liquid, there is a constant, natural circulation that distribute heat. b. Mechanical- in convection ovens, fans speed the circulation of heat. Thus heat is transferred more quickly to the food, and the food cooks faster. 3. Radiation –energy is transferred by waves from the source to the food. The waves are not heat energy, but are changed into heat energy when they strike the food being cooked.
  • 9. a. Infrared- in a broiler an electric element heated by a gas flame becomes so hot that it gives off infrared radiation that cooks the food. b. Microwave- the radiation generated by the oven penetrates into the food, where it agitates the molecules of water. The friction caused by this agitation creates heat, which cooks the food. Cooking time is affected by 3 factors: 1. Cooking temperature- the temp. of the oven, the oil or liquid. 2. The speed of heat transfer- different cooking method transfer heat at different rates (a convection oven cooks faster than a conventional oven, even if both are set at the same temp. the fan in a convection oven transfer heat more rapidly). 3. Size, temp and individual characteristics of the food- (for example, a small beef cooks faster than a large one: frozen steak takes longer to broil than the one at room temp. ; fish items generally cook more quickly than meats.) Cooking Methods 1. Moist heat- cooking methods in which the heat is conducted to the food product by water or by steam. Poach simmer and boil-cook food in water or in a seasoned and flavored liquid. The temp of the liquids determines the method. a. Broil means to cook in a liquid that is bubbling rapidly and is greatly agitated. Water boils at 212 F (100 C).Boiling is generally reserved for certain vegetables and starches. The high temp would toughen the meat, eggs and the rapid bubbling breaks up delicate foods. b. Simmer – means to cook in a liquid that is bubbling very gently. Temperature is about 185 F to 205 F (85 C to 96 C). Just below boiling point. Most foods cooked in a liquid are simmered rather than boiled. c. Poach- means to cook in a small amount of liquid that is hot but not bubbling. Temperature is about 160 F to 180 F (71 C to 82 C), Poaching is used to cook delicate foods such as fish and eggs out of the shell. It also used to partially cook foods in order to eliminate undesirable flavors and firm up the product final cooking. d. Blanch- means to cook an item partially and very briefly, usually in water, and then finish with different method. There are two ways of blanching in water: 1. Place the item in cold water. This is to dissolve out blood, salt or impurities from certain meats and bones. 2. Place item in rapidly boiling water and return the water to the boil. Remove the item and cool in cold water. This is to set the color and destroy the
  • 10. harmful enzymes in vegetables or to loosen the skin of tomatoes, peaches and other similar items for easier peeling. Steam –means to cook food by exposing them directly to steam. a. Steaming is done on a rack above boiling water. b. Steaming also refers to cooking an item tightly wrapped or in a covered pan, so that it cooks in the steam formed by its own moisture. This method is used in cooking items en papillote, wrapped in parchment paper or foil. c. Steam at normal pressure is 212 F (100 C). The same as boiling water. However it carries more heat than boiling water and cooks very rapidly. d. A pressure steamer is a steam cooker that holds in steam under pressure. The temp. of the steam goes higher than 212 F, because of this, pressure steaming is an extremely rapid method of cooking and must be carefully controlled and timed. e. Steaming is widely used for vegetables. It cooks them rapidly, without agitation, and minimizes the dissolving of nutrients. Braised means to cook covered in a small amount of liquid, usually after browning. In almost all cases, the liquid is served with the product as a sauce. Braising is sometimes called a combination cooking method. The product is first browned (to develop color and flavor) using dry heat before it is cooked in a liquid. a. Braised meats are browned first using a dry-heat method such as pan- frying. This gives a desirable appearance and flavor to the product and sauce. b. Also refers to cooking certain vegetables slowly in a small amount of liquid without preliminary browning. c. Braising may be done on the range or in the oven. 2. Dry-Heat Method- cooking methods in which the heat is conducted to without moisture, that is, by hot air, hot metal, radiation or hot fat. It is divided into two categories: without fat and with fat. Roast and Bake - Cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air, usually in an oven or cooking on a spit in front of an open fire. Roasting – meats and poultry Baking – breads, pastries, vegetables and fish a. Cooking uncovered is essential to roasting. Once covered, it holds in steam thus changing it from dry-heat to moist-heat cooking. b. Meat is roasted on the rack for better hot air circulation and to prevent the meat from cooking in its own juices.
  • 11. c. To barbecue means to cook with dry heat created by the burning of hardwood or hot coals. Barbecuing is a roasting or grilling technique requiring wood fire. d. Smoke roasting is a procedure done on top of the stove in a closed container, using wood chips to make smoke. This procedure is used for small, tender, quick-cooking such as fish fillet, tender meat and poultry pieces and some vegetables. Broil – cook with radiant heat from above. a. Broiling is a rapid, high heat cooking method that is usually used only for tender meats, poultry, fish and few vegetables. b. Note the following rules for broiling: 1. Turn heat on full. Regulate cooking temp. by moving the rack nearer or away from the heat. 2. Use lower heat for larger, thicker items, and for items to be cooked well done. Use higher heat for thinner pieces and for items to be cooked rare. 3. Preheat the broiler. This helps to sear the product quickly, and the hot broiler will make the desired grill marks on the food. 4. Foods may be dipped in oil to prevent sticking and to minimize drying. Take note that too much oil on a hot broiler may cause a fire. 5. Turn foods over only once, to cook from both sides but to avoid unnecessary handling. c. A low-intensity broiler called a salamander is used for browning or melting the top of some items before service. Grill, Griddle, and Pan-broil- dry heat cooking that uses heat from below. a. Grilling is done on an open grid over a heat source, like charcoal an electric element or gas heated element. b. Griddling is done on a solid cooking surface called a griddle, with or without small amount of fat to prevent sticking. Grooved griddles – have a solid top with raised ridges. They are designed to cook like grills, but create less smoke. c. Pan-broiling is like griddling, except it is done in a sauté pan or skillet. Dry Heat Methods Using Fat Sauté – cook quickly in a small amount of fat. a. Sauter (French , meaning to jump) refers to the action of tossing small pieces of food in a sauté pan.
  • 12. b. 2 Important principles: 1. Preheat the pan before adding the food. Otherwise, it will begin to simmer in its own juices. 2. Do not overcrowd the pan. It lowers the temp and the food begins to simmer. c. Meats to be sautéed are often dusted with flour to prevent sticking and achieve uniform browning. d. After a food is sautéed, liquid (wine or stock) is often swirled in the pan to dissolve browned bits of food sticking to the bottom. This is called deglazing. This liquid becomes part of a sauce served with the sautéed items. Panfry – cook in moderate amount of fat in a pan over medium heat a. Similar to sautéing except it used more fat and cooking time is longer. b. Pan-frying is done over lower heat than sautéing because of the larger pieces being cooked. c. Amount of fat depends on the amount of food. Less if you are cooking eggs and more if you are frying pork chops. d. Food must be turned at least once for even cooking. Deep Fry – cook food submerged in hot fat a. Quality in deep fried products is characterized by: 1. Minimum fat/oil absorption. 2. Minimum moisture loss (tender) 3. Attractive golden color 4. Crisp surface or coating 5. No off flavors imparted by the fat. b. Guidelines: 1. Fry at proper T- 350 F to 375 F (175 C to 190 C). 2. Don’t overload the baskets. 3. Use good quality fat. Best fat for frying has a high smoke point – the temp. at which the fat begins to smoke and to break down easily. 4. Replace about 15-20% of fat with fresh fat after each daily use. 5. Discard spent fat. 6. Avoid frying strong and mild-flavored foods in the same fat. 7. Fry as close to service as possible. 8. Protect fat from its enemies: a. Heat- turn off when not in use b. Oxygen – cover and try not to create when filtering c. Water- remove excess moisture d. Salt- never salt food over fat
  • 13. e. Detergent- rinse baskets and kettle well after cleaning. Pressure frying – deep frying in a special covered fryer that traps steam given off by the foods being cooked and increases the pressure inside the kettle. Microwave Cooking- refers to the use of a specific tool rather than dry- heat or moist-heat cooking method. • Used for heating prepared foods and for thawing either raw or cooked items. • Small items will not brown • Overcooking is the most common error, watch timing carefully • Sliced or cooked meats are likely to dry out thus it should be protected either by wrapping them loosely in plastic or wax paper. • Because microwaves act only on water molecules, foods with high water content (ex vegetables) heat transfer than drier foods (ex. Cooked meat) • Foods at the edge of the plate metal and aluminum foil. A potato wrapped in aluminum foil will not cook. Metals can also cause damage to your microwave.
  • 14. CHAPTER 5 – THE RECIPE A recipe is a set of instructions for producing a certain dish. In order to duplicate a desired preparation, it is necessary to have a precise record of the ingredients, their amounts, and the way in which they are combined and cooked. This is the purpose of a recipe. STANDARDIZED RECIPES A standardized recipe is a set of instructions describing the way a particular establishment prepares a particular dish. In other words, it is a customized recipe developed by an operation for the use of its own cooks, using its own equipment, to be served to its own patrons. Function of Standardized Recipes: An operation’s own recipes are used to control production. They do this in two ways: a. They control quality- Standardized recipes are very detailed and specific. This is to ensure that the product is the same every time is made and served, no matter who cooks it. b. They control quantity- First, they indicate precise quantities for every ingredient and how they are to be measured. Second, they indicate exact yields and portion sizes, and how the portions are to be measured and served. Principles to be followed in recipe construction: 1. The recipe should be simple, easy to read and interesting to the reader. 2. The ingredients should be listed in the order they are to be used. 3. Exact measurements should be indicated. 4. Amounts should be easy to measure. 5. Descriptive terms should be placed before the ingredients if the process is to be carried out before measurement. Ex. 2 cups flour sifted 6. If the process is carried out after measurement, the terms are placed after the ingredient. 7. Specify the particular type of ingredient to be used. 8. Use the generic names of the ingredients rather than brand names. 9. Short, clear sentences that give necessary information help to make directions understandable. 10. Use the precise term to describe a cooking process or preparation method. 11. Baking, or cooking items, temperatures, and pan sizes need to be accurate.
  • 15. 12. The recipe should state the yield-the number of average serving of the recipe makes. Each time you use a recipe make sure that: a. You have read the recipe carefully. b. You understand all the terms and direction. c. You have all the necessary ingredients. d. You have all the correct tools/utensils for the job. e. All the ingredients are ready for cooking Ex. Minced the garlic, melt the chocolate f. Pre-heat the oven (for baking, if needed)
  • 16. CHAPTER 6 – MISE EN PLACE - To be successful in the food service industry, cooks need more than the ability to delicious, attractive, and nutritious foods. They must have a talent for organization and efficiency. - Good chef take pride in the thoroughness and quality of their preparation, or mise en place (pronounced meez-on-plahss) MISE EN PLACE – French term meaning “everything in place”. PLANNING AND ORGANIZING PRODUCTION Even on the simplest level, pre-preparation is the necessary. If you prepare only one short recipe, you must first: 1. Assemble your tools. 2. Assemble your ingredients. 3. Wash, trim, cut, prepare, and measure your raw materials. 4. Prepare your equipment. - Preheat the oven, line baking sheets, etc. A. THE KNIFE - Knives are the most important items in your tool kit. - The chef’s knife or French knife is the chef’s most important and versatile cutting tool. - With a sharp knife, the skilled chef can accomplish a number of tasks more quickly and efficiently than any machine. Using Your Knife Safely: 1. Use the correct knife for the task at hand. 2. Always cut away from yourself. 3. Always cut on a cutting board. Do not cut on glass, marble or metal. 4. Keep knives sharp; a dull knife is more dangerous than a sharp one. 5. When carrying a knife, hold it point down, parallel and close to your legs as you walk. 6. Do not attempt to catch a falling knife; step back and allow it to fall. 7. Never leave a knife in a sink of water; anyone reaching into the sink could be injured, or pots or other utensils could dent the knife.
  • 17. Handling the Knife The Grip - A proper grip gives you maximum control over the knife. - The proper grip increases your cutting accuracy and speed, it prevents slipping, and it lessens the chance of an accident. - Many chefs feel that actually grasping the blade with the thumb and forefinger in this manner gives them greatest control. The Guiding Hand While one hand controls the knife, the other hands control the product being cut. Proper positioning of the hand will do three things. 1. Hold the item being cut. - The items is held firmly so that it will not slip 2. Guide the knife - The knife blade slides against the finger. The position of the hand controls the cut. 3. Protect the hand from cuts. -Fingertips are curled under, out of the way of the blade. BASIC CUTS AND SHAPES - cutting food products into uniform shapes and sizes is important for two reasons: • It ensures even cooking. • It enhances the appearance of the product. 1. Brunoise (broon-wahz) – 1/8 in. x 1/8 in. x 1/8 2. Small dice – ¼ in. x ½ in. x ½ in. 3. Medium dice – ½ in. x ½ in. x ½ in. 4. Large dice – ¾ in. x ¾ in. x ¾ in. 5. Julienne – 1/8 in. x 1/8 in. x 2 1/3 6. Batonnet – ¼ in. x ¼ in. x 2 ½ 7. French Fry – 1/3 in. square x 3 in. long 8. Rondelle The following terms describe other cutting techniques: 1. Chop – to cut into irregularly shaped pieces. 2. Mince – to chop into very fine pieces. 3. Shred – to cut into strips, either with the course blade of a grater or with a chef’s knife. 4. Chiffonade – refers to cutting leaves into fine shreds.
  • 18. B. MEASURING INGREDIENTS I. Dry Ingredients A. Dry ingredients include sugar, flour, baking soda, baking powder, salt, and spices. Measures this ingredients in dry measuring cups. 1. Spoon the ingredients into the correct measuring cup until it is overfilled. • Note: If your recipe calls for sifted flour, you should sift the flour before spooning it into the dry measuring cup. 2. Do not shake or tap the measuring cup. Hold the measuring cup over the ingredient container or a sheet of paper. 3. Use a straight-edged spatula to level off any excess. The ingredients should be even with the top edge of the measuring cup. C. Brown Sugar 1. As you spoon brown sugar into a dry measuring cup, press it down firmly with the back of the spoon. This is called packing. 2. overfill the measuring cup, then, level it off with a straight-edged spatula. 3. The brown sugar should hold the shape of the measuring cup when you turn it into a mixing bowl. D. To Measures Small Amounts 1. Use measuring spoons to measure small amounts (less than ¼ cup0 of dry ingredients. 2. Dip the correct measuring spoon into the ingredient container and bring it up heaping full. 3. Level off the top with a straight-edged spatula. II. Liquid Ingredients Liquid ingredients include milk, water, oil, juices, food coloring, and extract. Measure these ingredients in liquid measuring cups. The handle and spout on the liquid measuring cups make it easy to pour liquid ingredients. The extra room at the top of the cup will help you avoid spilling.
  • 19. A. How to measure liquids 1. You cannot get an accurate measurement when you look through a measuring cup at an angle, set the liquid measuring cup on a flat surface. 2. Bend down so the desired marking on the measuring cup is at eye level. 3. Slowly pour the liquid into the measuring cup until it reaches the mark for the desired amount. B. to measures Small Amounts 1. Use measuring spoon to measure small amount (less than ¼ cup) of liquid ingredient. 2. Carefully pour the ingredients into the correction until filled to the edge. III. Measuring Fats Butter, margarine, shortening and peanut butter are fats used in recipes. You can measure them in one of several ways: 1. Markings on the wrapper of stick butter or margarine can help you measure the amount you need. A stick of butter or margarine equals 8 tablespoons or ½ cup. Use a sharp knife to cut through the wrapper at the marking for the desired number of tablespoon. 2. You can measure shortening and peanut butter in dry measuring cups. Use a rubber spatula to press the ingredients into the measuring cup, make sure you eliminate any air pockets. * you can also use the water is placement method” to measure solid fats. Fill a 2- cup liquid measuring cup with 1 cup cold water. Then carefully spoon in the solid fat until the water level rises by the amount you need. Make sure the fat is not clinging to the side of the measuring cup. Drain off the water before using the fat.
  • 20. CHAPTER 7 – MEAT MEAT - is the edible portion of mammals. It contains muscle, fat, bone, connective tissue and water. - The major meat producing in animals are cattle, swine, and sheep. - In the Philippines, we also have goat meat, carabao meat, horse meat and dog meat. Beef & veal – meat from cattle. Pork – meat from hog. Lamb & mutton – meat from sheep Chevon – meat from goat Carabeef – meat from carabao I. BEEF Beef is the meat of domesticated mature cattle usually over 12 months of age. It has distinctive flavor and firm texture. It is usually bright, cherry red in color with creamy white fat. Cattle is the collective name for all domesticated oxen. Cattle are classified as;  Bulls – male cattle, usually not raised to be eaten.  Calves – young cows or bulls prized for their meat.  Cows – female cattle after the first calving, raised principally for milk and calf production..  Steers – male cattle castrated prior to maturity and principally raised for beef. It is important to know the location of bones when cutting or working with meats. This makes meat fabrication and carving easier and aids in identifying cuts. An entire beef carcass can range in weight from 500 to more than 800 pounds (225-360 kg.) II. VEAL Cows must calve before they begin to give milk. Veal is the meat of calves under the age of nine months. Most veal comes from calves slaughtered when they are 8-16 weeks old. Veal is lighter in color than beef, has a more delicate flavor and is generally more tender. Young veal has a firm texture, light pink in color and very little fat. As soon as a calf starts eating solid food, the iron in the food begins to turn the young animal’s meat red. Meat from calves slaughtered when they are older than five months is called calf. It tends to be a deeper red, with
  • 21. some marbling and external fat. A veal carcass weighs in a range of 60 to 245 pounds (27-110 kg.) Variety Meats/ Organ Meats Other than muscles, some animals have edible parts that are usually inexpensive sources of vitamins and minerals.  Sweetbreads – these are the thymus glands of veal and lamb. As animal ages; its thymus gland shrinks; therefore, sweetbreads are not available from older cattle or sheep.  Liver, heart, kidney, and tongue of beef, veal, lamb and pork.  Tripe – the inner lining of the stomach of ruminant (cud- chewing) animals. i. blanket tripe - tuwalya ii. honeycomb tripe – libro-libri or librilyo  brains  chitterlings – cleaned intestines  other innards – include the lights (lungs), melt (spleen) and mesentery (abdominal membrane)  Pork / beef blood IV. LAMB Lamb is the meat of sheep slaughtered when they are less than one year old. Meat from sheep slaughtered after that age is called mutton. Spring lamp in young lamb that has not been fed grass or grains. Because lamb in slaughtered at an early age, it is quite tender and can be prepared by almost any cooking method. A lamb carcass generally weighs between 41 to 75 pounds (20 to 35 kg.). Hogs are bred specially to produce long loins: the loin contains the highest-quality meat and is the most expensive cut of pork. Pork is unique in that the ribs and loin are considered a single primal. A hog carcass generally weighs in a range in 120 to 210 pounds (55-110 kg.). Pork Products Ham – comes from pork leg. It is usually cured and smoked. Bacon – is smoked pork belly meat. Selection of Meat 1. Look for good butchering - A skilled meat cutter follows the contour of muscles and bones. - With small cuts sliced evenly or in uniform pieces so that they cook at the same time.
  • 22. 2. Cut should be trimmed of sinew (tendon), leaving enough fat to keep the flesh moist. 3. Marbling is the key to the flavor and tenderness of meat. • Marbling indicates tenderness in a cut of meat. • Although more marbling means more tenderness, it also means more total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and calories. • Cooking can tenderize cuts with less marbling. 4. Meat should have a clear but not bright color; a grayish tinge is a bad sign. • Yellow fat signals old age and dried edges is a sign of dehydration. Market Forms of Meat: 1. Fresh Meat – this is meat immediately after slaughter, without undergoing chilling or freezing. 2. Chilled Meat – is meat that has been cooled to a temperature just above freezing (1-3°) within 24 hours after slaughter. 3. Frozen Meat – are meat cuts frozen to an eternal temperature of 20°C (- 40°C). 4. Cured Meat – are meat products that have been treated with a curing agent solution like salt, sodium nitrate (salitre), sugar, and spices. 5. Canned Meat – are cooked meat products and only requires to be reheated. 6. Dried Meats – dehydrated meats. Meat Cookery Six Stages of Doneness: 1. very rare - red, juices blood, soft, jelly-like 2. rare -raw red portion of meat is small, around is pink brown outer surface, juices are red 3. medium rare –interior portion is rich pink. Meat is plump and firm 4. medium – modified rose, pink juices are less 5. medium well – pink color disappears, juices are clear gray, firm to touch 6. Well - gray inside and out, shrunken, little or no juice appear, brown and dry. Storage of Meats 1. Store fresh meat in the coldest part of the refrigerator (40°F/5°C or lower). 2. You can store pre-packed meat in the refrigerator in its original wrapper. 3. Use refrigerated fresh meats within 3-4 days. Ground meats and variety meats are more perishable than other meats, use them within 1-2 days. 4. Freeze meats for longer storage. (0°F/18°C or colder) for maximum keeping quality.
  • 23. o you can freeze luncheon meat, hotdog, and ham up to 2 months. o Ground meats will keep for 3 months. o Pork cuts for 6 months o Lamb will keep up to 9 months. - Beef will keep for a year. 5. To store meats in the freezer, you should rewrap them in moisture proof and vapor proof. Label each package with the date, name and weight of the cut. 6. Refrigerator cured & smoke meats, sausages, and ready to serve meats, unless the label says otherwise. Leave them in their original wrappers. 7. Store cooked meat in a tightly covered container in the refrigerator. Consume within 1-2 days. Principles of Cooking Meat is cooked for various reasons: 1. To improve its palatability quality. - Cooking develops flavors in meat; some methods yield more flavors than other. - Changes in the fat and in the protein due to heating contribute to the distinct flavor of cooked meat. It also brings about changes in meat pigments, making meat more appetizing. 2. To increase tenderness- - remember that meat consists of muscle tissue, connective tissue, fat and bone. Connective tissue holds together fibers in the muscle tissues. The connective tissue contains 2 proteins. • Elastin – is very tough and elastic, and cooking cannot soften it. • Collagen – also tough and elastic, but cooking can soften and tenderize it. - Some meat cuts have more collagen than others. Meat cuts with little collagen are tender. Cuts with a lot of collagen are less tender Methods of Tenderizing Tough Meat Cuts: 1. Mechanical Method Elastin can be broken down by:  Pounding/beating  Slicing thinly  Grounding 2. Marinating – involves soaking meat in a solution called marinade which contains acid, such as vinegar, lemon/calamansi juice or tomato juice that helps tenderize meat. 3. Use of proteolytic enzymes that tenderize meats
  • 24.  Papain – from papaya  Bromelin – from pineapple  Ficin – from figs 4. Aging - when animals are slaughtered, their muscles are soft and flabby. Within 6- 24 hours, rigor mortis sets in, causing the muscles to contract and stiffen. - Rigor mortis dissipates within 48-72 hours under refrigerated conditions. All meats should be allowed to rest, or age, long enough for rigor mortis to dissipate completely. - Meats that have not been aged long enough for rigor mortis to dissipates, or that have been frozen during this period, are known as “green meats”. They will be very tough and flavorless when cooked. 5. During cooking, heat coagulates the proteins in the, muscle fibers. - cooking meats at too high temperature or for too long will make it tough and dry. - Meats cuts cooked in liquid will fall apart. This is due to over coagulation of the proteins. ENGLISH & LOCAL NAMES OF MEAT CUTS Beef Cuts 1. Head - ulo ng baka 2. Chuck - batok 3. Ribs - costillas 4. Short Loin - cadera 5. Rump - tapadera 6. Round - pierna corta 7. Hind shank - kenchi 8. Short Plate- kabilugan 9. Flank camito 10. Brisket - puntay pecho Pork Cuts 1. Head - ulo ng baboy 2. Jowl - batok or kalamnan 3. Blade roast - costillas 4. Ham - pigi 5. Shank - bias 6. Foot - pata 7. Spareribs - tadyang 8. Picnic Shoulder - kasim 9. Side Belly - liempo
  • 25. CHAPTER 8 – POULTRY  A collective terms for domesticated birds bred for eating  It is generally the least expensive and most versatile of all main dish foods  It can be cooked by almost any method, and its mild flavor goes well with a wide variety of sauces and accompaniment.  A bird stores fat in skin, abdominal cavity and the fat pad near its tail, so unlike red meats, it doesn’t contain the intra-muscular fat known as MARBLING. Poultry fat is softer and has a lower melting point than other animal fat.  As with red meats, poultry muscles that are used more often tend to be tougher than those used less frequently.  Muscles of an older bird tend to be tougher than those a younger one.  The breast and wing flesh of chickens and turkeys are lighter in color than the flesh of their thighs and legs due to higher concentration of protein myglobin. More active muscles require more myglobin and tend to be darker than less active ones. MYOGLOBIN- protein than stores oxygen for the muscles tissue to use  Since chickens and turkeys generally do not fly, their breast and wing muscles contain little myoglobin and light in color.  Dark meat contains more fat and has a longer cooking time KINDS OF POULLTRY 1. CHICKEN It has the most popular and widely eaten poultry in the world. It contains both light and dark meat and has relatively little fat. CLASSIFICATION OF CHICKEN CLASS DESCRIPTION AGE WE IG HT COOKING METHOD a. Game Hen Young or immature progeny of Cornish chickens; very flavorful 5-6 weeks 1kg or less Broil, grill, roast
  • 26. b. broiler/fryer Young with soft, smooth-textured skin; relatively lean; flexible breastbone 13 weeks 1.5 kg or less Any (versatile c. Roaster Young with tender meat and smooth- textured skin; breastbone is less flexible than broiler’s 3-5 month s 1.5- 2Kg Any d. Capon Surgically castrated male; tender meat with soft, smooth textured skin; bred for well-flavored meat; contains a high proportion of light to dark meat and a relatively high fat content Under 8 month s 2.5-4.5 Kg Roast e.Hen/stewing Mature female; flavorful but less tender meat; non- flexible breastbone Over 10 month s 1-3.5 Kg Stew or braise 2. DUCKS It contains only dark meat and large amount of fat. In order to make the fatty skin palatable, it is important to render as much as possible. It has a high percentage of bone and fat to meat. DUCKLING-a dark slaughtered before its 8 weeks old CLASSIFICATION OF DUCKS CLASS DESCRIPTION AGE WEIGHT COOKING METHOD a. Broiler/fryer Young bird with tender meat; a soft bill and windpipe 8 weeks or less 1.5- 1.8 Kg Roast at high temperature
  • 27. b. Roaster Young bird with tender meat; rich flavor; easily dented windpipe 16 weeks or less 1.8-2.5 Kg Roast c.Mature Old bird with tough flesh; hard bill and windpipe 6 months or older 1.8-2.5 Kg Braise 3. GOOSE A goose contains only dark meat and has very fatty skin. It is usually roasted at high temperature to render the fat. Roasted goose is popular at holidays and is often served with an acidic fruit-based sauce to offset the fattiness. CLASSIFICATION OF GOOSE CLASS DESCRIPTION AGE WEIGHT COOKING METHOD a. Young Rich, tender dark meat with large amounts of fat; easily dented windpipe 6 months 2.5-5.5 Kg Roast at high temperature with acidic sauces b.Mature Tough flesh and hard windpipe Over 6 months 4.5-7 Kg Braise or stew 4. PIGEON SQUAB- a young pigeon Its meats are dark, tender well suited for broiling, sautéing or roasting. It has very little fat. CLASSIFICATION OF PIGEON CLASS DESCRIPTION AGE WEIGHT COOKING METHOD a. Squab Immature pigeon; very tender; very dark flesh and a 4 weeks .3-.7 Kg Broil, roast or sauté
  • 28. small amount of fat b.Pigeon Mature birds; coarse skin and tough flesh Over 4 weeks .5-1 Kg Braise or stew 5. TURKEY It is the second most popular poultry kind. It has both light and dark meat and a relatively small amount of fat. CLASSIFICATION OF TURKEY CLASS DESCRIPTION AGE WEIGHT COOKING METHOD a. Fryer/roaster Immature bird of either sex (female are called TOMS); tender meat with smooth skin; flexible breastbone 16 weeks or less 2-4 Kg b.Young Tender meat with smooth skin; less flexible breastbone 8 months or less 3.5-10 Kg Roast or stew c.Yearling Fully matured bird; reasonably tender and slightly coarse skin 15 months or less 4.5- 1.3 Kg Roast or stew d.Mature Older bird; reasonably tender meat and slightly coarse skin 15 months or older 4.5 -13 Kg Stew ground or used in processed products PREPARATION OF POULTRY FOR COOKING 1. SLAUGHTERING & BLEEDING  Proper handling prior to slaughter is essential to prevent bruising and injury to the bird.  Live birds are not fed 8-24 hours prior to slaughter easier removal of entrails. This improves the flavor and tenderness of the meat.
  • 29.  Water may be given to live animal. LIVE WEIGHT- weight of the animal at this stage.  Slaughtering is done with the least struggle of the fowl in order to effect proper draining of its blood. Blood is a good source of bacterial spoilage hence it should be drained well. Slitting the large or jugular vein in the animal’s throat with one big stroke; using a sharp knife does the slaughtering. The bird is then held by the feet or placed in a killing funnel upside down to restrict the movement of the struggling bird. Bleeding takes about 1 -3 minutes depending upon the sharpness of the knife used, type and size of the bird and the method of slaughter 2. SCALDING  The bled birds are then scalded by dipping in hot water at about 60 degrees centigrade (140 CHAPTER 9 – FISH AND SHELLFISH FISH are aquatic vertebrates with fins for swimming and gills for breathing. Of more than 30,000 species known, most live in the seas and oceans: freshwater, species are for less numerous. SHELLFISH are aquatic invertebrates with shells or carapaces. They are found in both fresh and salt water. Classification of Fish and Shellfish: 1. Fish • Inland fish – those obtained from lakes, ponds, river and other inland bodies at water. • Marine fish – those obtained from saltwater.  Fat fish – contains 5-20% of fat.  Lean fish – has less than 2% of fat. • Round fish – swim in vertical position and have eyes on both sides of their heads. • Flat fish – has asymmetrical bodies, swim in horizontal position and have both eyes on top of their heads. Flat fishes are bottom dwellers; most are found in deep ocean waters around the world. 2. Mollusks – are shellfish characterized by soft, unsegmented bodies with no internal skeleton. Most have hard outer shells.
  • 30. i. Univalves – single-shelled mollusks. Ex. Abalone, snails/escargols • Bivalves – those with 2 shells Ex. Clams, oyster, mussels • Cephalopods – do not have a hard outer shell, rather, they have single thin internal shell called a pen or cuttle bone. Ex. Squid, octopus b. Crustaceans – have outer skeleton or shell and joined appendages. Ex. Lobster, crabs, shrimps Selecting Fish and Shellfish Because fish and shellfish are highly perishable, a few hours at the wrong temperature a couple of day in the refrigerator can turn high-quality fish or shellfish into garbage. Is important that you be able to determine for yourself the freshness and quality of the fish shellfish you purchase or use. Freshness should be checked before purchasing and again before cooking. Freshness can be determined by: 1. Smell – this is by far the easiest way to determine freshness. Fresh fish should had slight sea smell or no odor at all. Any off-odors or ammonia odors are as sign of aged or improperly handled fish. 2. Eyes – the eyes should be clear and full. Sunken eyes mean that the fish is drying and is probably not fresh. 3. Gills – the gills should be intact and bright red. Brown gills are sign of age. 4. Texture – generally, the flesh of fresh fish should be firm. Mushy flesh or flesh it does not spring back when pressed with a finger is a sign of poor quality/ 5. Fins and scales – fins and scales should be moist and full without excessive drying on outer edges. Dry fins or scales are sign of age: damaged fins or scales may a sign of mishandling. 6. Appearance – fish cuts should be moist and glistening, without bruises or dark spot. Edges should not be brown or dry. 7. Movement – shellfish should be purchased live and other crustaceous should be act. Clams, mussels and oyster that are partially opened should snap shut with tapped with a finger. Ones that do not close are dead and should not be us. Avoid mollusks with broken shells or heavy shells that might be filled sand. Market forms of Fish: 1. LIVE – these are fishes that can be marketed alive because they live long after catch. 2. WHOLE OR ROUND – as caught, intact.
  • 31. 3. DRAWN – viscera (internal organs) is removed; most whole fish are purchased this way. 4. DRESSED – viscera gills, fins and scales are removed. 5. PAN-DRESSED – viscera and gills are removed; fish is scaled and fins and tail are trim. The head is usually removed, although small fish may be pan-dressed with the head attached. Pan-dressed fish are then pan-fried. 6. BUTTERFLY – a pan-dressed fish, boned and opened flat like a book. The two sides remain attached by the back or the belly fish. 7. FILLET – the side of a fish removed intact, boneless or semi-boneless, with or without skin. 8. STEAK – cross-section slice, with a small section of backbone attached; usually prepare from large round fish. 9. STICKS – these are fillets or steaks cut further into portion of uniform width and length like sticks hence the name. 10. DEBONED – a fish with the inter-muscular bones removed. 11. WHEEL OR CENTER CUT – used for swordfish or sharks, which are cut into large boneless pieces from which steaks are the whole cut. 12. FLAKED – fish meat separated from the whole fish. Storing Fish and Shellfish 1. Wrap fresh fish tightly in waxed paper or foil. Place in a tightly covered container in the coldest part of the refrigerator. Use within a day or two. 2. For freezer storage, wrap in a vapor-proof material. Store in the coldest part of the freezer. 3. Frozen fish should be thawed in the refrigerator; once thawed they should be treated like fresh fish. Principles of Cooking Unlike most meats and poultry, nearly all fish and shellfish are inherently lends and should be cooked just until done. Indeed, overcooking is the most common mistake made when preparing fish and shellfish. Some recommends that all fish be cooked 10 minutes thickness. Although this may be a good general policy, variables such as type and the form of the fish and the exact cooking method used suggest that one or more. The following methods of determining doneness are more appropriate for professional food service operations: 1. Translucent flesh becomes opaque – the raw flesh of most fish and shellfish appear somewhat translucent. As the proteins coagulate during cooking, the flesh become opaque 2. Flesh becomes firm – the flesh of most fish and shellfish firms as it cooks. Doneness can be tested by judging the resistance of the flesh when pressed with a finger. Raw of undercooked fish or shellfish will be mushy and soft. As it cooks, the flesh offers more resistance and spring back quickly.
  • 32. 3. Flesh separates from the bones easily – the flesh of raw fish remains firmly attached to the bones. As the fish cooks, the flesh and bones separately easily. 4. Flesh begins to flake – fish flesh consist of short muscle fibers separated by the connective tissue. As the fish cooks, the connective tissue breaks down and the group of muscle fibers begins to flake, that is, separate from one another. Fish is done where the flesh begins to flake. If the flesh easily, the fish will be overdone and dry. Remember, fish and shellfish are subject to carryover cooking. Because they cook quickly and at low temperatures, it is better to undercook fish and shellfish to allow carryover cooking or residual heat to finish the cooking. Methods of Cooking A. Dry Heat Method 1. Broiling 2. Grilling 3. Baking 4. Sauteing 5. Pan-frying B. Moist Heat Method 1. Steaming 2. Poaching 3. Simmering English and Local names of fish and shellfish English Name Local name Blue-lined sturgeon labahita Tuna tambakol/tulingan Spanish mackerel tanigue Grouper lapu-lapu Red snapper maya-maya Black bass apahap Anchovy dilis Round scad galunggong Indian sardine tamban Short bodied mackerel hasa-hasa Black tailed caesio dalagang bukid Carp tilapia Fresh water catfish hito Milkfish bangus Mudfish dalag
  • 33. Sea catfish kanduli Grey mullet banak Slipmouth sapsap Banded cavalla talakitok Black powfret pompano Prawn sugpo Clam halaan Mussel tahong Oyster talaba Squid posit Mangrove alimango Lobster ulang Shrimp hipon CHAPTER 9 FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits are the fleshy, juicy products of plants that are seed containing. When ripe, they are edible without cooking. Fruits are usually taken at the end of meals as desserts. Vegetables are plants or parts of plant such as roots, tubers, bulbs, stems, leaves, fruits and flowers used raw or cooked, served generally with an entrée or in salads but not as desserts. I. FRUITS Fruit Classification: 1. Berries – are small, juicy fruits with thin skins like strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, blackberries and grapes. 2. Drupes – have an outer skin covering, a soft fleshy fruit. The fruit surrounds a single, hard stone or pit, which contains the seed. Ex. Are cherries, peaches, apricots and plums. 3. Pomes- have a central, seed containing core surrounded by a thick layer of flesh such as apples, pears and pomes. 4. Citrus Fruits- have a thicker outer rind. A thin membrane separates the flesh into tiny segments. Ex. Are oranges, tangerines, grapefruits and lemons. 5. Melons- are large, juicy fruits with thick skins and many seeds. They are in the gourd family that includes cantaloupes, honeydew and watermelons. 6. Tropical fruits- are grown in warm countries and are somewhat exotic like avocados, mangoes, bananas, figs, dates, guavas, papayas and pineapples. Selecting fresh fruits
  • 34. 1. Ripe fruits are those that have reached top eating quality. Test fruit for ripeness by pressing it gently to see if it gives slightly. 2. Under-ripe fruits are fruits that are full size but have not reaches peak eating quality. They have small and poor color, flavor and texture. 3. Color and fragrance are also guides to ripeness. Most fruits loose their green color as they ripen. For instance, bananas turn from a green color to a bright yellow color. Pineapples and melons have a characteristic fragrance when ripe. 4. Avoid bruised, soft, damaged, or immature fruits. 5. Consider your needs. For example, saba is usually fried or boiled while lacatan and latundan are eaten fresh. 6. But the fruits in season because they are cheaper. Storing Fresh Fruits Handle all fruits gently to prevent bruising. When you bring fruits home, carefully wash and dry them. Then under ripe fruits ripen at room temperature and refrigerate ripe fruits. You should use berries, melons, grapes and fruits with pits as soon as possible. You can store apples, pears and citrus fruits longer. CANNED, FROZEN AND DRIED FRRUITS A. Canned Fruits – canned fruits can be whole, halved, sliced, or in pieces packed in cans or jars. They come packed in juices, or in light, heavy or extra heavy syrup. When buying canned fruits, choose cans that are free from dents, bulges and leaks. After opening, transfer the fruit to a container, cover and store in the refrigerator. B. Frozen Fruits- frozen fruits are available sweetened, unsweetened, whole and in pieces. The most common frozen fruits are blueberries, raspberries, strawberries and cherries. Most frozen fruits come in plastic bags or plastic-colored paper cartons. C. Dried Fruits- Raisins, prunes, dates and apricots are the most common dried fruits. They usually come in boxes or plastic bags. Choose dried fruits that are fairly soft and pliable. Store unopened packages and boxes in a cool, dark, dry place. After use, store containers in tightly covered containers. Preparing Fruits You can serve fruits in a variety of ways. You can use them raw, or cooked fresh or preserved. Here are some guidelines to follow in preparing fruits. 1. To prepare raw fruits for eating, wash fruits carefully under running water. Never soak fruits in water as this may cause them to loose important nutrients.
  • 35. 2. Serve raw fruits whole or sliced. Some fruits tend to darken when exposed to air such as bananas and apples. This is called ENZYMATIC BROWNING. Dip the raw fruit in lemon, calamansi, and orange or pineapple juice to prevent browning. 3. Some fruits require cooking to be tender, palatable and easier to digest. You can use water or sugar syrup to cook the fruits in. Fruits should be cut into the same time. You might also choose to bake, broil or fry fruits. Overcooking fruits will results in a mushy texture, an off-flavor and a great loss in vitamins and minerals. 4. Fruits should be cooked in a small amount of water to prevent loss of vitamins and minerals. 5. Too much sugar placed in fruits will destroy the natural flavor of fruits. 6. Serve canned fruits straight from the can, drained or served with the syrup or juice in which they are packed. 7. Dried fruits used in cooking are usually soaked in hot water for an hour prior to cooking. This process restores the moisture lost during drying and makes the fruit more pliable. II. VEGETABLES Vegetable Classifications; 1. Bulbs- garlic and onion 2. Flowers –cauliflower and broccoli 3. Fruits – tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplant, okra, peppers, pumpkins, and squash 4. Stems- asparagus, celery, bamboo shoots 5. Leaves- lettuce, cabbage, spinach, kamote tops, and dahon ng sili 6. Seeds – beans, peas and corn 7. Tubers- potatoes 8. Root- carrots, radish, turnips Vegetable Classification according to color; 1. Green Vegetables contain the green pigment CHLOROPHYLL, like kangkong, malungay and ampalaya. 2. Yellow Vegetables contain CAROTENE that gives that yellow or orange color, carrots and pumpkins are such examples. 3. White Vegetable contains pigments called FLAVONES. Ex. Are radish, onions and turnips. 4. Red Vegetables contain a pigment called ANTHOCYNIN like red beets, red bell peppers and tomatoes. When shopping for fresh vegetables, follow these guidelines: 1. But vegetables that are in season, they are cheaper. Compare pieces of a least two sources before buying.
  • 36. 2. Look for good color, firmness and absence of bruises and decay. 3. Avoid wilted and over-handled vegetables. 4. Handled vegetables gently to avoid bruising. 5. Buy only what you will use in a short period of time. Fresh vegetable loose quality very quickly. 6. Consider the cost in relation to the edible portion and the amount of waste for each type. 7. Consider quality above all considerations.. Storing Fresh Vegetables You should use all vegetables as soon as possible for best flavor, appearance and nutritive value. Most vegetables can be kept inside the refrigerator for at least a few days. Tomatoes can be store in refrigerator uncovered. Onions, garlic, potatoes should be stored in open containers at room temperature. CANNED, FROZEN AND DRIED VEGETABLES A. Canned Vegetables-Canned vegetables can whole, sliced or in pieces. Most are canned in water, a few in sauces. Choose cans are free from dents, bulges and leaks. Store all cans in a cool dry place and after opening; store unused portion in the refrigerator. B. Frozen Vegetables- frozen vegetables retain the appearance and flavor of fresh vegetables better than canned and dried vegetables. They are available in paper cartons and plastic bags. Store packages in the coldest part of the freezer. C. Dried Vegetables- the most commonly dried vegetables are the legumes, peas. Beans and lentils. Choose legumes that are uniform in size, free from visible defects and brightly colored. Store them in covered containers in a cool dry place. Preparing Vegetables 1. Whether you are preparing vegetable to eat raw or cooked, carefully wash vegetables in running water. A clean brush can be used to remove stubborn dirt from crevices. Do not soak vegetables in water. Peel and cut vegetables just before cooking. 2. Raw vegetables taste best and are most nutritious when served. 3. Properly cooked vegetables are colorful and flavorful. They also have a crisp tender texture remaining you can pierce them with a fork but they are still slightly firm. Overcooked or incorrectly cooked vegetables may result in undesirable flavor, color, texture and loss of nutrients. 4. Vegetables cooked with no added water or in a small amount of water retain more nutrients. 5. Vegetables should be cooked in a short time except for starchy vegetables such as kamote, gabi and potatoes. 6. Never add baking soda to retain the color of vegetables just avoid overcooking them.
  • 37. 7. You can cook vegetables by boiling, steaming, baking, frying, stir-frying and broiling. Regardless of the cooking method, vegetables cooked in their skins retain more nutrients. Always serve vegetables immediately after cooking. 8. Save the liquid after cooking vegetables. You can use it for gravies, soups and sauces. 9. For the best method of cooking frozen vegetables read what is stated on the package. Canned vegetables have already been cooked and they need only to be heated and seasoned. Dried vegetables often require soaking before you can cook them. ENGLISH AND LOCAL NAMES OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES ENGLISH NAME LOCAL NAME Water Chestnut apulid Sweet Potato kamote Cassava kamoteng kahoy Taro ube Radish labanos CHAPTER 10– RICE, OTHER GRAINS AND PASTA Types and characteristic of Rice 1. Regular Milled White Rice – has been milled to remove the outer bran coating. This process removes some vitamins and minerals, but it produces a white, lighter-textured product. a. Enriched rice – has received a coating of vitamins. b. Short-grain and Medium-grain rice - have small, round kernels that become sticky when cooked. c. Long-grain rice – has long, slender grains that stay separate and fluffy when cooked. 2. Instant Rice – this product has been precooked and dried so it can be prepared quickly. 3. Brown Rice – this rice has had the bran layer left on, giving it an light brown color, slightly course crunchy texture and nutty flavor. It is available as short, medium or long grain. Brown rice takes about twice as long to cook as white rice. 4. Specialty Rice a. Arborio Rice – Italian short-grain that is used to make risotto b. Jasmine Rice – long-grain white rice from Thailand and other parts of Southeast Asia. It is fragrant and delicate.
  • 38. c. Glutinous Rice – sweet-tasting, short-grain rice that becomes quite sticky and chewy when cooked. d. Basmati Rice – extra-long-grain rice widely used in India. Handling and Storage of Rice 1. Washing – should be rinsed in cold water before boiling or steaming. This removes the excess starch that makes rice sticky. 2. Storing – keep raw rice in room temperature in a dry place and a tightly sealed container to keep out moisture and insects. White rice keep for many months. Brown rice is more perishable. Other Grains and Grain Products 1. Wild rice- not actually rice but is harvested from a kind of grass native to the northern US and Canada. The grains are long, slender, hard and dark brown or nearly black in color. 2. Barley- milled to remove the outer bran layers. It is commonly used in soups. 3. Wheat products- whole wheat grains 4. Corn products- Polenta (Italian-style ornmeal), blue corn, grits The key to properly cooked rice is correct proportions of rice to water and correct cooking times. PASTA- Italian word for “paste”, a mixture of wheat flour and water and sometimes egg Kinds, Characteristics and Quality Factors 1. Commercial pasta- made from dough that has been shaped and dried. • Macaroni- refers to pasta made from flour and water. These include spaghetti, elbow macaroni and many other shapes • Egg pastas- contains at least 5 ½% egg solids in addition to the flour and water. They are sold as flat noodles of various widths. • Checking quality-best pastas are made from semolina, a high protein flour from inner part of durum wheat kernels. Lower quality products are made from farina, a softer flour. • Look for good color, should be very hard, brittle and springy, and it should snap with a clean, sharp-edge break. When cooked, it should hold its shape well 2. Fresh egg Pasta-made from eggs and sometimes a small quantity of water and/or oil. Use regular all-purpose or bread flour. They take less time to cook than dried macaroni products.  Shapes and their uses- Each shape is appropriate for different kinds of preparations because of the way different kinds of sauce cling to them or the way their texture complement the texture of the topping
  • 39.  Doneness – pasta should be cooked al dente or “to the tooth”. Cooking should be stopped when the pasta still feels firm to the bite, not soft and mushy. To test, break off very small piece and taste it. Procedure for Cooking Pasta 1. Use boiling, salted water (4 liters water per 500 grams pasta and 1 ½ tbsp salt) 2. Have the water boiling rapidly and drop in the pasta. Stir gently to keep it from sticking together and to the bottom. 3. Continue to boil, stirring a few times. 4. As soon as al dente, drain immediately in a colander and rinse with cold running water until pasta is completely cooled. Otherwise, it would continue to cook and become too soft. 5. Toss gently with a small amount of oil to keep it from sticking. CHAPTER 4 – KITCHEN TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT (LAB) I. KITCHEN EQUIPMENT A. Cooking Equipment 1. Range or stove The range provides the necessary heat in cooking food. The fuel used for range may be electric, gas, kerosene, coal or wood. 2. Ovens
  • 40. Ovens are enclosed spaces in which food is heted usually by hot dry air Kinds of ovens: a. Conventional Ovens- These oven operates simply by heating air in an enclose space b. Convection Ovens- These ovens contains fans that circulate the air and distribution the heat rapidly throughout the interior. c. Revolving Ovens- These large ovens, also called reel Ovens are large chamber containing many shelves or trays on a Ferris-wheel type attachment. Microwave Ovens- In these ovens, special tubes generate Microwave radiation which creates heat inside the food 3. Grills Grills are used for the same cooking operations as broilers, except the heat source is below the grid that holds the food rather than the above it. 4. Griddles Griddles are flat, smooth, heated surfaces on which food is cooked directly. Hamburgers, and other meats, eggs and many potato items are the food most frequent cooked in griddle. Clean griddle surface every use, so as that they will cook at peak efficiency. Condition griddles after each cleaning or before each use, to create a non-stick surface and to prevent rusting. Procedure: spread a thin film of foil over the surface and heat to 400 F. Wipe clean and repeat until griddle has a smooth, no-stick finish 5. Deep fryers A deep fryer has only one use- to cook foods in hot fat. B. Processing Equipment 1. Mixers Mixers are important and versatile tools for many kinds of food mixing and processing jobs both in the bakeshop and in the kitchen. 2. Food processor This is used to chop and mix large quantities of food rapidly. It can also be used for pureeing for mixing liquid.
  • 41. A. Holding and Storage Equipment 1. Hot Food Holding Equipment a. Bain Marie- is a hot-water bath. Containers of foods are set on a rack in a shallow container of water, which is heated by electricity, gas, or steam. The bain marie is used more in the production area, while the steam table is used in the service area. b. Overhead Infrared lamps- are used in service areas to keep plated food warm before the service staff picks it up. They are also used for keeping large roasts warm B. Cold Food Storage Equipment a. Freezer- used to hold food for longer times, or to store longer times, or store foods purchased in frozen forms 2 Types of Individual Freezer cabinets > upright type > chest type b. Refrigerator II. KITCHEN UTENSILS B. Pots and Pans and Their Uses 1. Stock pot A large, deep, straight-sided pot for preparing stocks and simmering large quantities of liquids. Stock pots with spigots allow liquid to be drained off without disturbing the solid contents or lifting the pot. Sizes: 8 to 200 quarts ( or liters) 2. Sauce pot Round pot of medium depth. Similar to stock pots, but shallower, making stirring or mixing easier. Used for soups, sauces, and other liquids. Sizes: 6 to 60 quarts (or liters) 3. Sauté pan Also called fry pan. Used for general sautéing and frying of meats, fish, vegetables, and eggs. Sloping sides allow the cook to flip and toss items without using a spatula, and they make it easier to get at the food when a spatula is used. Sizes: 6 to 14 inches (160-360 mm) top diameter. 4. Double boiler
  • 42. Lower section, similar to a stock pot, holds boiling water. Upper section holds foods that must be cooked at low temperatures and cannot be cooked over direct heat. Size of top section: 4 to 36 quarts (or liters) 5. Baking pan Rectangular pan about 2 inches deep. Used for general baking. Comes in a variety of sizes. 6. Stainless steel bowl Round bottom bowl. Used for mixing and whipping, for production of hollandaise, mayonnaise, whipped cream, egg white foams. Round construction enables whip to reach all areas. Come in many sizes. C. Measuring Devices 1. Scales. Most recipe ingredients are measured by weight, so accurate scales are very important. Portion scales are used for measuring ingredients as well as for portioning products for services. 2. Liquid measuring cup used for liquids and have lips for easy pouring. Each size is marked off into fourth by ridges on the sides. 3. Dry/Solid Measuring cups are available in 1-, ½-, 1/3-, and ¼-, and ¼- cup sizes. They can be used for dry ingredients. 4. Measuring spoons are used for measuring very small volumes: 1 tablespoon, 1 teaspoon, ½ teaspoon, and ¼ teaspoon. They are used most often for spices and seasonings. Can be used for both liquid and dry ingredients. 5. Ladles are used for measuring and portioning liquid. The size, in ounces, is stamped on the handle. 6. Scoops come in standard sizes and have a lever for mechanical release. They used for portioning soft solid foods. 7. Thermometer measure temperatures. There are many kinds for many purposes. a. A meat thermometer indicates internal temperature of meats. It is inserted before cooking and left in the product during cooking. b. Fat thermometer and candy thermometer test temperatures of frying fats and sugar syrups. They read up to 400°F
  • 43. c. Special thermometer are used to test the accuracy of oven, refrigerator, and freezer thermostat. D. Knives, Hand tools, and Small Equipment Knives and Their Uses 1. French knife or chef’s knife Most frequently used knife in the kitchen, for general purpose chopping, slicing, and dicing, and so on. Blade is wide at the heel and tapers to a point. Blade length of 10 inches (260 mm) is most popular for general work. Larger knives are for heavy cutting and chopping. 2. Paring Knife Small pointed blade 2 to 4 inches (50-100 mm) long. Used for trimming and paring vegetables and fruits. 3. Boning Knife Thin, pointed blade about 6 inches (160 mm) long. Used for boning raw meats and poultry. Stiff blades are used for heavier work. Flexible blades are used for lighter work and for filleting fish. 4. Bread Knife Like a knife, but with serrated edge, used for cutting breads, cakes, and similar items. 5. Cleaver Very heavy, broad blade. Used for cutting through bones. 6. Vegetable peeler Short tool with a slotted, swiveling blade. Used for peeling vegetables and fruits. 7. Steel Not a knife, but an essential part of the knife kit. Used for truing and maintaining knife edges. C. Cutting board Hands Tools and Small Equipment 1. Ball cutter, melon ball scoop, or parisienne knife/baler Blade is a small, cup-shaped, half sphere. Used for cutting fruits and vegetables into small balls. 2. Straight/metal spatula or palette knife A long flexible blade with a rounded end. Used mostly for spreading icing on cakes and for mixing and bowl scraping. 3. Offset spatula Broad blade, bent to keep hand off hot surfaces. Used for turning and lifting eggs, pancakes, and meats on griddles,
  • 44. grills, sheet pans, and so on. Also used scraper to bench or griddle. 4. Spatula or scraper Broad, flexible rubber or plastic tip on long handle. Used to scrape bowls and pans. Also used for folding in egg foams or whipped cream.