Academic Freedom

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  •  A major bone of contention among the supporters of Professor Raymundo was not to question the institutional Academic Freedom of the Department in not granting her tenure, but in asking for transparency in how the Academic Freedom of the department was exercised, i
  • The principle of Academic Freedom which were originated in Greece, arose again in Europe during the Rennaisance Period in which the Age of Reason came to maturity.
     
  • Academic Freedom in the United States were heavily influence by the German universities and the growth of the non sectarian America universities. The rise of ideological conflicts, especially relating to economic theory. The faculty began to feel the need to protect the faculty against the trustees and administrators whose view may be found unpalatable.
    In response to these conflicts, in 1915 the American Association of University Professors was founded and issued its Declaration of Principles on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure (the “Declaration”).
  • If a church or religious denomination establishes a college to be governed by a board of trustees, with the express understanding that the college will be used as an instrument of propaganda in the interests of the religious faith professed by the church or denomination creating it, the trustees have a right to demand that everything be subordinated to that end. (American Association University Professors) (Guide to Academic Freedom, Frederick B. Shaffer,2012)
  • “A university is a great and indispensable organ of higher life of a civilized community, in the work of which the trustees hold an essential and highly honorable place, but in which the faculties hold an independent place, with quite equal responsibilities – and in relation to purely scientific and educational questions the primary responsibility.” (American Association University Professors) (Guide to Academic Freedom, Frederick B. Shaffer,2012)
  •  Declaration affirms that the university must provide an inviolable refuge from the tyranny of public opinion:  “It should be an intellectual experiment station, where new ideas may germinate and where their fruit, though still distasteful to the community as a whole, may be allowed to ripen until finally, perchance, it may become a part of the accepted intellectual tool of the nation or of the world.  Not less is it a distinctive duty of the university to be the conservator of all genuine elements of value in the past thought and life of mankind which are not in the fashion of the moment.”
  • In 1940, the American Association of University Professors and the Association of American Colleges (today the Association of American Colleges and Universities) agreed to a shorter version of the Declaration, now known as the 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure. The basic purpose of academic freedom remained the same:
  • The 1940 Statement goes on to deal with the subject of academic tenure.  It provides:  “After the expiration of a probationary period, teachers or investigators should have permanent or continuous tenure, and their service should be terminated only for adequate cause, except . . . under extraordinary circumstances because of financial exigencies.”  The reason for tenure, and its protection, is to ensure both “freedom of teaching and research and of extramural activities” and “a sufficient degree of economic security to make the profession attractive to men and women of ability.”
    Academic tenure protects academic freedom by ensuring that teachers can be fired only for causes such as gross professional incompetence or behavior that evokes condemnation from the academic community itself
  •  As members of that community, students should be encouraged to develop their capacity for critical judgment and to engage in a sustained and independent search for truth. The freedom to learn depends upon the maintenance of appropriate opportunities and conditions in the classroom, on the campus and in the larger community.
  • Academic Freedom

    1. 1. ACADEMIC FREEDOM
    2. 2. “Truth is not only violated by falsehood; it may be equally outraged by silence“ Henri Frederic Amiel a.m.somoray
    3. 3. Historical Events that suppressed Academic Freedom a.m.somoray
    4. 4. Socrates (470-399 BC) was put to death for corrupting the youth of Athens with his ideas
    5. 5. Controversial case of University of the Philippines at Diliman Sociology Professor Sarah Raymundo who was not granted tenure due to an appeal by the minority dissenting vote within the faculty of the Sociology Department
    6. 6. Academic Freedom defined.... Freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts without being targeted for repression, job loss, or imprisonment. Freedom to teach & do research without the constraint to discover and promulgate new ideas (Robinson & Moulton, 2002) •Freedom to teach and do research without the constrai02) Protection of the rights of the teacher in teaching and of the student to freedom in learning. (1940 Statement of Academic Freedom and Tenure)
    7. 7. Academic Freedom in the United States
    8. 8. • Heavily influenced by German universities and the growth of non sectarian universities • In 1915 The American Association of University Professors was founded and issued a Declaration of Principles of Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure
    9. 9. 1915 Declaration of Principles of Academic Freedom •Freedom of inquiry and research •Freedom of teaching within the university or college •Freedom of extramural of utterance (expression of judgment and opinions outside the classroom
    10. 10. 1915 Declaration of Academic Freedom 1st Declaration : Basis of Academic Authority Except for propriety and religious institutions, colleges and universities constitute a public trust. Trustees have no right to bind the reason or conscience of the faculty.
    11. 11. 1915 Declaration of Academic Freedom • 2nd Declaration : Nature of Academic Calling The independence of faculty applies not only to their individual work as researchers and teachers, but also appears to have implications for the shared governance of the institution: “A university is a great and indispensable organ of higher life of a civilized community, in the work of which the trustees hold an essential and highly honorable place, but in which the faculties hold an independent place, with quite equal responsibilities and in relation to purely scientific and educational questions the primary responsibility.” American Association University Professors
    12. 12. 3rd Declaration: The Function of the Academic Institution Third, the Declaration considers the functions of an academic institution, which are (a) to promote inquiry and advance the sum of knowledge; (b) to provide instruction to students; and (c) to develop experts for public service. Faculty to have complete freedom to pursue their investigations and discuss and publish their results and to express themselves fully and frankly both to their students and to the public.
    13. 13. 1940 Academic Freedom & Tenure
    14. 14. RIGHTS RESPONSIBILITY Freedom of speech Responsible not cause anyone Students have a right to hear and examine diverse opinions Academy is guided by the best knowledge available in the community of scholars. Teachers are entitled to full freedom research and in the publication Teachers are entitled to freedom in the classroom in discussing their subject Should be based upon an understanding with the authorities of the institution. Cautious not to introduce into their teaching controversial matter which has no relation to their subject Free from institutional censorship or discipline Knowledge should always be accurate
    15. 15. ArticleXIV , "Academic Freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning.
    16. 16. Academic Freedom for Institution
    17. 17. • The curriculum belongs to the university not the faculty. • The institution demands certain standards of teaching and evaluate the faculty against the standard • The administration belongs to the institution, not the faculty a.m.somoray
    18. 18. Academic Freedom of students a.m.somoray
    19. 19. Protection against unjust grading or evaluation. Protection of Freedom of expression Protection against improper disclosure Freedom from Arbitrary Discrimination. Freedom of Association Student Participation in Institutional Government Freedom of Student Publication
    20. 20. We are free only if we know, and so on proportion to our knowledge. There is no freedom thought. That is without choice, and there is no choicewithout knowledge Justice Cardozo
    21. 21. “A country that makes no provision for serious higher learning will suffer from the degradation of its culture, confusion of its thinkers and the ultimate cessation of its scientific progress” Anonymous

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