INTERNATIONAL RELATION THEORY “GAME THEORY” <br />BY:A.Ali<br />
Introduction<br />Game theory is elaborated as a theoretical approach to international politics by contrasting it with metaphorical and analogical uses of games. Because it embraces a diversity of models, game theory is especially useful for capturing the most important contextual features of the international system that affect prospects for international cooperation. Through a discussion of the relation among and extension of different game models, the versatility and scope of game-theoretic approaches to international relations are demonstrated. Since its inception, game theory has contributed significantly to the foundations of decision-making. As socio-economic and political problems increase in complexity, further advances in methodology, techniques, empirical investigations and applications of game theory are called for. International Game Theory Review (IGTR) has been initiated in response to this need. IGTR aims at maintaining a balanced interest between theory and applications. Game theoretic reasoning possesses a vast potential in social, economic, political and military affairs, and game theory can be advanced and enriched by the investigation of issues drawn from real-world decision-making. Rapid developments in technology, communication, industrial organization, economic integration, political reforms and international trade have made it increasingly imperative to recognize the causes and effects of strategic interdependencies and interactions.<br />A strategic approach to decision-making is crucial in areas such as trade negotiations, foreign and domestic investments, capital accumulation, pollution control, market integration, regional cooperation, development and implementation of new technology, arms control, international resource extraction, network sharing, and competitive marketing.<br />
APPROCHES OF GAME THEORIES<br />There are many approaches in game theory. Among those I will highlight few, with out knowing the approaches it will be very hard to understand the game theory. There for, I will try to elaborate few.<br />
<ul><li>Zero-sum game</li></ul>Example:<br /><ul><li>This example is set in the south pacific in 1943. The Japanese admiral “Imamura” has to transport his troops across the Bismarck Sea to New Guinea, and the united state of American admiral Kenny wants to bomb the transport.</li></ul>In this case “Imamura” has only two choices. Which he don’t have any solution for stopping “USA”, bombarding. His choices are:<br /><ul><li>Shorter northern rout in 2 days travelling
Larger southern route in 3 days.</li></ul>Now “Imamura” has no choice of protecting his troops. He has only take the shorter root to reduce the effect.<br />
<ul><li>NONZERO- SUM GAME</li></ul>EXAMPLE:<br /><ul><li>In this game I will take an example of “prisoners’ Dilemma”</li></ul>Two prisoners (player1 and player 2) have committed a crime together and are interrogated separately.<br />Two players have two choices.<br /><ul><li>Either may ‘cooperate’, which means ‘not betray his partner’.
Either may ‘defect’, which means he may ‘betray his partner’.</li></ul>In this “nonzero-sum game’ will be ,one may cooperate to save the punishment of the other.<br />
<ul><li>Cooperative games</li></ul>In a cooperative game the focused is on payoffs and coalitions, rather than on strategies.<br />Example:<br /><ul><li>Cooperative agreement between srilanka, india and Maldives to protect the sea territory from the terrorist movements.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Bargaining Games.</li></ul>It is focused on agreements between individual players.<br />EXAMPLE;<br /><ul><li>“Israel” and “Palestine” territorial dispute is a last longing process which had being not solved.</li></li></ul><li>CONCLUTION<br /> <br />Game theory is a Vass topic to discuss. Thus it dose have mathematical and practical logic on it. It connote be explain on by giving one example thus it dose have many roots. Now the question is, “game theory” implied in past history by states, And are game theory using by today’s international relation.<br />When we analyze the historical wars around the globe game theories played an important role. During the colonial period when they invade Asian countries, Dutch ,British and France made treaties among them to capture different part in India. They do agree with a concord ,the sea roots , for colonial territories to reinforce their troops in Asia.<br />When we come today’s world years ago Israel “army” dead bodies with Hamas and Hamas prisoners in Israel custody were exchanged. It is also a implementation of game theory through soft power .<br />When we see the “USA Coalition”, invade the saddam regime. They send the troops by using a game theory concept. Thus they send the troop with the cooperation of neighboring countries.<br />Among” SAARCH” we could justified that the cooperation game theory is using by India, srilanka and Maldives to protect their sea routes and territories. In this three players are involved; through thrive lateral agreement and bilateral agreement. <br />In today’s world game theory apply to solve the problems of international relations.<br /> <br /> <br />