.Environmental Sustainability Evaluation of Paper 1: Fall 2012 William Sullivan, Bridgette Moen, Shimon .Zimbovsky Name: ~~C.... ~vSf! ~.."Z.~ ~So~ 1 Gr.aaing lrlteria · eroficlent B Weak or not at an Introduction and ·.· Cl~arly~iticulat~d Thesis statement P~~ily de~eloped.th~sis; . thesis; clear and,· • ;,,. son:ewhat d~ar; .orientation to paper compelling orientation· •. )orientation t() . weak or lacking. · to· ·.. i.~~~~/ ~.··~......·. ·. .·.·.·."··..·..a·.rg~m."·.·.e··•. n..t.~t·a·. ~:d: . ..·.·.: ·~tS,.,..,, ···"·•··.·. ··:···:• ·. ··· ) ,· (3-2 ~bints) . .: .) Clearly describes.hbw 1~oluti~~s identified~;~ Weakor missing•···. . readers can play a role in not all appropriate for solutions; lack of detail; . addressing at le~st one I! the challenge hand; solutions are unfeasible, at . ofthe chalh~nges;;, ••·•; missing some details · prg~ides thre~ sp:<:ific~ ; ;:. about, concr~te, feasible (f·Opoints) ..... concrete, f,easiblesteps><•; steps that mtght be. . < ; •., . . · thaf~ight betaken.,· ·· · · ~aken. !" ...•.• ~. t~ ~ S(qt:"• (j.) . · /... ;::, •• • < <L~ ,tt» ~ s~c.,~<l·~~"~~ ~2 pomts).. . C..W.. . · ·· : ..... . Total Points Possible: 20 points lA.~· ~?E.t. ~
,1Environmental SustainabilityProfessor: William SullivanPaper# 1 ·· Changes today There is no dnubt whatsoever that climate change is a big issue when it comes tosustainability discussions. The earth climate has changed, and is changing very fast. Thats what • (<;we read in newspapers, leam at school and see specialists talking about. The idea of climatechange have been spread all over the world, we even see people valking streets saying "Thissummer was hotter than· it used i() be.", or "This year rained much more than the regular average.That.s a global wam1ing effect. In our everyday life we are quite used to this relative newconcept But; what causes these changes? How can we play a role helping society to overcome ·. ~this new scenario? The main challenges when it comes to climate changes are population ~ . ~ .· .~.· .. .. --- --growth,·slow environmental response and mternatwnal stalemate. " Human activities produce a great impact on earth, so population growth means morepeople depending on earth resources. The global increases in carbon dioxide, methane and I<.:nitrous oxide concentrations (greenhouse gases) are due primarily to fossil fuel use, land use ; • >change and agriculture, main activities of countries today. Scenario that might get worse as (.population grows. Not only population has increased, but also we have a bigger product demandas our life quality has changed. Although some nations are presenting decreasing birth rates,many othe~s ~re in fast increase, a~d that is a trend to persist for some decades.
Another v~mportant issue is that ecosystems usually have a slow response toenvironmental.changes. Notall changes that we have made in the environment are being felt byearths ecosystems. Some of these changes will only have visibleimpact many years from now.Oceans are a great example of that slow response. In the past years oceans temperature haveincreased less than other ecosystems, but twice as much warming is expected for the future. Thisslow response is also seen when corrective actions:are implemented, the environment take sometime to show a positive impact of these actions. That fact makes solutions planning very difficultto policy makers, as their actions may only have an impact several generations from now. - ; < - ~ , ~ • The last great challenge to be overcome is the international stalemate when discussingalternatives to climate change. Clitnate conferences, seeking global cooperation to tninimize theeffects of environmental pollution, did not generate effective results yet. Usually, they onlyreproduce the economic confrontation between world powers for greater production andconsu~ption. One example is the relationshi~ between the u.s. and Chiria. China stands out asthe u.s. effort should be higher because it is a developed cmmtry and the economic foundationhas stabilized. In the other hand, the U.S. claims that China is a competitor by unfair trade goodswith quite currency devalued against the U.S. dollar. The stalemate continues when developingnations claim for solutions. Countries like Brazil, India and Russia insist that agreements of theKyoto Protocol, which sets targets for reducing carbon emissions, should be renewed. Developedcountries refuse to renew until new agreements are made that include developing nations incarbon emission targets. Therefore, already established agreements may be lost and newsolutions end up being harn1ed by individual commercial interests. Finally, although many doubts about climate changes still remain, there is much evidencethat it is real. We already got used to this new concept, but now we need to get used to new
attitudes in our daily life that can be solutions for many current problems, especially when itcomes to our living standards. As population has grown we have to c~an~e how we live so earthcan give us what we need without disrupting. Transportation is one main cause of globalwanning, as many transports use fossil fuel. One way of reducing emissions is using publictransportation, because busses and subways can transport many people with less energy than carsor motorcycles. Another action is to pay attention in what we ,consume and how much of it, • •• , • <simpl~ as it may sound, we need to stop and think what we really need, as everything we buydirectly or indirectly produce ~1environmental impact.: This impact is mai~lydue to how goodsare produced and shipped to the consumer. One way to solve this is financially responsiblecompani~s and producers for the impact they cause to the environment and induce them to usemore sustainable practices ·within the supply chain, this action may reduce the impact of manypeople consuming products. And, most important of all, we have to change the consciousnessthat climate changes are a bad issue"but nothing can be done. Many things can be solute on thefuture with a simple effort today . . ,, .