Pistols and Petitions: Queen Anne’s SlavePistols and Petitions: Queen Anne’s SlaveSelf-Emancipation in the 19Self-Emancipa...
Legacy of Slavery in MarylandLegacy of Slavery in Maryland• Three year US Department of Education Office of PostsecondaryT...
Goals of PresentationGoals of Presentation• Freedom Petitions: Queen Anne’s slaves freedthemselves from bondage within Mar...
Queen Anne’s CountyQueen Anne’s County• Q.A. County Census1790 – 15,463 total (6,674 Slaves)828 Slaveholding families (18 ...
Litigiousness is a VirtueMaryland Slave FreedomPetitions of the 19thCentury
17thCentury Slave Laws• 1663/1664 – Legalization/institutionalization of slavery – Free whitewomen who marry black slave a...
18thCentury Slave Laws• 1715 - Slaves forbidden to leave ten miles from home without a note1717 – “Whereas it may be of ve...
18thCentury Slave Laws• 1783 - Slaves of non-permanent residents will be manumitted (amendedperiodically to treat VA., PA,...
Robert Williams
Maryland Laws…• …discouraged black immigration• …incentivized race and class separation• …limited freedoms of all blacks• ...
Henny Hemsley• Queen Anne’s County Court, May 1815 byher attorney William Carmichael• “entitled to their Freedom beingdesc...
Hemsley Family treeSusan Hemsley[CaptainJames Sweat?]Henny HemsleySusan Hemsley Juliana Hemsley Priscilla Hemsley
Kidnapping of Susan Hemsley• Deponent Greenberry Griffin claimedCaptain James Sweat kidnapped SusanHemsley in 1783
Community Reputation• John Denny’s testimony excepted
Verdict• Jury determines Henny and her children"on the day of pr[o]ffering their petition inthis cause were free and of fr...
Certificates of Freedom• 1805 - “great mischiefs have arisen from slaves coming into possession ofthe certificates of free...
Indian Moll, Philemon LloydChew’s servant• 18 slaves, four freedom petitions• 1794 – Carver v. Chew• 1799 – Creek v. Wilki...
**<Rachel Baker>**James Isaac EstherBetty John Tom PhoebeBenjaminCaty**<Robert Moody>****<Margaret Creek>****<Tom Carver>**
Henny BakerIbby Charles Nancy HennySarah
Negro Tom Carver v. Samuel Lloyd Chew• General Court of the Western Shore, 1794:Attorney Gabrial Duvall• Chew owned 41 sla...
Testimony• Richard Grason, 63: Lived and worked in area• Ann Maria Chew, 55: Knew a Margaret with Dulaneys inAnnapolis, di...
Testimony• Edward Coursey, 39• Mrs. Wederstauds, 52: Heard of an Indian womannamed Moll on Wye• Daniel Dulaney: Describes ...
Testimony• William Paca: Late brother in lawPhilemon Lloyd’s records make nomention of a slave entitled to freedom• John T...
**<Rachel Baker>**James Isaac EstherBetty John Tom PhoebeBenjaminCaty**<Robert Moody>****<Margaret Creek>****<Tom Carver>**
Negro Margaret Creek v. William Wilkins• Baltimore County, 1797• Dramaturgical rejection by Wilkins• Jury,1799: “free woma...
**<Rachel Baker>**James Isaac EstherBetty John Tom PhoebeBenjaminCaty**<Robert Moody>****<Margaret Creek>****<Tom Carver>**
Henny BakerIbby Charles Nancy HennySarah
Rachel Baker and others v. John Paca• Queen Anne’s County, 1802Queen Anne’s County, 1802• John: 118 slaves in 1800John: 11...
Robert Moody v. Richard I. Jones• Court of Appeals for the Eastern Shore Judgmentsrecord June 1812, originates QA May 1812...
Cesar Boose
Goals of PresentationFreedom Petitions: Queen Anne’s slaves freedthemselves from bondage within Maryland’slegal framework...
U.S. Colored Troops Pension Records• Of the nearly 210 files, approximately 50 had some knownaffiliation with the five cou...
U.S. Colored Troops• The Bureau of Colored Troops established on May 22, 1863– Separate entity of the War Department• By S...
U.S. Colored Troops• Act of 1864, Chapter 15, Section 4 - The sum of $100 shall bepaid to the owner• Manumitted Negro paid...
John W. Smith• Born a slave circa 1845around Centreville• Owned by John K.B. Emoryand Peregrine Wilmer• Enlisted as a priv...
John W. Smith, Service Record
John W. Smith• “Whereas my slave John Smith 2ndhas enlisted in the service of the UnitedStates…in consideration thereof I ...
John W. Smith, Bounty Roll• Name of soldier, company, regiment, county or city credited,amount paid at enlistment and disc...
1890 Law• The Dependent and Disability Pension Act – Signedinto law by President Benjamin Harrison• The Act also provided ...
John W. Smith, General Affidavit• Smith states that “one of mymaster” told him he wasborn around 1840.• According to a Bib...
John W. Smith, Widow’s Pension
John W. Smith, Marriage Certificate
John W. Smith, Letter in 1891• “was transferred to the Navyin 1864 and served on Boardof the United SteamerPotomsco and di...
John W. Smith, Death Record
Robert Riley• Born a slave around April of 1837• Owned by Valentine B. Clements– Clements was a farmer around Queenstown• ...
Robert Riley, Manumission• “Whereas my slave Robert Ryley has enlisted in the service of theUnited States now in considera...
Robert Riley, Bounty Roll• Name of soldier, company, regiment, county or city credited,amount paid at enlistment and disch...
Robert Riley, 1880 Census
Robert Riley, 1900 Census
Robert Riley, Death Record
Robert Riley – Circa 1880
Legacy of Slavery in MarylandLegacy of Slavery in Maryland• www.mdslavery.net• Interactive Maps• Case Studies• Database• F...
Slave Freedom Petitions and United States Colored Troops in Maryland
Slave Freedom Petitions and United States Colored Troops in Maryland
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Slave Freedom Petitions and United States Colored Troops in Maryland

147 views

Published on

This is a consolidated version of slides I shared over the course of three presentations as a research archivist for the Legacy of Slavery in Maryland research project for the Maryland State Archives. It also includes slides my colleague used on one occasion regarding United States Colored Troops.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
147
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Background is of 28 fugitive slaves escaping the Eastern Shore of Maryland.
  • Chapter 15, Section 4
  • Hyperlink Google Earth File
  • Riley moved back to Queen Anne’s County in the late 1880s with his family. They resided in a place called Brownsville.
  • Riley died on December 24, 1913. Born in April of 1837. Buried in Centreville, Maryland on December 26, 1913. Mrs. Robert Riley provided the information and she was unsure where his parents names and where they were born.
  • Wearing his GAR Medal.
  • Slave Freedom Petitions and United States Colored Troops in Maryland

    1. 1. Pistols and Petitions: Queen Anne’s SlavePistols and Petitions: Queen Anne’s SlaveSelf-Emancipation in the 19Self-Emancipation in the 19ththCenturyCenturyBy: Alex Champion and Tanner SparksMaryland State ArchivesLegacy of Slavery in Maryland Department
    2. 2. Legacy of Slavery in MarylandLegacy of Slavery in Maryland• Three year US Department of Education Office of PostsecondaryThree year US Department of Education Office of PostsecondaryEducation Underground Railroad Educational and Cultural ProgramEducation Underground Railroad Educational and Cultural Programgrant that began in 2010.grant that began in 2010.• The goal of the grant is to study, promote, and document theThe goal of the grant is to study, promote, and document theexperiences that have shaped Maryland’s African Americanexperiences that have shaped Maryland’s African Americanpopulation relating to five Eastern Shore counties in Maryland:population relating to five Eastern Shore counties in Maryland:–– Caroline, Dorchester, Kent, Queen Anne’s, and TalbotCaroline, Dorchester, Kent, Queen Anne’s, and Talbot
    3. 3. Goals of PresentationGoals of Presentation• Freedom Petitions: Queen Anne’s slaves freedthemselves from bondage within Maryland’slegal framework.• U.S. Colored Troops: Slavery transformed inQueen Anne’s County when slaves werepresented the opportunity to enlist in theUnion army.
    4. 4. Queen Anne’s CountyQueen Anne’s County• Q.A. County Census1790 – 15,463 total (6,674 Slaves)828 Slaveholding families (18 slaves on average perfamily)1820 – 14,952 total (5,588 Slaves, 2,138 Free)1850 – 14,484 total (4,270 Slaves, 3,278 Free)1860 – 15,961 total (4,174 Slaves, 3,372 Free)573 Slaveholders (28 slaves on average per family)- Census data was accessed from the University of Virginia Historical CensusBrowser.
    5. 5. Litigiousness is a VirtueMaryland Slave FreedomPetitions of the 19thCentury
    6. 6. 17thCentury Slave Laws• 1663/1664 – Legalization/institutionalization of slavery – Free whitewomen who marry black slave also become slaves for the duration ofhis servitude (and their children until age 31)• 1681 – Children born to free black women or mulattoes of whitewomen are free; Owners or priests who facilitate interracial unionswould be fined 10,000 pounds of tobacco and the white woman isfreed from service
    7. 7. 18thCentury Slave Laws• 1715 - Slaves forbidden to leave ten miles from home without a note1717 – “Whereas it may be of very dangerous Consequence to admit andallow as Evidences in Law…”
    8. 8. 18thCentury Slave Laws• 1783 - Slaves of non-permanent residents will be manumitted (amendedperiodically to treat VA., PA, DE, and D.C. differently)• 1790 – Elderly or infirmed slaves cannot be freed unless sustained• 1801 – Slaves may give testimony against other blacks
    9. 9. Robert Williams
    10. 10. Maryland Laws…• …discouraged black immigration• …incentivized race and class separation• …limited freedoms of all blacks• …legitimized freedom’s matrilineal descent• …relied heavily on testimony
    11. 11. Henny Hemsley• Queen Anne’s County Court, May 1815 byher attorney William Carmichael• “entitled to their Freedom beingdescended on the Female line from a freewoman named Susan”• George Walls of Kentucky arguedotherwise
    12. 12. Hemsley Family treeSusan Hemsley[CaptainJames Sweat?]Henny HemsleySusan Hemsley Juliana Hemsley Priscilla Hemsley
    13. 13. Kidnapping of Susan Hemsley• Deponent Greenberry Griffin claimedCaptain James Sweat kidnapped SusanHemsley in 1783
    14. 14. Community Reputation• John Denny’s testimony excepted
    15. 15. Verdict• Jury determines Henny and her children"on the day of pr[o]ffering their petition inthis cause were free and of free condition.“• Walls’ attorney files two exceptions• Court of Appeals for the Eastern Shorereverses one, retrial is called June, 1817
    16. 16. Certificates of Freedom• 1805 - “great mischiefs have arisen from slaves coming into possession ofthe certificates of free negroes, by running away and passing as free, underthe faith of such certificates… ”• Only record of their re-trial appears to be their 1836 certificates
    17. 17. Indian Moll, Philemon LloydChew’s servant• 18 slaves, four freedom petitions• 1794 – Carver v. Chew• 1799 – Creek v. Wilkins• 1800 – Baker and others v. Paca• 1803 – Moody v. Jones
    18. 18. **<Rachel Baker>**James Isaac EstherBetty John Tom PhoebeBenjaminCaty**<Robert Moody>****<Margaret Creek>****<Tom Carver>**
    19. 19. Henny BakerIbby Charles Nancy HennySarah
    20. 20. Negro Tom Carver v. Samuel Lloyd Chew• General Court of the Western Shore, 1794:Attorney Gabrial Duvall• Chew owned 41 slaves in 1790• Testimony from dozens of QA, AA persons• Daniel Dulaney, Philemon Lloyd Chew, SamuelChew, Mary Hepburn (Chew), many interrogatedby William Paca• Used by 1st-cousin-once-removed Robert Moodyto establish “pedigree”
    21. 21. Testimony• Richard Grason, 63: Lived and worked in area• Ann Maria Chew, 55: Knew a Margaret with Dulaneys inAnnapolis, dismissed for misconduct• Richard Tilghman, Jr.• John Blake, 60: “cook wench” named Moll, no idea about“Chew Island” or children left there, mother referencedexcellent food and entertainments, family’s own slavecalled “Indian Will”• Ann Mason: Midwife, familiar with people on Wye but nowork there, recently offered payment by mulattos forinformation• Elizabeth McClemmon: Servant, asked about Mrs.Dulaney’s slave clothes register
    22. 22. Testimony• Edward Coursey, 39• Mrs. Wederstauds, 52: Heard of an Indian womannamed Moll on Wye• Daniel Dulaney: Describes inheritance scenario• John Bracco, 74 (Talbot): No knowledge on Chew orDulaney’s Island of slaves belonging to Paca andBordley• John Plummer, 69: Overseer, knew an “Indian Jonney,”• John Roberts: Carpenter/skipper Juinny/Jenny and hiswife Rachel• Lewis Scrivener, 50: Overseer, knew Margaret and sonTom Sampson, changed to “Carvery or some suchname,” also a Black Lucy, Indian Lucy, wife of free WillCreek
    23. 23. Testimony• William Paca: Late brother in lawPhilemon Lloyd’s records make nomention of a slave entitled to freedom• John Thomas, son of Ann and nephew ofMary Hepburn• Elizabeth Chew: Margaret was pregnantwhen Sam. Chew inherited her followingMr. Dulaney’s death
    24. 24. **<Rachel Baker>**James Isaac EstherBetty John Tom PhoebeBenjaminCaty**<Robert Moody>****<Margaret Creek>****<Tom Carver>**
    25. 25. Negro Margaret Creek v. William Wilkins• Baltimore County, 1797• Dramaturgical rejection by Wilkins• Jury,1799: “free woman of free condition”• Awarded 1,783 pounds• Wilkins filed exceptions
    26. 26. **<Rachel Baker>**James Isaac EstherBetty John Tom PhoebeBenjaminCaty**<Robert Moody>****<Margaret Creek>****<Tom Carver>**
    27. 27. Henny BakerIbby Charles Nancy HennySarah
    28. 28. Rachel Baker and others v. John Paca• Queen Anne’s County, 1802Queen Anne’s County, 1802• John: 118 slaves in 1800John: 118 slaves in 1800• 15 slaves filed suit, led by Rachel Baker15 slaves filed suit, led by Rachel Baker• Jury, 1802 freedom awarded and givenJury, 1802 freedom awarded and given$32.48 1/3$32.48 1/3
    29. 29. Robert Moody v. Richard I. Jones• Court of Appeals for the Eastern Shore Judgmentsrecord June 1812, originates QA May 1812• Jones: 62 slaves, ferry from Broad Creek KI to Annapolis• Filed after Baker, same lawyer William Carmichael, moreevidence• Won freedom and $105.63 1/3• Four exceptions: Likely the three petitions, Moody’spedigree
    30. 30. Cesar Boose
    31. 31. Goals of PresentationFreedom Petitions: Queen Anne’s slaves freedthemselves from bondage within Maryland’slegal framework.• U.S. Colored Troops: Slavery transformed inQueen Anne’s County when slaves werepresented the opportunity to enlist in theUnion army.
    32. 32. U.S. Colored Troops Pension Records• Of the nearly 210 files, approximately 50 had some knownaffiliation with the five counties of focus on Maryland’sEastern Shore.– Photocopied from the National Archives• Pension records consist of general affidavits, widow’spensions, death records, and questionnaire’s.
    33. 33. U.S. Colored Troops• The Bureau of Colored Troops established on May 22, 1863– Separate entity of the War Department• By September 11, 1863, the War Department AdjutantGeneral’s Office gave permission to Colonel William Birneyto begin raising a regiment of Colored troops– To serve three year terms or for the duration of the war• Regiment became known as the 7thRegiment United StatesColored Troops
    34. 34. U.S. Colored Troops• Act of 1864, Chapter 15, Section 4 - The sum of $100 shall bepaid to the owner• Manumitted Negro paid $50 when mustered in and the samewhen honorably discharged• Each volunteer would be credited to the county or city quota
    35. 35. John W. Smith• Born a slave circa 1845around Centreville• Owned by John K.B. Emoryand Peregrine Wilmer• Enlisted as a private inCompany E of the 19thU.S.C.T.• 19thregiment mainlycomposed of men fromSouthern Maryland and theEastern Shore.
    36. 36. John W. Smith, Service Record
    37. 37. John W. Smith• “Whereas my slave John Smith 2ndhas enlisted in the service of the UnitedStates…in consideration thereof I Pere Wilmer of Queen Anne’s County…do hereby in consideration of said enlistment, manumit, set free, andrelease the above named John Smith 2ndfrom all service…his freedom tocommence from the 8thJany 1864. The date of his enlistment as aforesaid inthe 19thRegiment of Colored Troops…”
    38. 38. John W. Smith, Bounty Roll• Name of soldier, company, regiment, county or city credited,amount paid at enlistment and discharge, slave owner, andamount paid to slave owner.
    39. 39. 1890 Law• The Dependent and Disability Pension Act – Signedinto law by President Benjamin Harrison• The Act also provided pensions for minors,dependent parents, and widows of veterans.
    40. 40. John W. Smith, General Affidavit• Smith states that “one of mymaster” told him he wasborn around 1840.• According to a Bible, hewas born “on March 15th,1844.”• He felt it was 1844 becausehis sister was said to be bornaround 1840.
    41. 41. John W. Smith, Widow’s Pension
    42. 42. John W. Smith, Marriage Certificate
    43. 43. John W. Smith, Letter in 1891• “was transferred to the Navyin 1864 and served on Boardof the United SteamerPotomsco and discharged in1865 from the guard shipPrinceton at Philadelphia.”• “I enlisted on 15thDay ofMay 1875 Co. G. 10thU.S.Cavalry”• “Discharge on the 14 Day ofMay 1880.”
    44. 44. John W. Smith, Death Record
    45. 45. Robert Riley• Born a slave around April of 1837• Owned by Valentine B. Clements– Clements was a farmer around Queenstown• Clements manumitted Riley– Was not official until September 8, 1864• Enlisted as a private in Company B of the 7thregimenton September 23, 1863 and mustered in 3 days later
    46. 46. Robert Riley, Manumission• “Whereas my slave Robert Ryley has enlisted in the service of theUnited States now in consideration thereof I, V.B. Clements of QueenAnne’s County…in consideration of said enlistment, manumit, set free,and release the above named Robert Ryley…his freedom to commencefrom the date of his enlistment as aforesaid in the 7thRegiment…”
    47. 47. Robert Riley, Bounty Roll• Name of soldier, company, regiment, county or city credited,amount paid at enlistment and discharge, slave owner, andamount paid to slave owner.
    48. 48. Robert Riley, 1880 Census
    49. 49. Robert Riley, 1900 Census
    50. 50. Robert Riley, Death Record
    51. 51. Robert Riley – Circa 1880
    52. 52. Legacy of Slavery in MarylandLegacy of Slavery in Maryland• www.mdslavery.net• Interactive Maps• Case Studies• Database• Flee! Exhibit• Facebook/Twitter• Resources

    ×