Smart cards & RFID-Anant Patel

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Presentation on Smart Cards and RFID(Radio Frequency Identification).

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Smart cards & RFID-Anant Patel

  1. 1. SMART CARDS & RFID PRESENTED BY ANANT PATEL (MT09IND010)
  2. 2. Smart Cards
  3. 3. Smart card • Smart cards – are often, called chip cards, or integrated circuit(IC) cards. – are used for data transmission, storage, and processing. – do not contain a power supply, a display or a keyboard.
  4. 4. Smart card concepts A smart card: • can store data (e.g. profiles, balances, personal data). • is a microcomputer • is small and personal • is a secure device 1234 5678 8910 Anne Doe
  5. 5. Divided into two card type 1. memory cards ('dumb’ smart card) 2. microprocessor cards ('true' smart card) i. contact cards & ii. contactless cards
  6. 6. Memory cards • hold up 1k to 4k of data • used for prepaid cards for public phones or other goods and services that are sold against prepayment • does not have a CPU so it has limited functions and cannot be reprogramming • also cannot be reused after the value in the card is spent • can be counterfeited relatively easily • Low cost
  7. 7. Microprocessor cards • contain a processor – offer greatly increased security and multifunctional capability • data are never directly available to the external applications • Microprocessor controls data handling and memory access according to passwords, encryptions
  8. 8. Contact cards • must be inserted in a card acceptance device • communicate with the outside world by using serial communication interface.
  9. 9. Contactless cards • communicate with the outside world through an antenna wound into the card • power can be provided by an internal battery or can be collected by the antenna • transmit data to a card acceptance device through electromagnetic fields
  10. 10. Smart card architecture Physical appearance: Credit card or SIM dimensions Contacts or contactless
  11. 11. What’s inside a smart card ? CPU Central Processing Unit: heart of the chip
  12. 12. What’s inside a smart card ? CPU security logic security logic: detecting abnormal conditions.
  13. 13. What’s inside a smart card ? CPU serial i/o interface security logic serial i/o interface: contact to the outside world
  14. 14. What’s inside a smart card ? CPU test logic serial i/o interface security logic test logic: self-test procedures
  15. 15. What’s inside a smart card ? CPU test logic ROM serial i/o interface security logic ROM: – card operating system – self-test procedures – typically 16 kbytes – future 32/64 kbytes
  16. 16. What’s inside a smart card ? CPU RAM test logic ROM serial i/o interface security logic RAM: ‘scratch pad’ of the processor typically 512 bytes future 1 kbyte
  17. 17. What’s inside a smart card ? CPU RAM test logic ROM EEPROM serial i/o interface security logic EEPROM: –PIN code –biometric template –balance –application code –typically 8 kbytes –future 32 kbytes
  18. 18. What’s inside a smart card ? CPU RAM test logic ROM EEPROM serial i/o interface security logic databus databus: connection between elements of the chip 8 or 16 bits wide
  19. 19. Smart card chip
  20. 20. Worldwide Smart Cards Market Forecast
  21. 21. Smart card application area’s • Communication • Entertainment • Retail • Transportation • Health care • Government • E-commerce • E-banking • Education • Office
  22. 22. Smart card applications (1) • Retail – Sale of goods using Electronic Purses, Credit / Debit – Vending machines – Loyalty programs – Tags & smart labels • Communication – GSM – Payphones • Transportation – Public Traffic – Parking – Car Protection • Entertainment – Pay-TV – Public event access control
  23. 23. Smart card applications (2) • Healthcare – Insurance data – Personal data – Personal file • Government – Identification – Passport – Driving license • E-commerce – sale of information – sale of products – sale of tickets, reservations • E-banking – access to accounts – to do transactions – shares
  24. 24. Smart card applications (3) • Educational facilities – Physical access – Network access – Personal data (results) – Copiers, vending machines, restaurants, ... • Office – Physical access – Network access – Time registration – Secure e-mail & Web applications
  25. 25. Conclusion • Smart Card is an evolutionary product. • Smart card technology is emerging, applications are everywhere • Smart cards enhance service and security • Perfect security does not exist, even not for smart cards • Risk analysis is essential
  26. 26. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) • RFID is a technology that uses radio-frequency waves to transfer data between a reader and a movable item to identify, categorize, track... • RFID is fast, reliable, and does not require physical sight or contact between reader/scanner and the tagged item
  27. 27. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
  28. 28. TAGs A Tag is a transponder which receives a radio signal and in response to it sends out a radio signal. Tag contains an antenna, and a small chip that stores a small amount of data  Tag is powered by the high power electromagnetic field generated by the antennas – usually in doorways The field allows the chip/antenna to reflect back an extremely weak signal containing the data
  29. 29. TAG
  30. 30. TAGs  Tags can be attached to almost anything: – pallets or cases of product – vehicles – company assets or personnel – items such as apparel, luggage, laundry – people, livestock, or pets – high value electronics such as computers, TVs, camcorders
  31. 31. TAGs Basic Types: Active • Tag transmits radio signal • Battery powered memory • High Read Range (300 feet) Passive • Tag reflects radio signal from reader • Reader powered • Shorter Read Range (4 inches - 15 feet)
  32. 32. READER An RFID reader is a device that is used to interrogate an RFID tag. The reader has an antenna that emits radio waves; the tag responds by sending back its data. The reader has two basic components – A scanning antenna A transceiver with a decoder to interpret the data
  33. 33. READER • Readers (interrogators) can be at a fixed point such as – Entrance/exit – Point of sale – Warehouse • Readers can also be mobile -- tethered, hand-held, or wireless
  34. 34. READER Mobile Reader
  35. 35. READER Fixed Point Reader
  36. 36. The EPC Code • The objective of the Electronic Product Code (EPC) is to provide unique identification of physical objects.
  37. 37. The EPC Code • Eg. 613.23000.123456.123456789 (96 bits) • Header – defines data type (8 bits) • EPC Manager – describes originator of EPC (Product manufacturer) • (34 bits) • Object Class - Could describe the product type (20 Bits) • Serial Number – Unique ID for that product item (34 Bits)
  38. 38. RFID Middleware • Middleware provides reader connectivity to other systems on the network, translates that data and transmits it to other applications.
  39. 39. APPLICATIONS • Portal Applications  8’ X 10’ doorways  Electronic receipt & dispatch  Wrong destination alert  Electronic marking  Pallet/container item tracking
  40. 40. APPLICATIONS • Conveyor/Assembly Line 60+ items per containers Longer tunnel more items Electronic receipt Sorting Electronic marking
  41. 41. APPLICATIONS • Shopping Centers.
  42. 42. RFID Cards in China • The Chinese government is installing RFID readers throughout the city of Shenzhen to track movements of citizens. – Chips in Chinese national ID cards contain not just a number, but a person's work history, education, religion, ethnicity, police record.
  43. 43. THANK YOU

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