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Circulatory system
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Circulatory system



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  • 1.  The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients, gases, hormones, blood cells ,etc. to and from cells in the body to fight diseases and help stabilize the temperature of the body. The circulatory system involves the circulation of blood which serves to move blood to a site or sites where it can be oxygenated and wastes can be disposed.
  • 2. The circulatory system consists of the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries.
  • 3. THE HEART The heart is the pumping organ in our body. It is the prominent part in the circulatory system.
  • 4.  There can be a number of diseases affecting the heart. Let us discuss about some of these diseases.
  • 5. ANGINA  It is characterized by severe chest discomfort and pain. It is caused due to lack of blood supply to the muscles of the heart. Basically, it is manifested as a complication by the constriction of the blood vessels. Angina is a warning sign of an heart attack.
  • 6. Chest pain during angina
  • 7. Preventions and cures  Angina can be treated. Most angina attacks usually last for only a few minutes, and most can be relieved by rest. Other treatment techniques are lowering high blood pressure and following a diet with low fat intake.
  • 8. ARRHYTHMIA  Arrhythmia is irregular heart rhythm i.e. the heart beats abnormally at a slower or faster rate. Arrhythmia may be congenital and results from a heart defect.
  • 9. Preventions and cures  Methods are available for prevention of arrhythmia. These methods include relaxation techniques to reduce stress, limit intake of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol and stimulant drugs..
  • 10.  Many arrhythmias require no treatment, they are naturally controlled by the body’s immune system. However if it is necessary that arrhythmias must be controlled, they can be controlled by drugs, Cardio version, Automatic implantable defibrillators or an Artificial pacemaker
  • 11. ATHEROSCLEROSIS  Atherosclerosis results from accumulation of fatty deposits in the walls of the blood vessels, especially arteries. Over a period of time, the arterial walls harden and lose their elasticity. Arteries are primarily affected by atherosclerosis. Complication of atherosclerosis include cardiovascular disease and heart attack.
  • 12. Narrowing of artery during Atherosclerosis
  • 13. Preventions and cures  Spinach, broccoli and other dark green, leafy vegetables contain substantial amounts of a substance called lutein. High levels of lutein in the blood are associated with a reduced buildup of cholesterol and lower incidences of atherosclerosis.
  • 14. CARDIOMYOPATHY  This is caused due to weakening of the heart muscles or myocardium. In the early stages, the ventricular muscles or muscles of the lower heart chamber are affected. If left untreated, it spreads to the upper heart muscles. In severe cases, cardiomyopathy can result in congestive heart failure and at times, death.
  • 15. Defect in the heart due to Cardiomyopathy
  • 16. Preventions and cures  There is no cure for cardiomyopathy. However, treatments can help control symptoms and prevent the condition from getting worse. Medication can ease blood flow, reduce heart rate, and keep fluid from swelling in your legs or building up in your lungs. Exercise and a healthy lifestyle can help control cardiomyopathy too.
  • 17. CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS  These are defects present at birth and may be mild or severe. The exact cause of congenital heart disease is not known. In some cases, genetic problems cause this defect, while others develop without any reason.
  • 18. Defect due to Congenital heart defect
  • 19. Preventions and cures  Some congenital heart diseases can be treated with medication alone, while others require one or more surgeries.
  • 20. CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE  Coronary artery disease or coronary heart disease is the most common disease of the circulatory system. It is caused due to accumulation of plaque in the coronary arterial walls, which impairs the blood supply to the heart. CAD is the leading cause of death all over the world.
  • 21. Defect in the coronary artery
  • 22. Preventions and cures  Reduce the amount of fat intake, alcohol.  Reduce the cholesterol level.  Do exercise  The disease can be cured by bypass or angioplasty surgery.
  • 23. HYPERTENSION  Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the common disorders of the circulatory system. Hypertension increases the risk of heart attack and other heart diseases.
  • 24. Defect in the heart due to hypertension
  • 25. Preventions and cures  You may be asked to take one or more medicines to treat blood pressure, diabetes, or high cholesterol levels. Do not smoke or use tobacco.  Get plenty of exercise, at least 30 minutes a day on at least 5 days a week
  • 26.  Nutrition is important to your heart health, Choose a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Choose lean proteins, such as chicken, fish, beans, and legumes.  Eat low-fat dairy products, such as 1% milk and low-fat yogurt.
  • 27.  Avoid sodium (salt) and fats found in fried foods, processed foods, and baked goods.  Eat fewer animal products that contain cheese, cream, or eggs.  Stay away from "saturated fat" and anything that contains "partially- hydrogenated" or "hydrogenated" fats. These products are usually loaded with unhealthy fats.
  • 28. HYPERCHOLESTEROLEM IA  Hypercholesterolemia is characterized by an elevated cholesterol level. There are two primary types of cholesterol, namely, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) or bad cholesterol and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) or good cholesterol. Presence of high amounts of bad cholesterol (LDL) increases the risk for heart diseases and stroke.
  • 29. Defect of hypercholesterolemia
  • 30. Preventions and cures  Avoid Smoking, Smoking causes the arteries to narrow, leading to an increase in the blood pressure.  Use cholesterol-lowering drugs, LDL apheresis or liver transplant in cases that don't respond to medication.
  • 31. PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE  Peripheral vascular disease affects the blood circulation to the extreme portions of the body, including the arms and legs. Peripheral artery disease is the most common type of peripheral vascular disease, which is the deposition of fatty acids in the arterial walls. Symptoms include tingling, numbness and other complications in the extremities.
  • 32. Defect due to peripheral vascular disease
  • 33. Preventions and cures  Management of diabetes.  Management of hypertension.  Management of cholesterol, and medication with antiplatelet drugs. Medication with aspirin ,clopidogrel and statins,  Regular exercise
  • 34.  After a trial of the best medical treatment outline above, if symptoms remain unacceptable, patients may be referred to a. vascular or endovascular surgeon.  Angioplasty can be done on solitary lesions in large arteries, such as the femoral artery, but angioplasty may not have sustained benefits.
  • 35.  Plaque excision, in which the plaque is scraped off of the inside of the vessel wall.  Occasionally, bypass grafting is needed to circumvent a seriously stenosed area of the arterial vasculature.
  • 36. Lets hope that the number of heart patients will be reduced. Its we who are responsible for the diseases caused in our body. SO TAKE CARE
  • 37. THANK YOU