Physiology
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Urinary System : Dr Mustafa

Urinary System : Dr Mustafa

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Physiology Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Kidney’s Function
    Filter 180 liters of blood daily, allowing excretion of metabolic wastes, foreign chemicals and excess ions to leave the body in urine
    Regulation of water and electrolyte balances
    Regulation of arterial pressure
    Regulation of acid-base balance
    Secretion, metabolism, and excretion of hormones
    Gluconeogenesis
  • 2.
    • The urinary system compose of paired kidneys and ureters, the urinary bladder and the urethra
    • 3. Urine is produced in the kidneys
    • 4. Paired ureters – transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder
    • 5. Urinary bladder – provides a temporary storage reservoir for urine
    • 6. Urethra – transports urine from the bladder out of the body
    Physiologic anatomy of the kidneys
  • 7. The two kidneys lie on the posterior wall of the abdomen, outside the peritoneal cavity.
    The medial side of each kidney contains an indented region called the hilum through which pass the renal artery and vein, lymphatics, nerve supply, and ureter, which carries the final urine from the kidney to the bladder.
    • The kidney is surrounded by a tough, fibrous capsule that protects its delicate inner structures.
    • 8. Adrenal gland lying on top of each kidney
    Physiologic anatomy of the kidneys
  • 9.
    • Two regions, the outer cortex and inner medulla
    • 10. The medulla divided into multiple cone-shaped masses of tissue called renal pyramids
    • 11. The pyramid terminates in the papilla, which projects into the space of renel pelvis, a funnel shaped continuation of the upper end of the ureter
    Physiologic anatomy of the kidneys
  • 12. Renal blood supply
    Aorta
    Inferior vena cava
    Renal a.
    Renal v.
    Segmental a.
    Interlobar a.
    Interlobar v.
    Arcuate a.
    Arcuate v.
    Interlobular a.
    Interlobular v.
    Afferent arteriole
    Peritubular Capillaries
    Vasa recta
    Section of the human kidney showing the major vessels that supply the blood flow to the kidney and schematic of the microcirculation of each nephron.
    Glomerulus
    Efferent arteriole
  • 13.
  • 14. The Nephron Is the Functional Unit of the Kidney
    Each kidney in the human contains about 1 million nephrons, each capable of forming urine. The kidney cannot regenerate new nephrons.
    Each nephron contains (1) Renal corpuscle which blood plasma is filtered and (2) a long renal tubule in which the filtered fluid is converted into urine on its way to the pelvis of the kidney
  • 15. The Nephron Is the Functional Unit of the Kidney
    • The renal corpuscle consist of glomerulus and glomerular (Bowman’s ) capsule. Fluid filtered from the glomerular capillaries flows into Bowman's capsule
    • 16. Renal tubule divided into the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting ducts
    • 17. Descending segment of the loop of Henle and the ascending limb
    • 18. The wall in the descending and lower end of the ascending limb called thin segment of loop of Henle
    • 19. At the end of the thick ascending limb is a short segment called macula densa
    • 20. Then fluid enters distal tubule, followed by cortical collecting tubule, which lead to cortical collecting duct, medullary collecting ducts
    • 21. The collecting ducts merge to form progressively larger ducts that empty into the renal pelvis
  • Regional differences in nephron structure: Cortical and Juxtamedullary nephrons
    Two types of nephrons: cortical nephrons and Juxtamedullary nephrons
    Cortical nephrons, glomeruli located in the outer cortex , they have short loop of Henle, penetrate only a short distance into the medulla
    Cortical nephrons is surrounded by peritubular capillaries
    Juxtamedullary nephrons, glomeruli that lie deep in the renal cortex near the medulla, these have long loops of Henle that dip deeply into the medulla
    Juxtamedullary nephrons is divided into specialized peritubular capillaries called vasa recta
  • 22. Capillary Beds of the Nephron
    Every nephron has two capillary beds
    Glomerulus
    Peritubular capillaries
    Each glomerulus is:
    Fed by an afferent arteriole
    Drained by an efferent arteriole
  • 23. Cellular features of renal corpuscle
    Wrapped around the capillaries of the glomerulus is cells called podocytes
    Capsular space: is the region within the glomerular capsule that collect the filtrate being force out of the blood
    The endothelial contain fenestration, which allows passage of water and ions and small molecules
    Basement membrane encloses the capillaries endothelium
    Surrounding the basement membrane is long footlike processes podocyte
    The foot processes are separated by gaps called slit pores through which glomerular filtrate moves
  • 24. Filtration Membrane
  • 25. The fenestrated capillary endothelium, basement membrane, and podocyte makes up the filtration membrane
    The filtration membrane permits the escape of small molecules while preventing large molecules (proteins) from leaving the bloodstream and passing through into the capsular space
  • 26. The cuboidal epithelial cells of proximal tubule have extensive microvilli in their luminal surfaces
    The cells contain mitochondria that provide ATP for active transport
    CELLS OF THE Proximal Tubule
  • 27. Cells in the thin segment of loop of Henle
    The cells in the thin descending segment of the loop of Henle are simple squamous epithelial cells
    Lack of brush borders
    Permeable to water not to solute
    The thin ascending limb is permeable to solute not to water
  • 28. Cells of the thick ascending loop of Henle and distal tubule
    Compose of cuboidal epithelium cells
    Fewer and smaller microvilli compared to proximal tubule
    Ascending limb highly permeable to solute, highly permeable to solute not to water
    Distal tubule more permeable to water than ascending limb
    Distal tubule is the end of the nephron
  • 29. Where the cells of afferent arterioles and the ascending thick loop of Henle are in contact with each other they form juxtaglomerular apparatus
    Macula densa, specialized cells. They are part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and appear to be sensitive to the content and rate of the flow of the filtrate
    Juxtaglomerular cells, smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole. Play role in GFR and blood pressure regulation by producing renin
    The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
  • 30. Cells of the cortical collecting ducts
    Two types of cells:
    Principal cells: Fewer microvilli. They are respond to aldosterone and ADH hormone that regulate their permeability to water and solute
    Principal cells permeability to water and solutes is regulated by hormones
    Intercalated cells: Involve in acid base balance
    Secretion of H+ for acid base balance
  • 31. Cells of the medullary collecting ducts
    Composed mainly of principal cells
    Permeability of water and urea is hormonally regulated
  • 32. Flow of fluid from the glomerular filtrate to the urine
    Glomerular capsule proximal tubule Loop of Henle distal tubule collecting duct papillary duct minor calyx major calyx renal pelvis ureter urinary bladder urethra