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    • 1.
      • Dr. Mohanad R.Alwan
    • 2. Black and White vision is adequate for most purposes. Color vision is important in identifying ripeness, counteracting camouflage... Humans, Old World monkeys and apes each have 3 types of cones (3 iodopsins) providing the most elaborate color vision in the animal kingdom. COLOR VISION
    • 3. Based on observation that any color of light can be attained by mixing various amounts of 3 colors of light. Proposed that humans have 3 kinds of photoreceptors that work together to give the sensation of hue. lights Photoreceptors: Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision
    • 4. Due to in the color receptors (cones) in retina becoming "fatigued." When you then look a different background, the receptors that are tired do not work as well. Therefore, the information from all of the different color receptors is not in balance. Therefore, you see the color " afterimages." You can see that you vision quickly returns to normal. Photoreceptors: Trichromatic theory of color vision
      • An afterimage or ghost image is an optical illusion that refers to an image continuing to appear in one's vision after the exposure to the original image has ceased (stop).
      • One of the most common afterimages is the bright glow that seems to float before one's eyes after looking into a light source for a few seconds.
      • The phenomenon of afterimages may be closely related to persistence of vision , which allows a rapid series of pictures to portray motion, which is the basis of animation and cinema.
    • 6. Afterimage
      • If the viewer stares at this image for 20-60 seconds and stares at a white object a negative afterimage will appear.
      • Afterimages come in two forms, negative (inverted) and positive (retaining original color).
      • The process behind positive afterimages is unknown, though thought to be related to neural adaptation . On the other hand, negative afterimages are a retinal phenomenon depend on rods and cones.
      • Closing the eye can help achieve a better sense of the color in its own aspect.
    • 7. Opponent Process Theory of Color Vision Based on idea that some colors don’t blend (e.g. reddish green), and on negative afterimages Trichromatic theory can’t explain these phenomena. lights Based on observation of negative afterimages .
    • 8. Opponent Process
      • Opponent Process suggested that there are some color combinations that we never see, such as reddish-green or yellowish-blue.
      • Opponent-process theory suggests that color perception is controlled by the activity of two opponent systems; a blue-yellow mechanism and a red-green mechanism.
    • 9. 3 types of cones Note : All cones respond to a range of wavelengths, but their maximal response is at 440, 530, or 560 nm. This is determined by the type of iodopsin in the cone. 440 nm 530 nm 560 nm
    • 10. Cone type Name Range Peak wavelength S Blue β 400–500 nm 420–440 nm M Green γ 450–630 nm 534–545 nm L Red ρ 500–700 nm 564–580 nm
    • 11. 3 types of cones
      • Each type of cone exhibits a peak sensitivity, but
      • responds over a range of wavelengths.
    • 12. This image (when viewed in full size, 1000 pixels wide) contains 1 milion pixels, each of a different color. The human eye can distinguish about 10 million different colors.
    • 13.  
    • 14. Opponent Process Theory of Color Vision
      • 2 kinds of color sensitivity in ganglion cells
      • red opposes green
      • blue opposes yellow
      • 3 types of receptive fields with complementary colors.
      Blue on, yellow off Red on, green off green on, red off
    • 15. Processing in the Retinal Ganglion Cell
      • There are two different types of ganglion cells:
      • M (magnocellular) ganglion cells-input primarily from rods
        • constitute about 10 % of the ganglion cell population.
        • They are sensitive to the directions of visual motion and low contrasts (they saturate when the contrast is high)
        • They are not sensitive to colors of the lights. They only have black and white center-surround receptive fields.
      • P (parvocellular) ganglion cells- input primarily from cones
        • constitute about 70 % the ganglion cell population.
        • They are more sensitive to the form and fine details of the visual stimuli;
        • They respond poorly to low contrast but do not saturate at high contrasts;
        • They are sensitive to differences in the wavelength of light.
    • 16. 440 530 560 Red light “stimulates” red cone Red cone “stimulates” red/green ganglion cell cones signals red ganglion cells RETINAL COLOR CODING
    • 17. 440 530 560 green light “stimulates” green cone green cone “inhibits” red/green ganglion cell cones signals green ganglion cells RETINAL COLOR CODING
    • 18. 440 530 560 Red light “stimulates” red cone Red cone “inhibits” green/red ganglion cell cones signals red ganglion cells RETINAL COLOR CODING
    • 19. 440 530 560 green light “stimulates” green cone green cone “stimulates” green/red ganglion cell cones signals green ganglion cells RETINAL COLOR CODING
    • 20. 440 530 560 blue light “stimulates” blue cone blue cone “inhibits” yellow/blue ganglion cell cones signals blue ganglion cells RETINAL COLOR CODING
    • 21. 440 530 560 yellow light “stimulates” red and green cones equally Red and green inputs to red/green cell cancel red and green sum to “ inhibit” blue/yellow cells cones ganglion cells signals yellow RETINAL COLOR CODING
    • 22. 440 530 560 Accordingly, we can see reddish-yellow reddish-blue greenish-blue and greenish-yellow but we cannot see reddish-green or bluish-yellow cones ganglion cells orange purple turquoise lime RETINAL COLOR CODING
    • 23. Visual Pathways The optic nerve has two principle branches
    • 24.
      • The optic nerves
      • join at the ventral
      • aspect of the
      • brain to form the
      • x-shaped optic
      • chiasm.
      • Axons of retinal
      • ganglion cells
      • form the optic
      • nerves (cranial
      • nerves #2).
      Visual Pathways
    • 25. Visual Pathways
      • The optic chiasm is the cross-over point at which some of the axons move from one side of the head to the other
      • These are STILL axons of ganglion cells, but they are rearranged at the optic chiasm- now called optic tract
      • Contralateral fibers provide information from the nasal retinas.
      • Ipsilateral fibers provide information from the temporal retinas.
      • 20% of the fibers are re-routed to the superior colliculus
      • 80% of the fibers are re-routed to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
    • 26. Visual Pathways : Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN)
      • Left-right, top-bottom organization from RG( retinal ganglion) cells is maintained
      • The LGN contains 6 layers
        • layers 1, 4, and 6 contain information from the contralateral fibers
        • layers 2, 3, and 5 contain information from the ipsilateral fibers
      • Receptive field properties : LGN cells have circular, center-surround receptive fields -- similar to those of Ganglion Cells.
      • magnocellular/parvocellular distinction
      • Topographically organized projection to V1(primary visual cortex)
    • 27. Visual Pathways- Beyond the LGN: V1
      • Information from both magnocellular and parvocellular layers sent to the primary visual cortex ( the striate cortex , area 17 , V1 ).
      • Area V1 (like the LGN) is layered and LGN inputs primarily to layer 4
        • parvocellular input to a lower subdivision of layer 4 in V1
        • magnocellular input to an upper subdivision of layer 4 in V1
      • Topographic representation and cortical magnification
    • 28.  
    • 29. Normal Eye Movements
      • Three primary types of movements
      Coordination of Eye Movements
      • Separate systems exist to control each different subtype of eye movement: saccades, smooth pursuit, and Convergence
      • May be nuclear or supranuclear control
      • May be reflexive or voluntary
      • Separate systems exist to govern vertical and horizontal eye movements
    • 30. Variety of pathways contribute to saccadic control and smooth pursuit
    • 31. Saccades
      • Under the control of three different areas in the brain:
        • voluntary saccades - frontal eye fields (Brodmann’s area 8)
        • reflexive saccades to complex stimuli - parietal lobes (Brodmann’s area 7)
        • reflexive saccades to elementary stimuli - superior colliculi
    • 32. Voluntary Saccades ( horizontal) results in saccade to contralateral space
    • 33. Smooth Pursuit
      • Two types:
        • Voluntary (actually termed “smooth pursuit”) movements - originate in the temporo-parietal lobe
        • Reflexive - which are under vestibular nuclear control alone and constitute what is called the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR).
    • 34. Voluntary Smooth Pursu it
      • originates near the angular gyrus - Area 39 at the temporal parietal occipital junction
      • cells in this region are able to compute the speed and direction of a moving object
      • results in ipsilateral smooth pursuit
    • 35. Optokinetic Reflex
      • Combination of saccades and smooth pursuit that allow tracking of targets in turn (e.g. counting sheep as they jump over a fence).
      • smoothly pursue one target, then saccade in the opposite direction to pick up the next target
      • parieto-temporal junction (smooth pursuit area) projects down to ipsilateral vestibular nucleus, inhibits it allowing ipsilateral smooth pursuit
      • then, the FEF of the same hemisphere generates a saccade back (contralateral) to the next target
    • 36. Reflexive Smooth Pursuit - VOR
      • Maintains gaze on a target despite head movement
      • Reflex arc – semicircular canal opposite the head turn detects motion and activates the ipsi vestibular n. Which deactivates its inhibitory input on the ipsilateral VI
      • Results in eyes turning opposite to the head turn
      VIII deactivates (-) input
    • 37. Convergence
      • When areas of the occipital cortex detect a discrepancy in the retinal projection from each eye and amount of blur, a signal is sent to initiate convergence.
      • To bring a near object into focus actually involves convergence, accomodation (lens curvature increases) and pupillary constriction. Together, these 3 movements are called the near triad.
    • 38.