Pathology is the hidden Science at the Heart of Modern Medicine, Vital for the Diagnosis & Clinical Management of Disease.
The Royal College of Pathologists London
Why study ?
This course will be used when ?
Pathology What? Why study? Learn How? What are the basic requirements of knowledge. This course will be used when? How?
Pathology = Pathos + Logos
Study of Disease
Scope of Pathology Anatomical Pathology Clinical Pathology
Oral and maxillofacial pathology
clinical hematology / blood banking
Veterinary pathology is concerned with animal disease Phytopathology is the study of plant diseases. ~ medical technologists Pathologists
A combination both anatomical and clinical pathology is known as general pathology
also called investigative pathology, experimental pathology or theoretical pathology
is a broad and complex scientific field which seeks to understand the mechanisms of injury to cells and tissues, as well as the body's means of responding to and repairing injury
is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross , microscopic , and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies ( autopsy ).
The anatomical pathologists typically do not see patients directly, but rather serve as consultants to other physicians
Surgical pathology – study & dx diseases by gross and microscopic examination of surgical specimens (as well as biopsy)
Cytopahology –study and dx diseases on cellular level, the most common use of cytopathology is the Pap smear to detect cervical cancer
Forensic pathology – concerned with determining cause of death, usually for criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions
is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine, using the tools of chemistry , microbiology , hematology and molecular pathology
Clinical pathologist works in close collaboration with medical technologists
THEORETICAL STUDY Main object is to know the nature of DISEASE by study as the following :- 1. Etiology ( causes of diseases ) 2. Pathogenesis (mechanism of diseases) 3. Pathological changes : structural change Lesion
6. Prognosis ( prediction the future of victim) THEORETICAL STUDY 4. Clinical feature : functional & structural changes symptoms & signs of patients 5. Complication
Complications & sequelae Morphological and functional features Pathogenesis Etiology S.aureus Acute inflammation Boil Septicemia Smoking , Polycyclic AHC Genetic mutation Lung cancer Metastasis HBV Immune reaction to virus infected cells Cirrhosis Liver failure Increased renin production High BP Cerebral hemorrhage
Abnormal stage of body Disease
Disorderly function ( show off as abnormal sign and symptom ) of organ system of body (cell, tissue, organ)
2. How to study pathology? 4. The general main causes of disease 3. Techniques of Pathology
REFERENCES 1. General and systematic Pathology, 4 th edition, edited by J.C.E.Underwood, “ Introduction to Pathology” 2. Concise Pathology, 3 rd edition, edited by P. Chandrasoma ; C.R. Taylor, Introduction : The Discipline of Pathology , pp xiii – xiv 3. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7 th edition, edited by Kumar; Abbas; Fausto; “ Introduction to Pathology” pp 4
Basic medical science and clinicopathological correlation Pathology : Disease, Heart valve stenosis Structural changes Cardiac hypertrophy Functional changes Circulation disturbed C.O. HR Murmur heart sound Compensate: to be normal Strength of heart pump Over compensate: exhaust Pump failure Complication: pulmonary congestion Pulmonary edema Dyspnea, crepitation Irregular HR Clinical problem dyspnea, crepitation, murmur Solution of problem Clinical Dx Aortic valve stenosis with left sided failure Management Prognosis Prophylaxis or prevention Treatment Surgery Medical Other